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Proceedings of the IEEE

Issue 5 • Date May 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 25
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • Proceedings of the IEEE publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 641 - 642
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  • Network Coding—The Magic of Mixing [Point of View]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 643 - 644
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  • Satellite Remote Sensing Missions for Monitoring Water, Carbon, and Global Climate Change [Scanning the Issue]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 645 - 648
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  • SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 649 - 665
    Cited by:  Papers (86)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2118 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, European Space Agency, is the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring sea surface salinity from space. It uses an L-band microwave interferometric radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) that generates brightness temperature images, from which both geophysical variables are computed. The retrieval of salinity requires very demanding performances of the instrument in terms of calibration and stability. This paper highlights the importance of ocean salinity for the Earth's water cycle and climate; provides a detailed description of the MIRAS instrument, its principles of operation, calibration, and image-reconstruction techniques; and presents the algorithmic approach implemented for the retrieval of salinity from MIRAS observations, as well as the expected accuracy of the obtained results. View full abstract»

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  • The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements ofthe Global Water Cycle

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 666 - 687
    Cited by:  Papers (180)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1972 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is now well understood that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) are required to improve meteorological and climate predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally or with adequate temporal or spatial sampling. It is recognized that a spaceborne L-band radiometer with a suitable antenna is the most promising way of fulfilling this gap. With these scientific objectives and technical solution at the heart of a proposed mission concept the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission as its second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission. The development of the SMOS mission was led by ESA in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial (CDTI) in Spain. SMOS carries a single payload, an L-Band 2-D interferometric radiometer operating in the 1400-1427-MHz protected band . The instrument receives the radiation emitted from Earth's surface, which can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil over land, and to salinity in the surface waters of the oceans. SMOS will achieve an unprecedented maximum spatial resolution of 50 km at L-band over land (43 km on average over the field of view), providing multiangular dual polarized (or fully polarized) brightness temperatures over the globe. SMOS has a revisit time of less than 3 days so as to retrieve soil moisture and ocean salinity data, meeting the mission's science objectives. The caveat in relation to its sampling requirements is that SMOS will have a somewhat reduced sensitivity when compared to conventional radiometers. The SMOS satellite was launched successfully on November 2, 2009. View full abstract»

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  • Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 688 - 703
    Cited by:  Papers (36)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1621 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate. Aquarius is the primary instrument on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission which is a partnership between the space agencies in the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE). Launch is scheduled for late in 2010. View full abstract»

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  • The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 704 - 716
    Cited by:  Papers (209)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the soil moisture present at the Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. Direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy, and carbon transfers between the land and the atmosphere. The accuracy of numerical models of the atmosphere used in weather prediction and climate projections are critically dependent on the correct characterization of these transfers. Soil moisture measurements are also directly applicable to flood assessment and drought monitoring. SMAP observations can help monitor these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance by helping to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. The SMAP mission concept will utilize L-band radar and radiometer instruments sharing a rotating 6-m mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. In addition, the SMAP project will use these observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root-zone soil moisture and net ecosystem exchange of carbon. SMAP is scheduled for launch in the 2014-2015 time frame. View full abstract»

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  • Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) for Monitoring Carbon, Water Cycles, and Climate Change

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 717 - 734
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is pursuing the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) that will inherit the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) mission and develop into long-term monitoring. GCOM is not the name of a single satellite, but of a mission that consists of two series of medium-size satellites, GCOM-W (Water) and GCOM-C (Climate), and three generations of each satellite series to continue the observations for 10 to 15 years. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2) will be the single instrument on the GCOM-W1 satellite, which is the first satellite of the GCOM series. The second satellite will be GCOM-C1, which will carry the Second-generation Global Imager (SGLI). GCOM-W will mainly contribute to the observations related to global water and energy circulation, while GCOM-C will contribute to the measurements related to the carbon cycle and radiation budget. Current target launch years are calendar year 2011 for GCOM-W1 and 2014 for C1. View full abstract»

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  • The ICESat-2 Laser Altimetry Mission

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 735 - 751
    Cited by:  Papers (34)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Satellite and aircraft observations have revealed that remarkable changes in the Earth's polar ice cover have occurred in the last decade. The impacts of these changes, which include dramatic ice loss from ice sheets and rapid declines in Arctic sea ice, could be quite large in terms of sea level rise and global climate. NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), currently planned for launch in 2015, is specifically intended to quantify the amount of change in ice sheets and sea ice and provide key insights into their behavior. It will achieve these objectives through the use of precise laser measurements of surface elevation, building on the groundbreaking capabilities of its predecessor, the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). In particular, ICESat-2 will measure the temporal and spatial character of ice sheet elevation change to enable assessment of ice sheet mass balance and examination of the underlying mechanisms that control it. The precision of ICESat-2's elevation measurement will also allow for accurate measurements of sea ice freeboard height, from which sea ice thickness and its temporal changes can be estimated. ICESat-2 will provide important information on other components of the Earth System as well, most notably large-scale vegetation biomass estimates through the measurement of vegetation canopy height. When combined with the original ICESat observations, ICESat-2 will provide ice change measurements across more than a 15-year time span. Its significantly improved laser system will also provide observations with much greater spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and accuracy than has ever been possible before. View full abstract»

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  • Cold Regions Hydrology High-Resolution Observatory for Snow and Cold Land Processes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 752 - 765
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1804 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Snow is a critical component of the global water cycle and climate system, and a major source of water supply in many parts of the world. There is a lack of spatially distributed information on the accumulation of snow on land surfaces, glaciers, lake ice, and sea ice. Satellite missions for systematic and global snow observations will be essential to improve the representation of the cryosphere in climate models and to advance the knowledge and prediction of the water cycle variability and changes that depend on snow and ice resources. This paper describes the scientific drivers and technical approach of the proposed Cold Regions Hydrology High-Resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) satellite mission for snow and cold land processes. The sensor is a synthetic aperture radar operating at 17.2 and 9.6 GHz, VV and VH polarizations. The dual-frequency and dual-polarization design enables the decomposition of the scattering signal for retrieving snow mass and other physical properties of snow and ice. View full abstract»

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  • The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission: Observing Terrestrial Surface Water and Oceanic Submesoscale Eddies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 766 - 779
    Cited by:  Papers (24)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1301 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The elevation of the ocean surface has been measured for over two decades from spaceborne altimeters. However, existing altimeter measurements are not adequate to characterize the dynamic variations of most inland water bodies, nor of ocean eddies at scales of less than about 100 km, notwithstanding that such eddies play a key role in ocean circulation and climate change. For terrestrial hydrology, in situ and spaceborne measurements of water surface elevation form the basis for estimates of water storage change in lakes, reservoirs, and wetlands, and of river discharge. However, storage in most inland water bodies, e.g., millions of Arctic lakes, is not readily measured using existing technologies. A solution to the needs of both surface water hydrology and physical oceanography communities is the measurement of water elevations along rivers, lakes, streams, and wetlands and over the ocean surface using swath altimetry. The proposed surface water and ocean topography (SWOT) mission will make such measurements. The core technology for SWOT is the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIN), which would achieve spatial resolution on the order of tens of meters and centimetric vertical precision when averaged over targets of interest. Average revisit times will depend upon latitude, with two to four revisits at low to mid latitudes and up to ten revisits at high latitudes per ~20-day orbit repeat period. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) and Monitoring Global Environmental Change

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 780 - 799
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5316 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was developed for detailed observation of the Earth's surface and frequent monitoring of global environmental changes, using high-resolution optical (visible and near infrared push-broom) and active microwave sensors (L-band synthetic aperture radar). ALOS has four mission objectives: cartography, regional observations, disaster observations, and resource exploration. It has been operational since its launch in January 24, 2006, and is acquiring a large amount of land-surface data supported by the Ka-band intersatellite communication system that downlinks to ground receiving stations. A global systematic acquisition strategy is implemented for all three sensors to enable consistent data collection over all land areas on a repetitive basis. Through its three sensors, acquisition strategy, and communication infrastructure, the ALOS mission is aimed to contribute to monitoring water, carbon, and global climate change. In this paper, we describe ALOS and its contribution to global environmental monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • RADARSAT-2 and Coastal Applications: Surface Wind, Waterline, and Intertidal Flat Roughness

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 800 - 815
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    RADARSAT-2 is a follow-up to RADARSAT-1 and is an all weather Earth observation satellite with fully polarimetric imaging capability. The synthetic aperture radars (SARs) onboard both RADARSATs are C-band imaging radars and they are well suited for Earth's ecosystem monitoring and maritime surveillance, because of the near polar orbit and their unique all weather imaging capability, independent of solar illumination. In this paper, RADARSAT-2 is first introduced and several applications of various modes of SAR data to coastal zone problems are discussed, including the coastal surface wind, waterline mapping, and polarimetric SAR data inversion for topographic and geological parameters of tidal flats. Coastal zones, the important interface between the land and the ocean, where a large proportion of the world's population inhabits, continuously change and evolve. The dynamic interaction of coastal winds, coupled with the coastal waves and currents, continuously erode rocks and land mass, and move and deposit various sediments on a continuous basis, along with the tides. Estimation of wind speeds and directions in coastal areas are empirically formulated and can further be improved with the available fully polarimetric data from RADARSAT-2. The water line mapping critically depends on the SAR frequency, or the wavelength of the SAR data used, and RADARSAT-2 SAR data using C-band should map waterlines more accurately than the longer wavelength L- or P-band SAR systems. The roughness parameters and partial information on the tidal flat compositions can be obtained from fully polarimetric SAR data. Some results obtained from NASA AIRSAR(2000) L-band data and RADARSAT-2(2008) C-band data do not fully agree with field measurements and further investigation is in progress. The inversion of polarimetric SAR data is a very complex problem and critically depends on the SAR signal frequency and model functions. RADARSAT-2 is an imaging radar, which is very flexible and powerfu- - l tool for potential coastal zone applications. Key RADARSAT-2 features and potential coastal zone application capabilities are also briefly reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Missions Employing Formation Flying

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 816 - 843
    Cited by:  Papers (32)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4079 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an overview of single-pass interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions employing two or more satellites flying in a close formation. The simultaneous reception of the scattered radar echoes from different viewing directions by multiple spatially distributed antennas enables the acquisition of unique Earth observation products for environmental and climate monitoring. After a short introduction to the basic principles and applications of SAR interferometry, designs for the twin satellite missions TanDEM-X and Tandem-L are presented. The primary objective of TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the generation of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy as the basis for a wide range of scientific research as well as for commercial DEM production. This goal is achieved by enhancing the TerraSAR-X mission with a second TerraSAR-X like satellite that will be launched in spring 2010. Both satellites act then as a large single-pass SAR interferometer with the opportunity for flexible baseline selection. Building upon the experience gathered with the TanDEM-X mission design, the fully polarimetric L-band twin satellite formation Tandem-L is proposed. Important objectives of this highly capable interferometric SAR mission are the global acquisition of three-dimensional forest structure and biomass inventories, large-scale measurements of millimetric displacements due to tectonic shifts, and systematic observations of glacier movements. The sophisticated mission concept and the high data-acquisition capacity of Tandem-L will moreover provide a unique data source to systematically observe, analyze, and quantify the dynamics of a wide range of additional processes in the bio-, litho-, hydro-, and cryosphere. By this, Tandem-L will be an essential step to advance our understanding of the Earth system and its intricate dynamics. Enabling technologies and techniques are described in detail. An ou- - tlook on future interferometric and tomographic concepts and developments, including multistatic SAR systems with multiple receivers, is provided. View full abstract»

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  • Advancement of Chinese Meteorological Feng-Yun (FY) and Oceanic Hai-Yang (HY) Satellite Remote Sensing

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 844 - 861
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During recent decades, China has successfully launched several programs of satellite-borne remote sensing, including the meteorological Feng-Yun (FY, “wind cloud”) series and oceanic Hai-Yang (HY, “ocean”) series, in broad spectra, i.e., optical, infrared, and microwave. Since the initiation from the early 1970s, a total of nine meteorological satellites, FY series, including five polar-orbit satellites and four geostationary satellites, have been successfully launched. Chinese FY has become an important component of global meteorological satellites systems and continues to maintain long-term stable operations of both polar and stationary meteorological satellites. Later in 2002, China's HY-1, an oceanic color satellite, was launched and is now in good operation. The successive HY-2 and HY-3 of the HY series, including microwave sensors, are also on schedule. Relevant basic research, application, and operational service of satellite-borne remote sensing and Earth observation have been well implemented. In this paper, a brief overview of Chinese satellite-borne remote sensing, FY and HY series, is presented, and some progress is introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring the Hydrologic Cycle With the PATH Mission

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 862 - 877
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission is one of the NASA missions recommended by the NRC in its recent Earth Science “Decadal Survey.” The focus of this mission is on the hydrologic cycle in the atmosphere, with applications from weather forecasting to climate research. PATH will deploy a microwave sounder, a passive radiometer that measures upwelling thermal radiation, in geostationary orbit and will for the first time provide a time-continuous view of atmospheric temperature and all three phases of water under nearly all weather conditions. This is possible because microwave radiation is sensitive to but also penetrates both clouds and precipitation, as has been demonstrated with similar sensors on low-earth-orbiting satellites. Data from those sensors, despite observing a particular location only twice a day, have had more impact on weather prediction accuracy than any other type of satellite sensor, and it is expected that PATH will have a similar impact with its ability to continuously observe the entire life cycle of storm systems. Such sensors have also played an important role in climate research and have been used to estimate long-term temperature trends in the atmosphere. An important application of PATH data will be to improve the representation of cloud formation, convection, and precipitation in weather and climate models, particularly the diurnal variation in those processes. In addition to measuring the three-dimensional distribution of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and ice, PATH also measures sea surface temperature under full cloud cover. Such observations make a number of important applications possible. Depending on the application focus and the geostationary orbit location, PATH can serve as anything from a hurricane and severe-storm observatory to an El Niño observatory. A geostationary orbit offers many advantages, as has been demonstrated with visible and infrared imag- - ers and sounders deployed on weather satellites, but those sensors cannot penetrate clouds. It has not been possible until now to build a microwave radiometer with a large enough antenna aperture to attain a reasonable spatial resolution from a GEO orbit. A new approach, using aperture synthesis, has recently been developed by NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and that is what makes PATH possible. Key technology enabling the large array of receivers in such a system has been developed, and a proof-of-concept demonstrator was completed in 2006. The state of the art in this area is now such that PATH mission development could start in 2010 and be ready for launch in 2015, but the actual schedule depends on the availability of funding. An option to fly PATH as a joint NASA-NOAA mission is being explored. View full abstract»

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  • FORMOSAT-2 Mission: Current Status and Contributions to Earth Observations

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 878 - 891
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an overview of the current status and data applications of FORMOSAT-2, Taiwanese's first earth observation satellite mission. Highlights of its contributions to monitoring of global natural disasters and earth environmental changes will be illustrated. The FORMOSAT-2 satellite successfully complements existing high spatial resolution imaging satellites such as SPOT-5, IKONOS, and QuickBird, among others, with its unique capability of daily revisits worldwide. The FORMOSAT-2 follow-up program to ensure data continuity to the user community is briefly introduced. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Engineering Hall of Fame: Wilmer L. Barrow [Scanning Our Past]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 892 - 895
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    In 1966, the IEEE awarded the Edison Medal to Wilmer L. Barrow in recognition of his "career of meritorious achievement." The citation noted his role in "developing means for transmission of electromagnetic energy at microwave frequencies." He spent the early years of his professional career in teaching and research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) before becoming a research manager with the Sperry Gyroscope Company. He is remembered especially for his pioneering research on wave guides and horn antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Future Special Issues/Special Sections of the Proceedings

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 896 - 897
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  • Quality without compromise [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 898
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 899 - 900
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  • Are you keeping up with technology or falling behind [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Back cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C4
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North Carolina State University