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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Statistical temperature profile retrievals in clear-air using passive 118-GHz O2 observations

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 106 - 115
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)  

    Linear statistical temperature profile retrievals from nadiral passive 118-GHz O2 spectra are demonstrated using time- and space-coincident microwave observations and radiosonde profiles. Separate retrievals are demonstrated for winter and summer midlatitude conditions in clear air over land; observations during both day and night are included. The retrieval operator is a linear-statistical minimum mean-squared-error estimator. A purely statistical retrieval operator circumvents the effects of radiative transfer model uncertainties and biases in either the radiosonde or Millimeter-wave Temperature Sounder data. The retrieved profile rms errors are ~0.7-1.2 K for either the winter or summer tropospheres View full abstract»

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  • Development of geophysical retrieval algorithms for the MIMR

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 268 - 277
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)  

    The feasibility of using spaceborne microwave radiometry to retrieve geophysical parameters is described. The study concentrates on the development of inversion techniques for multichannel spaceborne radiometers, especially the statistical inversion approach. The applications of the planned MIMR (Multi-Frequency Imaging Microwave Radiometer) instrument are discussed. The inversion algorithms used are conventional algorithms for different applications and the statistical inversion approach. Comparisons between results from different inversion algorithms are presented. The statistical inversion approach has been found to give promising parameter retrieval accuracies and has the potential to improve the operational use of passive spaceborne remote sensing. An analysis of the sensitivity of the radiometer apparent temperature to different geophysical parameters and the statistical behavior of the atmospheric transmissivity are presented View full abstract»

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  • Thermal sounding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the oxygen absorption band center at 60 GHz

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 116 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB)  

    A sensitive radiometer that allows the measurement of the radiobrightness temperature with an error not greater than δT b≈0.06 K is described. It provides the facility for the remote temperature sensing of the boundary layer. According to numerical experiments, the accuracy of the temperature profile recovery is about 0.2 K in the case of a simple profile, and about 0.5 K in the case of a profile with an inversion. Field experiments were conducted with the radiometer in elevation angle scanning mode. In situ temperature measurements were carried out simultaneously with the remote sensing View full abstract»

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  • CO2 lidar technique for observing characteristic drop size in water clouds

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 56 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)  

    An analytical evaluation which demonstrates that a calibrated 10.6-μm-wavelength lidar can measure the mean radius and the effective radius of the drop size distribution in a water cloud is discussed. The radius parameter observed is a weighted average over the penetration depth of the pulse, with weighting factor decreasing with optical depth. In this method the lidar signal is integrated and boundary conditions on optical depth are applied to obtain the average extinction-to-backscatter ratio. The radius parameter is determined by comparing the measured ratio with that found from Mie scatter calculations for a variety of typical drop size distributions. This extinction-to-backscatter method was originally proposed in the literature for measuring mode radius, but at 10.6-μm wavelength the current results show better accuracy for mean or effective radius. Sources of error are discussed. A lidar probed the sides of fair-weather cumulus clouds in the first application of this method. The resulting values of effective radius were reasonable, and the expected increase of effective radius with height was observed View full abstract»

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  • A method for accurate geometric correction of NOAA AVHRR HRPT data

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 204 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2204 KB)  

    A method for the geometric correction of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) high-resolution picture transmission (HRPT) data is presented. After precise determination of nominal attitude angles for each time instant, geometric correction is done for ground control points (GCPs), and residual errors are interpreted as attitude angle variation effects and in this way corrected. All attitude angle deviations (in pitch, roll, and yaw) are simultaneously corrected by applying to two reference vectors (the vector normal to the scanning plane and the vector that defines the instantaneous viewing direction of the first pixel of each line) a three-axis rotation. A separate program performs the geometric correction, applying the orbital model to each point of the desired output geographical area. An application of this method is presented, in which AVHRR data are registered over a 1:25000 topographic map with subpixel accuracy, allowing the use of AVHRR data in a nearly local scale in combination with other high-resolution data, such as Landsat TM or SPOT View full abstract»

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  • Micro pulse lidar

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (788 KB)  

    An eye safe, compact, solid-state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is described. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped microjoule pulse energy, high-repetition-rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver uses a photon counting solid-state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view (FOV) and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited by optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that systems built on the micro pulse lidar concept are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring. which require full-time unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure View full abstract»

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  • Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. II. Correlogram accumulation

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 28 - 35
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.31, no.1, p.16-27 (1993). The correlogram, an alternative to formation of the periodogram from the time series data sample. is described. The correlogram consists of a set of autocorrelation estimates for some number of lags obtained directly from the data sample. Correlogram accumulation entails adding or averaging the sets of autocorrelation estimates prior to the spectral estimation stage. The correlogram is formed in the time domain directly from the data, using a minimal number of multiplications and additions so that it may be formed and accumulated at the speed that the data are acquired View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional electromagnetic cross-well inversion

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 121 - 126
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)  

    An inversion algorithm for a vertical magnetic dipole source and a vertical magnetic field component receiver is presented. A three-dimensional integral equation algorithm is used for calculating the electromagnetic response of a particular trial reservoir model. The inversion formalism used is the Marquardt technique of nonlinear least-squares optimization. The system derivatives are calculated using an exact expression derived from reciprocity. The derivative calculation involves introducing sources at the receiver locations with subsequent back-substitution into the impedance matrix equation. The inversion algorithm was tested on data gathered with a laboratory scale model. Convergence to the neighborhood of the correct model from distant initial trial models is good View full abstract»

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  • The application of a scanning, water Raman-lidar as a probe of the atmospheric boundary layer

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 70 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1248 KB)  

    A scanning water Raman-lidar, designed and constructed to study surface-atmosphere processes with high spatial and temporal resolution is described. It is shown that the lidar is able to measure the absolute water content and then calculate evaporative fluxes and other atmospheric parameters quickly over relatively large areas. This capability provides new opportunities for the study of microscale atmospheric processes. Examples of data and analyses are presented. An analysis is presented which determines the spatial and temporal resolution which is required of a remote sensor in the boundary layer View full abstract»

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  • Calibration of a synthetic aperture radiometer

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 257 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (64)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)  

    Calibration algorithms for a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer are presented. The calibration is geared to Earth remote sensing applications and is demonstrated on an airborne prototype thinned array imager. Two approaches to the system calibration are presented. The first utilizes commonly available reference brightness temperature scenes, such as open water, and the second utilizes data collected on the antenna range. Both algorithms yield spatial response information which is cast in matrix form and inverted to obtain the image reconstruction formula. Experimental results are examined, and errors in some reconstructed images are linked to the present prototype antenna design. Algorithms for improving the synthesized antenna pattern sidelobe performance are also presented. In one solution, the pattern efficiency is optimized by minimizing the pattern outside a defined beam. In another solution, the patterns are matched to a desired model pattern by the method of least squared errors. Both techniques offer an attractive alternative to aperture weighting View full abstract»

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  • The effect of topography on radar scattering from vegetated areas

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 153 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (42)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (724 KB)  

    The ways in which radar scattering from vegetated areas is affected by the topography of the surface underneath the vegetation are discussed. It is shown, using a discrete scatterer model, that the dominant scattering mechanism may change drastically when the ground surface is tilted relative to the horizontal. For a horizontal ground surface, for example, the total scattering may be dominated by scattering off the tree trunks, followed by a reflection off the ground surface. For a relatively small tilt in the ground surface, the ground-trunk interaction term may be replaced by scattering from the branches alone as the dominant scattering mechanism. The effect of the topography is more pronounced for scattering by longer wavelengths, and the implications on algorithms designed to infer forest woody biomass and soil and vegetation moisture using polarimetric SAR data are discussed. The effect of the topography on the scattering behavior from forested areas is illustrated with images acquired by the NASA/JPL three-frequency polarimetric SAR over the Black Forest in Germany View full abstract»

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  • Change detection on Alaska's North Slope using repeat-pass ERS-1 SAR images

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 227 - 236
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB)  

    Measurements of the C-band (wavelength=5 cm) radar cross section of an area in the Brooks Range foothills on the North Slope of Alaska using images from the ERS-1 satellite that show significant temporal changes occur. These changes are strongly correlated with elevation and hill-slope orientation and are greatest on some of the elevated areas and weaker in river drainages. By constructing difference images using various image pairs, and by analyzing climatological and hydrological data from the site, it is concluded that the radar backscatter changes are largely due to changes in soil and vegetation liquid water content induced by freeze/thaw events. The correlation with topography in the difference images arises from the dependence of vegetation, organic layer thickness, and volumetric water content on hill-slope position and orientation. These results demonstrate the viability of radar backscatter intensity comparisons using repeat-pass images as a means of change detection View full abstract»

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  • Discrete spectral peak estimation in incoherent backscatter heterodyne lidar. I. Spectral accumulation and the Cramer-Rao lower bound

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 16 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1212 KB)  

    The theory of the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators is summarized in the context of a heterodyne lidar. Numerical experiments are described that indicate the scaling of this CRLB with parameters such as the signal bandwidth and the level of noise. This CRLB is also compared with the CRLB of a highly idealized noiseless direct detection system using photon counting. It is found that the asymptotic bounds developed in the radar literature for the heterodyne CRLB should not be used as approximations for the correct expression in lidar applications at intermediate signal levels. Moreover, the variance of the ML estimator may be greater or even less than the heterodyne CRLB, depending on the mechanism leading to the departure from the bound View full abstract»

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  • A helicopter-borne eight-channel ranging scatterometer for remote sensing. II. Forest inventory

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 170 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)  

    For pt.I see ibid., vol.31, no.1, p.161-9 (1993). Forest inventory methods based on data acquired with an airborne ranging radar are discussed. The approach can be used to partly automate present labor-dominated forest inventory methods. Using these methods, the mean and dominant tree height can be measured with a standard deviation of 1 m. The stem volume per hectare can be estimated with a relative accuracy of 15% by effectively counting the height distribution of the trees and by calculating the center of backscattered power from the forest canopy profile for a stand with a diameter of 40 m. The methods have been developed using a helicopter-borne eight-channel ranging scatterometer, HUTSCAT, which can measure a radar forest canopy profile with a range resolution of 65 cm View full abstract»

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  • Texture and speckle in high resolution synthetic aperture radar clutter

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 192 - 203
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)  

    A theoretical model of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) clutter that is able to predict the statistical effects of spatial averaging upon homogeneous clutter that is speckled and spatially correlated is discussed. The predictions of this model, when the texture correlation was assumed to be Gaussian-shaped, were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental results using grass clutter seen through a high-resolution radar. The predictions of this model, when the texture correlation was assumed to be exponential-shaped with a slant-range cosine factor, were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental results using tree clutter seen through a high-resolution radar. The use of an exponential shape, rather than a Gaussian shape, was necessary in order to achieve the more gradual decay in spatial correlations observed with tree clutter. The use of a slant-range cosine factor was necessary in order to achieve the negative correlations that were observed with tree clutter in the slant-range, but not the cross-range, dimension View full abstract»

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  • Combined infrared emission spectra and radar reflectivity studies of cirrus clouds

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 64 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (588 KB)  

    Thermal-infrared emission spectra from cirrus clouds taken with a unique prism spectrograph are combined with Ka-band radar reflectivity measurements to obtain mass concentration and size information on the cirrus ice crystals. A two-stream radiation transfer model utilizing Mie scattering theory was used to infer the averaged effective ice sphere diameter which, for the cirrus studied, was near 50 μm View full abstract»

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  • A helicopter-borne eight-channel ranging scatterometer for remote sensing. I. System description

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 161 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (25)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.31, no.1, p.170-9 (1993). HUTSCAT, a helicopter-borne dual-frequency FM-CW scatterometer, is described. The HUTSCAT measures the backscattering properties of a target with a range resolution of 65 cm. The real-time ranging capability is obtained by performing the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the received time-domain signal. The measurement is made simultaneously at eight channels (VV, HH, HV, and VH modes of polarization at 5.4 GHz and 9.8 GHz). The scatterometer measures the radar return spectrum for eight channels in 16.6 ms, which corresponds to an along-track distance of 0.33 m for the helicopter speed of 20 m/s. The radar system has been designed for remote sensing of forests, sea ice, and snow View full abstract»

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  • Topographic mapping using radar interferometry: processing techniques

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 246 - 256
    Cited by:  Papers (81)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    A new processing algorithm for the NASA JPL TOPSAR topographic radar mapper is described. It incorporates extensive motion compensation features as well as accurate three-dimensional target location algorithm. The processor applies an algorithm to resolving the absolute phase ambiguity. This allows rectified height maps to be generated without any use of ground reference points. The processor was tested using data acquired with extreme aircraft motion so that performance could be evaluated under adverse conditions. The topographic maps generated by the radar were compared to digital elevation models (DEMs) derived using conventional optical stereo techniques. In one region, the RMS elevation deviations measured were less than the specified DEM accuracy, and, in the region covered by the more accurate DEM, errors varied from 2.2 m RMS in relatively flat terrain up to 5.0 m in mountainous area. The RMS difference between radar and DEM elevation over the 6.5-km by 22-km area covered by the more accurate DEM was 3.6 m View full abstract»

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  • Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 237 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (748 KB)  

    A comparative study of data acquired by two different airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors from the same site is presented. External, ground-target-based calibration has been performed on the NASA/JPL DC-8 SAR C-band data and the DLR E-SAR C-band data collected over the DLR test site in Oberpfaffenhofen. The consistency of both the polarimetric and radiometric calibration parameters derived from different tracks indicates the stability of DC-8 SAR system during the campaign. Radar cross-sections and backscattering coefficients measured from different tracks under different incidence angles emphasize this stability View full abstract»

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  • On the optimization of interferometric SAR for topographic mapping

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 303 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  

    Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides the possibility of producing topographic maps and cartographically corrected radar images using an interferometric method. The technique requires two SAR images of the same area gathered from slightly separated positions. The interferometric baseline may be optimized to minimize the topographic altitude error. The altitude error caused by the radar system and the topography is discussed. The simulation of an interferometric measurement based on ERS-1 SAR parameters is presented. It is found that the terrain topography has a significant effect on the height error, which in many cases is more severe than baseline decorrelation View full abstract»

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  • An optimal GPS data processing technique for precise positioning

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 146 - 152
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (560 KB)  

    A mathematical formula for optimally combining dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) pseudorange and carrier phase data streams into a single data stream is derived in closed form. The data combination reduces the data volume and computing time in the filtering process for parameter estimation by a factor of four while preserving the full data strength for precise positioning. The resulting single data stream is that of carrier phase measurements with both data noise and bias uncertainty strictly defined. With this mathematical formula the single stream of optimally combined GPS measurements can be efficiently formed by simple numerical calculations. Carrier phase ambiguity resolution, when feasible, is strengthened due to the preserved full data strength with the optimally combined data and the resulting longer wavelength for the ambiguity to be resolved View full abstract»

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  • Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 4 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB)  

    The development of a coherent laser radar system using 2-μm Tm and Tm, Ho-doped solid-state lasers, which is useful for the remote range-resolved measurement of atmospheric winds, aerosol backscatter, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric water vapor and CO2 concentrations, is described. Measurements made with the 2-μm coherent laser radar system, advances in the laser technology, and atmospheric propagation effects on 2-μm coherent lidar performance are discussed. Results include horizontal atmospheric wind measurements to >20 km. vertical wind measurements to >5 km, near-horizontal cloud returns to 100 km, and hard target (mountainside) returns from 145 km View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of GPS precise relative static positioning during periods of ice clouds and snowfall precipitation

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 295 - 299
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (464 KB)  

    A Global Positioning System (GPS) campaign that was conducted during moderate and heavy snow storms to determine the effects on the recovery of vector baseline components is discussed. Experimental results show a relatively large discrepancy in the baseline height component. Theoretical predictions reveal that even under the assumptions of extremely high ice cloud volume concentrations and for snowfall rates of up to 20 mm/h, the range error, if common at the two receiver sites, has negligible effects on the recovery of the baseline components. However, due to the spatial inhomogeneities of ice clouds and the localized nature of many snow storms, their differential effects may become important for precise relative GPS positioning View full abstract»

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  • Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from the ground to 30 km

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 90 - 101
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1084 KB)  

    A lidar method using the anti-Stokes rotational lines of N2 and O2 Raman spectra to determine the temperature of the atmosphere up to 30 km is described. The method uses the variation with the temperature of the envelope of the intensities of the backscattered rotational Raman spectrum. For each temperature of the gas, the ratio of the fluxes through two narrow and close-by filters takes a definite value directly related to the temperature. The difficulty of eliminating the near-by contribution of the Mie backscattering was solved by doubling the filters to produce a rejection factor of 10+8 at the central wavelength. The validity of the method is illustrated by comparing a number of temperature profiles obtained simultaneously with radiosonde and by this new Raman lidar. The theoretical calculation of the method led to an analytic calibration function which, once adjusted with a radiosonde, can provide the temperature on successive days of measurement in the height range of 50 to 25 km View full abstract»

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  • Optical remote sensing of aircraft emissions with the K300

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 102 - 105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB)  

    The K300 double pendulum interferometer, a compact high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer designed for outdoor optical remote sensing in the infrared spectral region, is described. The remote diagnostic of hot aircraft engine emissions is a very interesting application of the infrared spectroscopy. First results of such measurements performed with the Kayser-Threde double pendulum interferometer K300 at the DLR airport, Oberpfaffenhofen, on 15 January 1992, are discussed View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

 

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING (TGRS) is a monthly publication that focuses on the theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Plaza
University of Extremadura