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Journal of Applied Physics

Issue 6 • Date Mar 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 124
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  • Phase-field simulation of phase coarsening at ultrahigh volume fractions

    Page(s): 061801 - 061801-8
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    In this paper, the dynamics of phase coarsening at ultrahigh volume fractions (0.9≤VV≤0.96) is first studied based on two-dimensional phase-field simulations by numerically solving the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau and Cahn–Hilliard equations. It is shown that the cubic average radius of particles is approximately proportional to time that is in good agreement with one of experimental observations. The microstructural evolutions for different ultrahigh volume fractions are shown. The scaled particle size distribution as functions of the dispersoid volume fraction is presented. The interesting finding is that the particle size distribution derived from our simulations at ultrahigh volume fractions is close to Wagner’s particle size distribution due to interface-controlled ripening rather than Hillert’s grain size distribution in grain growth. The changes of shapes of particles are carefully studied with increase in volume fraction. It is found that some liquid-filled triple junctions are formed as a result of particle shape accommodation at ultrahigh volume fraction, VV≈0.96. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of dynamical interaction between dislocations and dipolar loops

    Page(s): 061802 - 061802-13
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    The article describes a model of interaction dynamics between a dislocation and dipolar dislocation loops. The interaction is essential for dipolar dislocation structure formation in early stages of a hardening process. For the description of the dislocation curve a direct parametric approach is employed whereas the loops are treated as rigid objects. The model equations are solved approximately by means of the finite-volume method. Physically interesting phenomena can be captured by the model provided the simulation covers long time periods. The strong interaction between the dislocation and the loops causes growing nonuniformity of distribution of discrete nodes along the dislocation curve. This effect is balanced by two proposed types of tangential redistribution of the discrete nodes. The redistribution is tested in simulations of loop clustering. View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical properties of defective single wall carbon nanotubes

    Page(s): 061803 - 061803-6
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    First principle density functional theory calculations for radially deformed and defective single wall (8,0) carbon nanotube are reported. Structural changes in terms of radial cross-sectional geometry and bond length changes are studied for different values of the applied strain for all types of investigated deformations and defects. Various characteristic deformation and defect energies are shown as a function of the applied deformation. The nonlinear elastic properties of the radially deformed and defective (8,0) nanotube are also investigated in terms of the strain energy and applied force. View full abstract»

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  • Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al–Si–Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    Page(s): 061804 - 061804-8
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    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al–Si–Cu–Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Nonempirical prediction of impurity segregation in α-Fe from first principles

    Page(s): 061805 - 061805-4
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    The segregation and clustering of impurities in α-Fe were investigated by first principle density functional theory calculations. The segregation tendencies of various elements observed in reactor pressure vessels were considered and the interaction characteristics between Fe and each impurity element were estimated by mean field approximation. Stable N-atom impurity clusters were subsequently chosen to evaluate the changes in free energy for clustering. These calculations show that Cu and Mn impurities embedded in α-Fe are more stable when they are in the segregated state. Conversely, Nb and Ta are stable in the separately solute state. The present estimates provide reliable suggestions for the segregation characteristics, and the tendencies are in good agreement with the recent atom probe observations. We suggest that the segregation tendency is derived from the d-orbital interaction and that the solubility limit is not necessarily correlated with the tendency of clustering formation. View full abstract»

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  • Strengthening due to Cr-rich precipitates in Fe–Cr alloys: Effect of temperature and precipitate composition

    Page(s): 061806 - 061806-8
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    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to study the interaction between nanometric Cr precipitates and a 1/2 <111>{110} edge dislocation (ED) in pure Fe and Fe-9 at. % Cr (Fe-9Cr) random alloy. The aim of this work is to estimate the variation in the pinning strength of the Cr precipitate as a function of temperature, its chemical composition and the matrix composition in which the precipitate is embedded. The dislocation was observed to shear Cr precipitates rather than by-pass via the formation of the Orowan loop, even though a pronounced screw dipole was emerged in the reactions with the precipitates of size larger than 4.5 nm. The screw arms of the formed dipole were not observed to climb thus no point defects were left inside the sheared precipitates, irrespective of simulation temperature. Both Cr solution and Cr precipitates, embedded in the Fe-9Cr matrix, were seen to contribute to the flow stress. The decrease in the flow stress with temperature in the alloy containing Cr precipitates is, therefore, related to the simultaneous change in the matrix friction stress, precipitate resistance, and dislocation flexibility. Critical stress estimated from MD simulations was seen to have a strong dependence on the precipitate composition. If the latter decreases from 95% down to 80%, the corresponding critical stress decreases almost as twice. The results presented here suggest a significant contribution to the flow stress due to the α-α separation, at least for EDs. The obtained data can be used to validate and to parameterize dislocation dynamics models, where the temperature dependence of the obstacle strength is an essential input data. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of crystal anisotropy on elastic deformation and onset of plasticity in nanoindentation: A simulational study

    Page(s): 061807 - 061807-6
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    Using molecular-dynamics simulation we simulate nanoindentation into the three principal surfaces—the (100), (110), and (111) surface—of Cu and Al. In the elastic regime, the simulation data agree fairly well with the linear elastic theory of indentation into an elastically anisotropic substrate. With increasing indentation depth, the effect of pressure hardening becomes visible. When the critical stress for dislocation nucleation is reached, even the elastically isotropic Al shows a strong dependence of the force-displacement curves on the surface orientation. After the load drop, when plasticity has set in, the influence of the surface orientation is lost, and the contact pressure (hardness) becomes independent of the surface orientation. View full abstract»

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  • Control of an electrowetting-based beam deflector

    Page(s): 063101 - 063101-5
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    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of a small, low-power beam deflector based on electrowetting. The beam deflector deflects light by refraction at the flat interface (meniscus) between two immiscible and density-matched liquids, namely, a nonpolar oil mixture and an aqueous salt solution. The liquids are contained in a square pyramidal frustum with electrode-covered faces. The electrodes can be separately driven by voltage sources in order to control the contact angle between the meniscus and the frustum faces. By controlling the voltage on all four electrodes, a flat meniscus is obtained that can be tilted independently in two perpendicular directions. We present a capacitance-based feedback driving scheme and demonstrate that it can be used for accurate control of the meniscus shape and tilt. Independent, continuous, and accurate beam steering through an angle of ±6° was achieved on two deflection axes. View full abstract»

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  • Growth and characteristics of GaInN/GaInN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    Page(s): 063102 - 063102-6
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    We demonstrate GaInN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) having ternary GaInN quantum barriers (QBs) instead of conventional binary GaN QBs for a reduced polarization mismatch between QWs and QBs and an additional separate confinement of carriers to the MQW active region. In comparison with GaInN LEDs with conventional GaN QBs, the GaInN/GaInN LEDs show a reduced blueshift of the peak wavelength with increasing injection current and a reduced forward voltage. In addition, we investigate the density of pits emerging on top of the MQW layer that are correlated with V-defects and act as a path for the reverse leakage current. The GaInN/GaInN MQW structure has a lower pit density than the GaInN/GaN MQW structure as well as a lower reverse leakage current. Finally, the GaInN/GaInN MQW LEDs show higher light output power and external quantum efficiency at high injection currents compared to the conventional GaInN/GaN MQW LEDs. We attribute these results to the reduced polarization mismatch and the reduced lattice mismatch in the GaInN/GaInN MQW active region. View full abstract»

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  • Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides

    Page(s): 063103 - 063103-8
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    The integration of two-dimensional III-V InP-based photonic crystal and silicon wire waveguides is achieved through an accurate alignment of the two optical levels using mix-and-match deep ultraviolet (DUV)/electron beam lithography. The adhesively bonded structures exhibit an enhancement of light emission at frequencies where low group velocity modes of the photonic crystal line defect waveguides occur. Pulsed laser operation is obtained from these modes at room temperature under optical pumping. The laser light is coupled out of the Si waveguide via grating couplers directly to single mode fiber. View full abstract»

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  • Room temperature photonic crystal band-edge lasing from nanopillar array on GaN patterned by nanosphere lithography

    Page(s): 063104 - 063104-4
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    An ordered GaN nanopillar array fabricated by nanosphere lithography exhibited room temperature photopumped lasing via the photonic crystal band-edge effect. With a monolayer of self-assembled nanospheres as hard mask, the ordered pattern was transferred to the sample to form nanopillars by inductively coupled plasma dry etch. Under pulsed optical excitation, room temperature lasing with a low lasing threshold of 30 mJ/cm2 was achieved. The dominant lasing peak, centered at 415.6 nm, corresponds to a band-edge mode at the Γ-point of the band diagram. A Q factor in the range of 600–700, and spontaneous emission coupling factor of 0.021 were evaluated. View full abstract»

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  • Resonant transmission of electromagnetic waves through two-dimensional photonic quasicrystals

    Page(s): 063105 - 063105-5
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    We present numerical simulations of electromagnetic millimeter-wave propagation in a two-dimensional lattice of dielectric rods arranged in a tenfold Penrose tiling. We find (i) isotropic photonic band gap as expected for quasicrystals and (ii) localized states. We demonstrate that the high frequency edge of the second band gap is characterized by a very small refractive index (fast light). We study the transmission of electromagnetic waves in the frequency range corresponding to fast light and demonstrate that it is related to tunneling through localized states. We use the fast light phenomenon to design a focusing device—a planoconcave lens. View full abstract»

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  • Submicron surface patterning by laser ablation with short UV pulses using a proximity phase mask setup

    Page(s): 063106 - 063106-5
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    A new approach for the generation of large-area periodic surface structures on different materials, like polymers and semiconductors, by direct laser ablation is presented. The surfaces were illuminated with the interference pattern emerging in close proximity behind a laser irradiated phase mask. In the experiments, nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses at 248 nm were applied. To prevent contamination or damage of the phase mask caused by the ablated material, the mask is protected by a thin water film or a thin quartz plate. In addition we present a technique to eliminate a lateral variation of the generated structures due to insufficient alignment precision of the workpiece. View full abstract»

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  • Self-heating effect in 1.3 μm p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dot vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Page(s): 063107 - 063107-6
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    The self-heating effect in 1.3 μm p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) has been investigated using a self-consistent theoretical model. Good agreement is obtained between theoretical analysis and experimental results under pulsed operation. The results show that in p-doped QD VCSELs, the output power is significantly influenced by self-heating. About 60% of output power is limited by self-heating in a device with oxide aperture of 5×6 μm2. This value reduces to 55% and 48%, respectively, as the oxide aperture increases to 7×8 and 15×15 μm2. The temperature increase in the active region and injection efficiency of the QDs are calculated and discussed based on the different oxide aperture areas and duty cycle. View full abstract»

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  • Model of laser-induced temperature changes in solid-state optical refrigerators

    Page(s): 063108 - 063108-9
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    We present an efficient and numerically stable method to calculate time-dependent, laser-induced temperature distributions in solids and provide a detailed description of the computational procedure and its implementation. This study combines the two-dimensional heat equation with laser-induced heat generation and temperature-dependent luminescence. The time-dependent optical response of a system is obtained numerically by the Crank–Nicolson method. This general model is applied to the specific case of optical refrigeration in ytterbium (Yb3+) doped fluorozirconate glass (ZBLAN). The laser-induced temperature change upon optical pumping and the respective transient luminescence response are calculated and compared to experimental data. The model successfully predicts the zero-crossing temperature, the net quantum efficiency, and the functional shape of the transients. We find that the laser-cooling transients have a fast and a slow component that are determined by the excited-state lifetime of the luminescent ion and the thermal properties of the bulk, respectively. The tools presented here may find application in the design of a wide range of optical and optoelectronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Label-free detection of oligonucleotide microarrays by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference method

    Page(s): 063109 - 063109-4
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    Hybridizations between labeled or label-free targets and corresponding 21-base oligonucleotide probes, concentrations of which range from 0.39 to 50 μM, are detected by oblique-incidence reflectivity difference (OI-RD) method and fluorescence detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the OI-RD method can be utilized to not only distinguish whether the hybridization of oligonucleotides happened but also directly tell the different concentrations of the labeled and unlabeled oligonucleotides on the microarrays. The analysis with a classical three-layer model suggests that single-strand DNA tends to lie on epoxy-functionalized glass slide while the double-strand DNA prefers to have a tilted angle with respect to the slide in our experimental situation. The label-free detection of hybridization of oligonucleotides declares that OI-RD is a promising method for label-free and high-throughput detection of the biological microarrays. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of photoconductive gain as it applies to single-photon detection

    Page(s): 063110 - 063110-5
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    We detail a mathematical framework for photoconductive gain applied to the detection of single photons. Because photoconductive gain is derived from the ability to measure current change for an extended period, its magnitude is reduced as detection speed is increased. We theoretically show that high-speed detection is still possible as long as the noise spectrum of the device is 1/f in nature. Using signal analysis techniques, we develop tools to apply to device noise spectra to determine the performance of single-photon detectors that utilize photoconductive gain. We show that there is no speed penalty when one considers the signal-to-noise ratio for the fundamental 1/f noise typical of high electron mobility transistors. We outline a technique for quickly characterizing a detector’s sensitivity and speed through purely electrical measurements of the device’s noise spectra. Consequently, the performance of the detector can be determined and optimized without conducting optical measurements. Finally, we employ this analysis to a quantum dot, optically gated field-effect transistor and verify our results with optical measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs–Xe dc discharge

    Page(s): 063301 - 063301-11
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    We present a high-sensitivity technique for time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves (MMWs) using the visible continuum (VC) from the positive column (PC) of a medium-pressure Cs–Xe dc discharge. For the MMW imaging application, a uniform plasma slab of the PC of a Cs–Xe discharge with 10×8 cm2 aperture and 2 cm in thickness was generated for 45 Torr xenon. The imaging technique is based on the fact that the intensity of the e-Xe bremsstrahlung continuum from the PC increases in the visible region when the electrons in the plasma are heated by MMWs. It is shown that in the MMW intensity range from zero to the threshold of the microwave-induced plasma breakdown, the intensity of the VC from the PC of a Cs–Xe discharge increases approximately as a second-order polynomial function of the MMW intensity. The obtained experimental data agree well with our calculations of the dependence of the VC intensity on electron temperature. The Ka-band MMW field patterns at the output of conical horn antennas and in the quasioptical beam were imaged using the discharge technique. It is shown that the technique can be used for time-resolved measurement of the profiles of watt- and subwatt-level MMWs. An energy flux sensitivity of the technique of about 10 μJ/cm2 in the Ka-band was demonstrated. The temporal resolution of the technique is about 0.8 μs. Our modeling of the transient behavior of the electron temperature in the PC shows that the time history of the electron temperature variation coincides well with the measured time history of the VC intensity variation. View full abstract»

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  • Substantial increase in acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals

    Page(s): 063302 - 063302-4
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    We report on a substantial increase in the acceleration potential achieved with a LiTaO3 pyroelectric crystal. With a single 2.5 cm diameter and 2.5 cm long z-cut crystal without electric field-enhancing nanotip we produced positive ion beams with maximal energies between 300 and 310 keV during the cooling phase when the crystal was exposed to 5 mTorr of deuterium gas. These values are about a factor of 2 larger than previously obtained with single pyroelectric crystals. View full abstract»

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  • Stark broadening measurement of the electron density in an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet with double-power electrodes

    Page(s): 063303 - 063303-5
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    Characteristics of a double-power electrode dielectric barrier discharge of an argon plasma jet generated at the atmospheric pressure are investigated in this paper. Time-averaged optical emission spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma parameters, of which the excitation electron temperature is determined by the Boltzmann's plot method whereas the gas temperature is estimated using a fiber thermometer. Furthermore, the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer Hβ line is applied to measure the electron density, and the simultaneous presence of comparable Doppler, van der Waals, and instrumental broadenings is discussed. Besides, properties of the jet discharge are also studied by electrical diagnosis. It has been found that the electron densities in this argon plasma jet are on the order of 1014 cm-3, and the excitation temperature, gas temperature, and electron density increase with the applied voltage. On the other hand, these parameters are inversely proportional to the argon gas flow rate. View full abstract»

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  • Analytic model for the breakup of a coasting beam with space charge in isochronous accelerators

    Page(s): 063304 - 063304-6
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    An analytical model based on the negative mass instability is introduced in this paper to explain the formation of the breakup of a coasting beam into small clusters in isochronous machines such as the case observed by Pozdeyev and Rodriguez in a small isochronous ring. Solving Poisson’s equation in both charge and vacuum regions with the longitudinal beam density perturbation, the coherent radial space charge force which decreases the transition gamma is obtained. It is found that the modified transition gamma depends on the wave number of the density perturbation, longitudinal beam density distribution, beam intensity, and beam size. By combining the longitudinal space charge force caused by the perturbation and the modified transition gamma, a dispersion relation for a monoenergetic beam is derived and evaluated for the fastest-growing instability mode in terms of the beam parameters, such as energy, bunch length, intensity, and emittance. The fastest-growing negative mass mode number, which determines not only the cluster number but also the growth rate of the instability, is proportional to the orbit radius and inversely proportional to the initial beam size. With the growth of the instability, the particles at the points of local minimum density move to the ones of local maximum density, with the transition gamma increasing. Since the growth rate depends on the longitudinal density distribution, therefore, instead of a constant growth rate, our model shows that the growth rate decreases with time. The results above can be applied to both short and long wavelength limits. As an important application of this theory, the beam breakup effect in the isochronous cyclotron CYCIAE-100 is predicted. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization and analysis of shape of coaxial electrode for microwave plasma in water

    Page(s): 063305 - 063305-8
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    The effect of the shape of the electrode to generate 2.45 GHz microwave plasma in pure water is examined. Three variations of a common coaxial electrode are proposed, and compared according to the power required for plasma ignition and the position of plasma ignition in pure water at 6 kPa using a high-speed camera. These coaxial electrodes are calculated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method calculations. The superior shape of coaxial electrode is found to be one with a flat plane on the tip of the inner electrode and dielectric substance located below the tip of the outer electrode. The position of the plasma ignition is related to the shape of the coaxial electrode. By solving the heat-conduction equation of water around the coaxial electrode taking into account the absorption of the microwave energy, the position of the plasma ignition is found to be not where electric field is the largest, but rather where temperature is maximized. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of redeposition during platinum etching in argon plasmas

    Page(s): 063306 - 063306-5
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    The influence of redeposition on the space and time evolution of feature profiles during platinum etching in high-density argon plasmas is examined using simulations. The simulator takes into account redeposition resulting from either direct sticking of the sputtered species on the materials walls (line-of-sight redeposition) or from sputtered species returning from plasma (indirect redeposition). Overall, the simulator successfully reproduces experimental profiles sputter etched in platinum, in particular V-shaped profiles reported in literature. From comparison between experimental and simulated profiles at very low pressure, Pt/resist sticking probability was estimated to be 0.1 and the angular spread of the sputtered atom distribution was predicted to be about ±50°. It was further found that indirect redeposition becomes crucial at higher pressure for explaining the amount of redeposited matter. View full abstract»

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  • Indium substituted PrCo5 sintered magnet: A microstructure view

    Page(s): 063307 - 063307-4
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    Indium addition in PrCo5 magnets can facilitate their sintering and improve their coercivity significantly. Transmission electron microscope studies showed the presence of indium-rich phase PrCo2In, at the intergranular region in the sintered Pr18Co81.5In0.5 magnets annealed at 800 and 950 °C. Another new ternary phase, Pr3Co9In2, appeared only in magnets annealed at 950 °C. Both of these phases are believed to be helpful to improve the sintering behavior of the magnets. Especially, the Pr3Co9In2 phase is observed in the form of a thin layer along the grain boundaries, which is believed to improve the magnetic performance of the magnet. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Journal of Applied Physics is the American Institute of Physics' (AIP) archival journal for significant new results in applied physics

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Editor
P. James Viccaro
Argonne National Laboratory