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Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 4 • Date April 2010

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  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 961 - 962
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  • Transverse Field-Induced Nucleation Pad Switching Modes During Domain Wall Injection

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 963 - 967
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have used magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy (M-TXM) to image in-field magnetization configurations of patterned Ni80Fe20 domain wall ??nucleation pads?? with attached planar nanowires. Comparison with micromagnetic simulations suggests that the evolution of magnetic domains in rectangular injection pads depends on the relative orientation of closure domains in the remanent state. The magnetization reversal pathway is altered by the inclusion of transverse magnetic fields. These different modes explain previous results of domain wall injection into nanowires. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of NiFe/Co Insertion at the [Pd/Co] and Cu Interface on the Magnetic and GMR Properties in Perpendicularly Magnetized [Pd/Co]/Cu/[Co/Pd] Pseudo Spin-Valves

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 968 - 973
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (519 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Perpendicularly magnetized [Pd/Co]2/Cu/[Co/Pd]4 pseudo spin-valves (PSVs) are promising in spintronic device applications. However, a large coercivity of the soft [Pd/Co]2 ferromagnetic layer due to a high perpendicular anisotropy is revealed as a drawback for the device applications. In order to reduce the coercivity of the soft layer, a thin NiFe layer of 0-1 nm was inserted at the interface between the soft [Pd/Co]2 layer and the Cu spacer. It was observed that the soft layer coercivity dropped dramatically from 250 to 40 Oe (85% reduction) by increasing the NiFe thickness. The main physical reason for this decrease is the reduction in perpendicular anisotropy caused by the in-plane anisotropy of the NiFe layer with a thickness larger than 0.4 nm. The interlayer coupling field was also increased mainly due to the increase in topological coupling induced by a rougher surface roughness attributed to Ni-Cu inter-diffusion. Due to this Ni-Cu intermixing, there is an increase in spin-independent scattering at the interfaces leading to an incidental decrease in the giant magnetoresistance (GMR). To improve the GMR performance in this structure, a thin Co layer of 0.1-0.6 nm was inserted at the interface between the NiFe layer and the Cu spacer while keeping the total NiFe/Co thickness constant at 0.5 and 0.7 nm, respectively. The Co insertion was found to be effective in protecting against the Ni-Cu intermixing leading to a 26% and 70% improvement in the GMR ratio up to 0.3 nm of Co insertion thickness with a further 65% and 75% reduction in the soft layer coercivity for a NiFe initial thickness of 0.5 and 0.7 nm, respectively. The experimentally confirmed results in this work demonstrate that NiFe/Co insertion at the interface between [Co/Pd] ferromagnetic layer and Cu spacer is effective in obtaining an optimum condition where the soft layer coercivity (anisotropy) is reduced while maintaining higher GMR ratio in the perpen- - dicularly magnetized [Pd/Co]/Cu/[Co/Pd] PSVs. View full abstract»

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  • Microstructure and Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Properties of MnZnTiSn Ferrites for Power Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 974 - 978
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1170 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MnZnTiSn ferrties, prepared via the conventional ceramic process, by sintering at 1360??C in N2-O2 atmosphere with 4% oxygen, were characterized in terms of microstructures, magnetic properties and dc resistivity. Experimental results showed that TiSn-substitution remarkably improved magnetic properties and temperature stabilities of the MnZn ferrite ceramics. The effects of Ti4+ and Sn4+ substitution had certain synergistic effect. The sample, substituted with 0.2 mol% Ti4+and 0.1 mol% Sn4+, possessed maximum density and initial permeability, together with minimum core loss, residual magnetic flux density and coercive force. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Pulse Reverse Plating on the Properties of Ni-Fe Thin Films

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 979 - 985
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1003 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    NiFe thin films deposited by pulse reverse (PR) electrodeposition are promising candidates for the next generation of core magnetic material to be used in magnetic components operating at high switching frequency. The influence of PR electroplating on the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of NiFe is assessed by means of a design of experiment (DOE). Results are compared to NiFe alloys produced by direct current (dc) deposition from an identical electrolyte. The PR samples exhibit an increase in resistivity and relative permeability by a factor of 2 and 1.5, respectively, in comparison to the dc samples. The coercivity and saturation flux density of the PR samples are reduced by 37% and 5%, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • An Alternative Approach to Analytic Force Computation in Permanent-Magnet Machines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 986 - 995
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an alternative approach to analytic force computation in permanent-magnet machines, focusing on the tangential forces that generate the armature and the cogging torque. We extend previously presented methods using conformal mapping to overcome the limits imposed by the singularity of the magnetic flux density at the tooth tip that occurs during the transformation. Using our approach, the cogging and armature torques developed in lightly loaded electric machines can be computed without these limits and without introducing auxiliary parameters. We also revisit Maxwell's stress theory to compute the force on the interface of two materials with different permeabilities, in contrast to the common application to compute the force on a rigid body placed in an electromagnetic field. Using this technique, we then calculate the forces at the slot sides so that the influence of the machine design parameters on the result is directly available. View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of FEM-PEEC Coupled Method and Finite-Element Method

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 996 - 999
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper analyzes the efficiencies of the new coupling between finite-element methods (FEMs) and the partial element equivalent circuit method (PEEC), which are computation time and memory space. To show its performance, a common mode filter is modeled by the coupling and the results are then compared with those of a FEM analysis. The comparison shows that the coupling is very efficient to model electromagnetic systems comprising magnetic materials and systems of complex thin conductors. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Magnetic Pole Shape in Linear Permanent-Magnet Machine

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1000 - 1006
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1025 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, in order to achieve the sinusoidal back electromotive force (EMF) waveform in a permanent-magnet machine, which is closely related to its magnet shape, we have used magnet arc shaping technique. An analytical analysis based on Maxwell equations is proposed for calculating magnetic field and thrust/torque. Then the accuracy of the presented method in modeling of machine is verified by the finite-element method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to produce sine air-gap magnetic field. The results show an enhancement in optimized motor performance. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Normal Stress Electromagnetic Fast Linear Actuator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1007 - 1014
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design of a normal stress electromagnetic linear actuator for fast tool servos during nonrotationally symmetric diamond turning. By using the permanent magnet as the biasing flux generator and the total armature pole surface for force generation, the actuator is designed to achieve both linear operation characteristics and high acceleration. A design methodology is presented, which is based on analytical and finite element method magnetic circuit analysis. For design optimization, a new criterion, high actuating force density, is introduced. Based on the optimized structural parameters and the strategy of design for manufacturing, a novel axisymmetric fast linear actuator is developed that has a stroke of 100 ??m and 500 G acceleration. The linearity of the actuating force versus both the excitation current and the armature displacement is experimentally demonstrated. It is shown that the experimental and calculated results agree well with each other. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Analysis of 42-V Coreless Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Generators for Automotive Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1015 - 1023
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1486 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a novel structure of an axial-flux permanent-magnet machine with iron less stator to generate sinusoidal electromotive force with very low harmonics. The structure is of a special design that is suitable for flux weakening in variable speeds. Flux weakening is done by a mechanical actuator to change the position of windings relative to each other. To confirm the machine performance and the design, analytical and three-dimensional finite-element numerical methods are implemented. The simulations results of the proposed generator coincide very well with the experimental results on a prototype 42-V system realized in the laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Sizing of 3-D Arbitrary Defects Using Magnetic Flux Leakage Measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1024 - 1033
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new procedure to estimate the shape of the opening and the depth profile of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) defect from magnetic flux leakage (MFL) measurements. We first use the Canny edge detection algorithm to estimate the shape of the defect opening. Then we use an inversion procedure based on the space mapping (SM) methodology in order to approximate the defect depth profile efficiently. To demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed inversion technique, we reconstruct defects of arbitrary shapes from simulated MFL signals. The procedure is then tested with experimental data of two metal-loss defects. In both cases, the proposed approach shows good agreement between the actual and estimated defect parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Interaction of an Eddy-Current Coil With a Right-Angled Conductive Wedge

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1034 - 1042
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A fundamental problem in eddy-current nondestructive evaluation is one of finding the quasi-static electromagnetic field of a cylindrical coil in the vicinity of the edge of a metal block. Although the field can be calculated numerically, an effective analytical approach can potentially provide a better understanding of the edge fields and form the basis of a procedure for solving a whole class of related edge problems including edge structures that contain corner cracks. One can represent the metal block as a conductive quarter space in an unbounded region. However, it has been found that the analysis is more straightforward if the problem domain is truncated in two dimensions. With the domain boundaries far from both the coil and the corner, the truncation has a negligible effect on the solution near the edge but the field calculation becomes much easier. A double Fourier series representation of the field is used, as in the case of a rectangular waveguide problem. The field in the conductor is then matched at the interfaces with that in air to determine the expansion coefficients that are used to represent the field in different parts of the domain. In this way we have derived expressions for the magnetic field, the induced eddy-current density and the coil impedance at arbitrary position and orientation of the coil. View full abstract»

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  • Induction Heating of Magnetic Fluids for Hyperthermia Treatment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1043 - 1051
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1063 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The induction heating of magnetic fluids for magnetic induction hyperthermia treatments is theoretically analyzed, with regard to the influences by magnetic field parameters, material properties, and demagnetizing field effects in finite-size samples. A monodispersion model of noninteracting superparamagnetic particles, subjected to a magnetic field of the intensity hex < 16 kAm-1 and frequency f < 1 MHz, is used for the analysis. Calculation results show that the induction heating has a quasi-linear dependence on field intensity and a quasi-negative exponential dependence on field frequency. As for the influences by material parameters, respectively, the induction heating has a double-exponential-like dependence on the magnetic core size and a negative dependence on the coating layer thickness of the superparamagnetic particles. Similarly, the heating dependence on the carrier liquid viscosity is also a double-exponential-like relationship. Besides, the induction heating has a linear dependence on the volume fraction of the superparamagnetic particles, and a negative dependence on the demagnetizing factors, which are related to the sample shapes and orientations. Initial experiments are performed for validating the analytical calculation results. View full abstract»

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  • MRI Coil Design Using Boundary-Element Method With Regularization Technique: A Numerical Calculation Study

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1052 - 1059
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new boundary element method (BEM) based method is described for the design of coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. BEM is an effective approach for solving the electromagnetic forward problem and has been used in the design of MRI gradient coils. However, BEM-based gradient coil design faces an ill-posed mathematical problem, which is conventionally handled by means of a Lagrange multiplication method. This work attempts to improve the BEM method for MRI coil designs by applying the Tikhonov regularization scheme to solve the ill-posed matrix system formulated by the BEM forward model. The objective of the study is not to design some specific gradient or radio-frequency (RF) coils for MRI system, but to discuss the design scheme with practical regularization and constraints. The proposed approach was explained in the design of MRI coils including biplanar transverse gradient coils and RF phased array coils. With the consideration of the practical engineering requirements, physical constraints such as wire intervals are transformed into mathematical constraints and formulated into BEM equations. The examples demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient and flexible for the design of MRI coils with arbitrary geometries and engineering constraints. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Track-Following Controller Design in Hard Disk Drives Based on Parameter Dependent Lyapunov Functions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1060 - 1068
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel technique for designing robust track-following output-feedback controllers in hard disk drives (HDDs). In this paper, the manufacturing variations of HDDs are modeled as polytopic parametric uncertainties in linear time-invariant discrete-time systems. For this model, the robust track-following control problem is formulated as the worst-case H2 performance optimization. The optimization problem reduces to the one with bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs), using the parameter dependent Lyapunov functions and the extended LMI condition introduced by de Oliveira. Although the formulated problem is nonconvex, and thus it is difficult to ensure global optimality, a numerical technique called ??G-K iteration?? is applied for optimization to guarantee monotonic non-increase of the worst-case performance during iterations. The proposed design technique will be useful in improving the track-following performance, and thus increasing the storage capacity of HDDs. View full abstract»

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  • Magnetic Properties and Corrosion Resistance Studies on Hybrid Magnetic Overcoats for Perpendicular Recording Media

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1069 - 1076
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1097 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Magnetic properties and corrosion inhibition properties of hybrid magnetic overcoats (Hy-MOC) that are suitable for ultra-high-density recording are investigated. Two types of Hy-MOC using different types of Co-based alloys were investigated for the magnetic overcoat (MOC). Hy- MOC(??) used CoCrPt:SiO2 (14% SiO2) while Hy-MOC(??) used CoCr22 as the sputtering targets for the reactive sputtering with N2. Magnetic hysteresis loops indicated that both types of Hy-MOC-using various percentages of N2 flow rate-are coupled with the recording layers of the hard disk media. Hy-MOC also increased the coercivity of the perpendicular media which is attributed to the enhanced thermal stability. It was also found that the remanent squareness (S=Mr/Ms) of the media using the MOC was closer to 1. The negative nucleation field (Hn) of the media using Hy-MOC(??) also showed a slight increase as compared to the medium without Hy-MOC but it is not seen for the media using Hy- MOC(??). Potentiodynamic polarization analysis of Hy-MOC samples also indicated that the Hy-MOC are able to provide sufficient corrosion protection for the hard disk media; and they are as good or even better than 2 nm amorphous carbon overcoat. View full abstract»

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  • Complexity-Performance Tradeoff for Intersymbol Interference Channels—Random Coding Analysis

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1077 - 1091
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (896 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this work, we look at symmetric cutoff rates for intersymbol interference (ISI) channels with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), as well as with colored noise. The derived symmetric cutoff rates are used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) losses expected over channels with various reduced complexity channels. The techniques used in this work are generalizations on established approaches to computing the cutoff rate for linear ISI channels. The generalizations mentioned consist of an extension to traditional schemes by considering: (a) general (e.g., nonlinear) ISI; (b) colored Gaussian noise; and (c) suboptimal decoding approaches (reduced number of trellis states). Examples involving some real ISI channels are examined and the performance differences of real LDPC coded channels are compared with the results obtained via the symmetric cutoff rate analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Exact Analytical Method for Magnetic Field Computation in the Air Gap of Cylindrical Electrical Machines Considering Slotting Effects

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1092 - 1099
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (857 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with an analytical method for magnetic field calculation in the air gap of cylindrical electrical machines including slotting effects. The analytical method is based on the resolution of the two-dimensional Laplace's equation in polar coordinates by the separation of variables technique. The originality of the proposed model is to take into account the mutual influence of slots on the air-gap magnetic field. The proposed method is sufficiently general to be used as a tool for air-gap magnetic field calculation of slotted electrical machines as reluctance or permanent magnet motors or actuators. Magnetic field and electromagnetic torque computed with the proposed analytical method are validated through finite-element analysis. View full abstract»

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  • An Accurate Subdomain Model for Magnetic Field Computation in Slotted Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Machines

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1100 - 1115
    Cited by:  Papers (68)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model for computation of the open-circuit magnetic field in surface-mounted permanent-magnet machines with any pole and slot combinations, including fractional slot machines, accounting for stator slotting effect. It is derived by solving the field governing equations in each simple and regular subdomain, i.e., magnet, air-gap and stator slots, and applying the boundary conditions to the interfaces between these subdomains. The model accurately accounts for the influence of interaction between slots, radial/parallel magnetization, internal/external rotor topologies, relative recoil permeability of magnets, and odd/even periodic boundary conditions. The back-electromotive force, electromagnetic torque, cogging torque, and unbalanced magnetic force are obtained based on the field model. The relationship between this accurate subdomain model and the conventional subdomain model, which is based on the simplified one slot per pole machine model, is also discussed. The investigation shows that the proposed accurate subdomain model has better accuracy than the subdomain model based on one slot/pole machine model. The finite element and experimental results validate the analytical prediction. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical Framework for Thrust Enhancement in Permanent-Magnet (PM) Linear Synchronous Motors With Segmented PM Poles

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1116 - 1122
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this work is to present an accurate analytical model of a double-sided air-core linear permanent-magnet motor with segmented permanent-magnet poles. The thrust average as well as thrust ripple is precisely predicted by proposed model. Back-electromotive force and flux density distribution of the motor are also determined by this method. The finite-element method is then chosen to verify the modeling results. Finally, pole dimensions are optimized using the proposed model and the genetic algorithm, where thrust mean and thrust ripple are considered as the optimization aims. This model provides the analytical framework for design optimization of double-sided air-core permanent-magnet linear synchronous motors with segmented poles regarding more motor parameters and objectives. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Driving Efficiency Design for the Single-Phase Brushless DC Fan Motor

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1123 - 1130
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the methods to improve efficiency and torque performance of the single-phase brushless DC (BLDC) motor is to find out the optimum commutation angle at each different speed. We used the finite-element method (FEM) to simulate the back-EMF voltage and the coil current for the single-phase BLDC motor, and then adjust the conduction time of switches by detecting the waveform of coil current. The motor can improve its efficiency, noise, and vibration when it obtains the optimal shift angle of each speed. We used PSPICE to verify the exactness of FEM simulation results of the single-phase BLDC motor. We adopted Microchip's dsPIC30F4011 digital signal processor (DSP) to process the Hall signal and the driving signals of switches of the driving system prototype of the single-phase BLDC fan motor. Finally, we used the related experimental results to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed driver. View full abstract»

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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1131
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1132
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics publishes research in science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Pavel Kabos
National Institute of Standards and Technology