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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Issue 2 • Date March-April 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 40
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1
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  • ISBI 2011

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1 - 2
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  • A tale of two Flemings [From the Editor]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3 - 4
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  • grand challenges in biomedical engineering [President's Message]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 5
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  • threshold for plagiarism [Letters to the Editor]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 6
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  • looking ahead! tips on putting together a five-year career plan [Student's Corner]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 7 - 8
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  • Blogging...again...yes, again? [Student Activities]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 9
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  • technology for the benefit of humanity [Gold]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 10
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  • EMBC 2010

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 11
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  • Technology Transfer

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 12 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Technology transfer has served the field of biomedical engineering well. Although the process is fraught with obstacles and may appear to be a distraction from more important work in the laboratory, application of technology is crucial to the furthering of the field and to public health in general. A given inventor may not want to take over the administrative tasks of protecting IP, developing a regulatory strategy, and developing a business model, and he or she does not necessarily have to; however, the inventor needs to at least know about the strategies and know there are people to turn to for leadership and guidance outside of the laboratory early in the process. And that can be all an inventor wants to do or can do: to simply turn the invention over to someone else and move on to more research in the hopes that the invention will help improve patients' health and perhaps afford the inventor and the research institution some financial reward. However, in turning an invention over completely, an inventor also loses power over how, for whom, and at what price the invention will be offered, and that is a reason to become more informed about the process, to know what you can ask for, and to stand by your invention's side in whatever capacity you are equipped to do so throughout the entire technology transfer process. View full abstract»

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  • Health-Care Technology [From the Guest Editor]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 17
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  • The eICU Research Institute - A Collaboration Between Industry, Health-Care Providers, and Academia

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 18 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the volume of data that is electronically available promliferates, the health-care industry is identifying better ways to use this data for patient care. Ideally, these data are collected in real time, can support point-of-care clinical decisions, and, by providing instantaneous quality metrics, can create the opportunities to improve clinical practice as the patient is being cared for. The business-world technology supporting these activities is referred to as business intelligence, which offers competitive advantage, increased quality, and operational efficiencies. The health-care industry is plagued by many challenges that have made it a latecomer to business intelligence and data-mining technology, including delayed adoption of electronic medical records, poor integration between information systems, a lack of uniform technical standards, poor interoperability between complex devices, and the mandate to rigorously protect patient privacy. Efforts at developing a health care equivalent of business intelligence (which we will refer to as clinical intelligence) remains in its infancy. Until basic technology infrastructure and mature clinical applications are developed and implemented throughout the health-care system, data aggregation and interpretation cannot effectively progress. The need for this approach in health care is undisputed. As regional and national health information networks emerge, we need to develop cost-effective systems that reduce time and effort spent documenting health-care data while increasing the application of knowledge derived from that data. View full abstract»

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  • Nerve Conduction Studies: Clinical Challenges and Engineering Solutions

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 26 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nerve conduction studies (NCSs) have played an important role in the evaluation of neuromuscular disease for the past 50 years. When patients present with complaints of pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness, NCS is often one of the earliest tests obtained by physicians, because it enables the quantitative assessment of peripheral nerve and muscle function and, therefore, aid the physician in identifying the physiological source of the patient's symptoms. NCSs involve the delivery of electric stimuli to peripheral nerves at accessible locations on the human body and the recording of electrophysiological responses. This article reviews how NCS is traditionally performed. This paper also examines technical challenges associated with each step of performing an NCS and describes how engineering solutions could be realized to meet these challenges. The engineering goals were several: improvement in NCS workflow, use of prefabricated electrode arrays to standardize NCS technique and reduce the errors associated with electrode placement, and improvement of the overall accuracy and reliability of NCS. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Phototherapy Device

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 37 - 43
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (538 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phototherapy is the standard treatment for severe cases of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. Phototherapy exposes the infants to light in the range of 400-500 nm to isomerize unconjugated bilirubin in the skin. Any light source that produces this wavelength can be used, including the sun (though there is a risk of sunburn), fluorescent or halogen lamps, or, more recently, light-emitting diodes. Despite the well-established efficacy of phototherapy devices and their relative simplicity-being not much more than a floor lamp-phototherapy devices are too expensive for developing world hospitals to purchase, with typical hospital models ranging from US$3,000 to US$5,000. In addition, the resource-poor setting presents a more challenging engineering problem than most. Phototherapy devices are frequently donated to developing world hospitals. However, donated phototherapy devices typically run for no more than a few months once donated and, even then, offer little value to some hospitals. Given this background, we set out to design a phototherapy device specifically for use in the developing world. As a minimum, we knew that it had to have a light source with an extraordinarily long life span and have battery backup so that it could run during frequent power outages. Our design uses LEDs and is powered by a car or motorcycle battery. In this article, we present the full engineering design cycle, staring with needs identification and continuing through several cycles of engineering field trials and results with comments on the differences between the engineering design cycle executed in, and for, the developing world. View full abstract»

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  • Continuous Monitoring of Respiratory Flow and CO2

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 44 - 52
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this article, the challenges of simultaneous respiratory gas concentration and flow measurements in a breathing circuit are reviewed. The tradeoffs that were considered in the development of a clinically useful on-airway combination CO2/flow sensor are discussed as well as the applications enabled by this on-airway combination CO2/flow sensor. View full abstract»

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  • Quest for the Artificial Pancreas: Combining Technology with Treatment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 53 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The various components of the artificial pancreas puzzle are being put into place. Features such as communication, control, modeling, and learning are being realized presently. Steps have been set in motion to carry the conceptual design through simulation to clinical implementation. The challenging pieces still to be addressed include stress and exercise; as integral parts of the ultimate goal, effort has begun to shift toward overcoming the remaining hurdles to the full artificial pancreas. The artificial pancreas is close to becoming a reality, driven by technology, and the expectation that lives will be improved. View full abstract»

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  • Optical Coherence Tomography: The Intraoperative Assessment of Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 63 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1245 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During breast-conserving surgeries, axillary lymph nodes draining from the primary tumor site are removed for disease staging. Although a high number of lymph nodes are often resected during sentinel and lymph-node dissections, only a relatively small percentage of nodes are found to be metastatic, a fact that must be weighed against potential complications such as lymphedema. Without a real-time in vivo or in situ intraoperative imaging tool to provide a microscopic assessment of the nodes, postoperative paraffin section histopathological analysis currently remains the gold standard in assessing the status of lymph nodes. This paper investigates the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT), a high-resolution real-time microscopic optical-imaging technique, for the intraoperative ex vivo imaging and assessment of axillary lymph nodes. Normal (13), reactive (1), and metastatic (3) lymph nodes from 17 human patients with breast cancer were imaged intraoperatively with OCT. These preliminary clinical studies have identified scattering changes in the cortex, relative to the capsule, which can be used to differentiate normal from reactive and metastatic nodes. These optical scattering changes are correlated with inflammatory and immunological changes observed in the follicles and germinal centers. These results suggest that intraoperative OCT has the potential to assess the real-time node status in situ, without having to physically resect and histologically process specimens to visualize microscopic features. View full abstract»

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  • Deep-Tissue Dynamic Monitoring of Decubitus Ulcers: Wound Care and Assessment

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 71 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of deep-tissue multiwavelength imaging is of paramount importance in clinical settings as a noninvasive solution to identify and monitor the progression of decubitus ulcers. A point-of-care multiwavelength imager is being developed, whose utility results from the provision of important physiological characteristics and blood flow metrics via analysis of deep-tissue response to light. The noninvasive real-time monitoring and analysis of tissue focusing on wound imaging is integral, because it allows for quantitative in situ measurements that characterize tissue to assess the progress of either tissue healing or necrosis. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic System for Transrectal Biopsy of the Prostate: Real-Time Guidance Under MRI

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 78 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, to harness the possibility of real-time guidance of MRI, a robotic system has been developed to perform transrectal prostate biopsy inside a 1.5-T closed bore scanner. A specially developed MR pulse sequence is capable of tracking the needle location in real time while dynamically updating the scan planes to always include the needle and target. View full abstract»

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  • Image-Based Motion Detection: Using the Concept of Weighted Directional Descriptors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 87 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1474 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of image guidance in medical applications is constantly growing because of its tremendous impact on the future of health care. Although image-based tissue tracking has been thoroughly explored in the academic literature for years, it has not yet matured to become widely accepted by clinicians. Undetected tissue movements in image-based clinical procedures may cause safety and efficacy difficulties. We introduce an image-based approach for detecting tissue movements during clinical procedures. Our method has been validated in more than 600 true clinical cases. The results show that our algorithm agrees with an expert analysis in 98% of the cases, showing zero events of false alarms and zero events of undetected motion. The results show that the approach provides a clinically ready motion detection algorithm. These robust results are achieved by introducing the concept of weighted directional descriptors (WDDs). The technique analyzes the directivity and confidence level of each anatomical feature and uses it to weight local inputs resulting in a robust motion vector. The robustness is further increased by a novel preprocess that screens out features that may be misleading or are repeated in the adjacent search zone. The technique meets the requirements, as defined by our clinicians, and is now integrated in true medical systems. In particular, our approach has been uniquely developed and integrated into a clinical product. ExAblate is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved magnetic resonance (MR)-guided noninvasive surgical device using focused ultrasound therapy. It is used in commercial clinics and in leading medical academic research institutions, attesting to the success of our method and its practical clinical value. View full abstract»

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  • Electronic Data-Capturing Technology for Clinical Trials: Experience with a Global Postmarketing Study

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 95 - 102
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (594 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this article was to address three questions: What were the electronic data-capturing (EDC) technologies employed in a typical industry-sponsored clinical study? How is the developed system meeting the clinical research need? What would we want more from this EDC technology? This article is prepared from industry perspectives to present and analyze the advantages, benefits, and challenges in applying EDC technologies to address industry's clinical trial operational needs based on a systematic overview. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless Sensing Systems in Clinical Environments: Improving the Efficiency of the Patient Monitoring Process

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 103 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1720 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multiple studies suggest that the level of patient care may decline in the future because of a larger aging population and medical staff shortages. Wireless sensing systems that automate some of the patient monitoring tasks can potentially improve the efficiency of patient workflows, but their efficacy in clinical settings is an open question. This article examines the potential of wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies to improve the efficiency of the patient-monitoring process in clinical environments. MEDiSN, a WSN designed to continuously monitor the vital signs of ambulatory patients, is designed. The usefulness of MEDiSN is validated with test bed experiments and results from a pilot study performed at the Emergency Department, Johns Hopkins Hospital. Promising results indicate that MEDiSN can tolerate high degrees of human mobility, is well received by patients and staff members, and performs well in real clinical environments. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Analysis for Intensive Care: Development and Deployment of the Artemis Analytic System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 110 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1177 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The lives of many thousands of children born premature or ill at term around the world have been saved by those who work within neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Modern-day neonatologists, together with nursing staff and other specialists within this domain, enjoy modern technologies for activities such as financial transactions, online purchasing, music, and video on demand. Yet, when they move into their workspace, in many cases, they are supported by nearly the same technology they used 20 years ago. Medical devices provide visual displays of vital signs through physiological streams such as electrocardiogram (ECG), heart rate, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), and respiratory rate. Electronic health record initiatives around the world provide an environment for the electronic management of medical records, but they fail to support the high-frequency interpretation of streaming physiological data. We have taken a collaborative research approach to address this need to provide a flexible platform for the real-time online analysis of patients' data streams to detect medically significant conditions that precede the onset of medical complications. The platform supports automated or clinician-driven knowledge discovery to discover new relationships between physiological data stream events and latent medical conditions as well as to refine existing analytics. Patients benefit from the system because earlier detection of signs of the medical conditions may lead to earlier intervention that may potentially lead to improved patient outcomes and reduced length of stays. The clinician benefits from a decision support tool that provides insight into multiple streams of data that are too voluminous to assess with traditional methods. The remainder of this article summarizes the strengths of our research collaboration and the resulting environment known as Artemis, which is currently being piloted within the NICU of The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in - - Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Although the discussion in this article focuses on a NICU, the technologies can be applied to any intensive care environment. View full abstract»

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  • Clustering Techniques: Measuring the Performance of Contract Service Providers

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 119 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the use of clustering technique to characterize the providers of maintenance services in a health-care institution according to their performance. A characterization of the inventory of equipment from seven pilot areas was carried out first (including 264 medical devices). The characterization study concluded that the inventory on a whole is old [exploitation time (ET)/useful life (UL) average is 0.78] and has high maintenance service costs relative to the original cost of acquisition (service cost /acquisition cost average 8.61%). A monitoring of the performance of maintenance service providers was then conducted. The variables monitored were response time (RT), service time (ST), availability, and turnaround time (TAT). Finally, the study grouped maintenance service providers into clusters according to performance. The study grouped maintenance service providers into the following clusters. Cluster 0: Identified with the best performance, the lowest values of TAT, RT, and ST, with an average TAT value of 1.46 days; Clusters 1 and 2: Identified with the poorest performance, highest values of TAT, RT, and ST, and an average TAT value of 9.79 days; and Cluster 3: Identified by medium-quality performance, intermediate values of TAT, RT, and ST, and an average TAT value of 2.56 days. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine contains articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering.

 

This Magazine ceased publication in 2010. The current retitled publication is IEEE Pulse.

Full Aims & Scope