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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Issue 5 • Date May 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 589 - 590
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  • Short Injector Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Page(s): 591 - 600
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We report our study on the effects of shortened quantum cascade (QC) laser injector regions. While conventional short-wavelength QC lasers typically have around seven or more injector region quantum wells, we investigate QC structures with three and two injector wells. Improvements in threshold currents, output powers, and wall-plug efficiencies are expected for fundamental reasons. At heat sink temperatures near 80 K, we observe threshold current densities less than 0.5 kA/cm2, nearly 4 W peak output power, and wall-plug efficiencies in excess of 20%. At room temperature, we see threshold current densities around 2.3 kA/cm2, output powers in excess of 1 W, and wall-plug efficiencies around 7.6%. We also observe new effects in midinfrared QC lasers, such as a pronounced negative differential resistance, pulse instabilities, and multiple and varied turn-off mechanisms. These effects result from the greatly abbreviated injector regions with highly discrete states. View full abstract»

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  • Bending Loss Evaluations of Holey Fibers Having a Core Consisting of an Elliptical-Hole Lattice by Various Approaches

    Page(s): 601 - 609
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    In general, an accurate evaluation of the bending loss of an optical fiber with an arbitrary refractive index profile is a cumbersome task, especially for holey fibers (HFs). In this paper, various approaches are applied and compared for the bending loss evaluations of single-polarization elliptical-hole core circular-hole HFs (EC-CHFs), which are circular-hole HFs having a core with an elliptical-hole lattice structure. Our simulation results show that when bending loss formulas for weakly guiding circular fibers are applied to a HF by regarding it as an approximate circular fiber having an equivalent step-index (SI) profile, the definition of the core region is the most crucial issue. Moreover, we also show that the results obtained by the approximate approach based on the bending loss formulas for the equivalent SI circular fiber are in good agreement with direct approaches with numerical simulations for the real EC-CHF structure, if the equivalent core radius is suitably defined for the real cross section. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Modeling of Intersubband Transition-Based InGaAs/AlAsSb Ultrafast All-Optical Cross-Phase Modulators

    Page(s): 610 - 617
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    Operating the ultrafast intersubband transition- based In0.8Ga0.2As/AlAs0.56Sb0.44 coupled double-quantum-well all-optical cross-phase modulators at 40 Gb/s or higher is making it essential to know the pump-power ratings of these devices. Here, the pump-power rating of 10 samples taken from the same wafer was determined experimentally and used as the input to a detailed three dimensional thermal analysis to study the temperature distribution in these devices. Analysis shows the importance of phonon scatterings at the well-barrier interfaces and internal optical back-reflections from the tapers in order to produce meaningful results. As a result of the thorough thermal modeling approach, simulated results for all the samples are consistent and reveal that the highest temperature in these devices reaches the melting point of the In0.8Ga0.2As quantum-wells when operated at the pump-power rating. Simulated temperature distributions indicate that the hottest spot in the device occurs at a very close proximity to the input facet, hence explaining the destruction of the antireflection coatings and melted substance on the input facet seen on the photographs taken from scanning electron microscopy and clearly demonstrates the predictive power of the comprehensive thermal simulation tool developed herein. View full abstract»

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  • Guided Modes in Layered Semiconductor Terahertz Structures

    Page(s): 618 - 625
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    In this paper, we present a simple and robust method for calculating the dispersion relation of guided modes in layered media with conducting interfaces in the terahertz frequency range. The procedure is based on the transfer matrix method and utilizes a Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm for the solution of the resulting transcendental equations. By applying a semi-analytical approach, the algorithm shows very good convergence behavior even for structures containing metallic layers. Analytic forms of the transcendental equations for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarization for systems with one to four boundaries are presented. Conducting interfaces can, for instance, be used to describe a 2-D electron gas or a planar metamaterial. We demonstrate the performance of this method by examples which are of current technological interest. These include surface waves bound to surface carriers on p-InAs, a parallel plate waveguide and plasma oscillations in a high electron mobility transistor structure. View full abstract»

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  • High-Saturation-Current Modified Uni-Traveling-Carrier Photodiode With Cliff Layer

    Page(s): 626 - 632
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    We demonstrate two modified uni-traveling carrier photodiode (MUTC) structures that incorporate a charge or “cliff” layer to attain high-saturation-current. MUTC1 achieved responsivity of 0.82 A/W and 134 mA saturation current at -6-V and 20 GHz. The MUTC2 structure, which has higher doping density in the cliff layer and thinner absorption region, exhibited a higher saturation current of 144 mA (at -5-V) and an improved 3 dB bandwidth of 24 GHz; however, the responsivity was reduced to 0.69 A/W. For MUTC2, a high-saturation-current bandwidth product of 3456 GHz mA has been achieved. An intermodulation distortion figure of merit, IP3, > dBm at 20 GHz was observed for both MUTC structures. View full abstract»

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  • Thin-Film Schottky Barrier Photodetector Models

    Page(s): 633 - 643
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    Phenomenological models for the internal quantum efficiency of Schottky barrier photodetectors suitable for the detection of optical radiation below the bandgap energy of the semiconductor are presented and discussed. The detection mechanism is internal photoemission from the metal film into the semiconductor substrate. Three detector configurations are considered: the first consists of a thick metal film on a semiconductor substrate forming a single Schottky barrier; the second consists of a thin metal film on a semiconductor substrate also forming a single Schottky barrier; and the third consists of a thin metal film buried in semiconductor and forming two Schottky barriers (one along each metal-semiconductor interface). In the three cases, illumination through the semiconductor substrate is assumed. The two thin-film configurations provide enhanced internal quantum efficiencies due to multiple hot carrier reflections within the metal film, with the double-barrier case providing the greatest enhancement due to emission over two barriers. The models proposed are based on assessing the emission probability of hot carriers as a function of their energy, taking into account multiple reflections within the metal film and energy losses due to internal scattering (e.g., with phonons and cold carriers). The thin-film single-barrier model was tested via comparisons with responsivity measurements reported in the literature for PtSi/p-Si and Pd2Si/p-Si detectors. View full abstract»

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  • Chromatic Dispersion in InGaAsP Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    Page(s): 644 - 649
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    Chromatic dispersion for typical InGaAsP buried semiconductor optical amplifiers waveguide structures is investigated. Opposite to earlier estimations of the chromatic dispersion, we calculate a value of 30 fs/mm/nm around the band gap wavelength of 1550 nm. Moreover, the dependence of the chromatic dispersion on the carrier density and the lattice temperature is estimated. Since the mode confinement affects the composite material dispersion, the chromatic dispersion also depends on the polarization of the mode. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of Low-Loss Silicon Photonic Wires by Self-Profile Transformation and Applications in 3-D Photonic Integration and Nonlinear Optics

    Page(s): 650 - 657
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    A new technology using self-profile transformation is introduced to make subwavelength silicon photonic wires with very smooth surface. Due to the smooth surface, the propagation loss was measured to be as low as 1.26 dB/cm. Moreover, 2-D beam spot-size converters and 2-D multimode interference couplers were demonstrated to monolithically integrate the photonic wires, showing the possibility of 3-D photonic integration. Owing to the low-insertion loss of the wires, various nonlinear optical processes such as four-wave mixing and spontaneous Raman emission were observed with low-pump power of just tens of milliwatts. View full abstract»

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  • Root-Cause Analysis of Peak Power Saturation in Pulse-Pumped 1100 nm Broad Area Single Emitter Diode Lasers

    Page(s): 658 - 665
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    Many physical effects can potentially limit the peak achievable output power of single emitter broad area diode lasers under high current, pulse-pumped operation conditions. Although previous studies have shown reliable operation to high pump levels (240 A, 300 ns, and 1 kHz), power was found to saturate. We present here results of a systematic study to unambiguously determine the sources of this power saturation. A combination of detailed measurements and finite element device simulation were used for the diagnosis. We find that the measured power saturation is dominated by electron leakage caused by band bending at high bias due to the low mobility of the p-type waveguide. However, the power saturation is only fully reproduced when longitudinal spatial hole-burning is included. Higher powers are expected to be achieved if higher energy barriers and lower confinement factors are used to mitigate leakage and longitudinal hole-burning, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Proposal for an Inversionless Tunable Far-Infrared and THz Room-Temperature Laser on a Quantum Well Semiconductor Nanostructure

    Page(s): 666 - 673
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    On the basis of density matrix formalism a mathematical model describing lasing in quantum well semiconductor nanostructures is developed. In its frame, an inversionless room-temperature operating amplifier or laser widely tunable in the far-infrared and terahertz (THz) region is suggested. Its working frequency can be varied by several times via the simple change of the mid-infrared pump power. For the pump beam intensity I = 2.9 × 107 W/cm2 the output frequency of such a device is expected to be ≃1.27 THz and the corresponding gain ≃0.73 cm-1. For I = 8.6 × 107 W/cm2 its working frequency is 1.9 times higher and the gain reaches 10.95 cm-1. The suggested amplifier or laser is expected to operate in the pulsed mode and to be used as a compact and convenient tunable source of the far-infrared and THz radiation for fundamental studies and various applications. View full abstract»

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  • Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Hybrid Brillouin/Ytterbium Fiber Lasers

    Page(s): 674 - 682
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A coupled-wave rate-equation model, including multiple-order stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is used to study power scaling of hybrid Brillouin/ytterbium fiber lasers. To validate the model, a single-frequency, Brillouin/ytterbium fiber laser was built with a laser output of 40 mW and an optical signal-to-noise ratio greater than 50 dB. The numerical model simulation agrees with the measurements in both fully and partially injection locked regimes. To scale up the laser's output power, a dual-clad architecture is proposed. In this new configuration, the active Yb-doped fiber provides the nonlinear SBS gain as well as the gain resulting from the excited Yb ions. Numerical modeling including three Stokes orders shows that over 5 W of single-frequency laser output can be achieved with a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of greater than 80 dB. Beyond this power, multi-order SBS affects the laser efficiency and SMSR. View full abstract»

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  • High-Performance \lambda \sim 8.6~\mu {\rm m} Quantum Cascade Lasers With Single Phonon-Continuum Depopulation Structures

    Page(s): 683 - 688
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    We report high performance λ~8.6 μm m quantum cascade lasers based on 5 quantum well single phonon-continuum (SPC) depopulation scheme, grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Devices with SPC depopulation structures exhibit high device performances in pulsed and continuous wave (CW) operation due to a large dipole matrix element (3.0 nm) and short depopulation time (0.22 ps). A 4 mm-long, 8 μm-wide, high reflective (HR)-coated buried-hetero-structure laser with 33 cascade stages, for active region, demonstrates a high output power of 313 mW, a threshold current density of 1.35 kA/cm2, and slope efficiency of 547 mW/A at 30°C in CW operation. The maximum CW lasing temperature of the device is observed to be 120°C. Furthermore, by using a higher number of cascade stages (N=70) in a 4 mm-long, 22 m-wide, HR-coated ridge laser, a high peak power of 6.3 W is obtained together with a high wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of 10.8%, a slope efficiency of 2.7 W/A, and a threshold current density of 0.76 kA/cm2 in pulsed operation at 300 K. The measured WPE of over 10% at room temperature is close to the theoretical values. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear Dynamics of Multi-Section Tunable Lasers

    Page(s): 689 - 699
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    Nonlinear dynamics of an optically-injected tunable three-section semiconductor laser have been investigated numerically. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we present stability maps, showing different types of the nonlinear behavior versus optical injection parameters, for different points of the tuning curve. Areas of stable locking, limit-cycle, and chaos change in a periodic manner as the lasing frequency undergoes staircase-shaped tuning controlled by the index of the distributed Bragg reflector section. Physical explanation relating this behavior to that of the relaxation oscillation frequency and damping factor is provided. These phenomena suggest that tuning can be an effective way to control laser stability properties. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Characteristics of 1.55- \mu m InGaAlAs Quantum Well Buried Heterostructure Lasers

    Page(s): 700 - 705
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    We have investigated the threshold current Ith and differential quantum efficiency as the function of temperature in InGaAlAs/InP multiple quantum well (MQWs) buried heterostructure (BH) lasers. We find that the temperature sensitivity of ith is due to nonradiative recombination, which accounts for up to ˜80% of Jth at room temperature. Analysis of spontaneous emission emitted from the devices show that the dominant nonradiative recombination process is consistent with Auger recombination. We further show that the above threshold differential internal quantum efficiency ηi is ˜80% at 20°C remaining stable up to 80°C. In contrast, the internal optical loss, αi, increases from 15 cm-1 at 20°C to 22 cm-1 at 80°C, consistent with inter-valence band absorption (IVBA). This suggests that the decrease in power output at elevated temperatures is associated with both Auger recombination and IVBA. View full abstract»

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  • Functional Photonic Circuits Based on Semiconductor Quantum Templates in Quantum Well Structures: Processing-Free Monolithic Integration

    Page(s): 706 - 713
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    We propose and numerically demonstrate operation of a processing-free functional photonic integrated circuit based on a semiconductor quantum template. This template combines monolayer engineering of the well/barrier interfaces in quantum-well structures with their coherent nonlinear effects to spatially form desired patterns of refractive index, gain and absorption without any need for top-down processes such as lithography, etching, postprocessing epitaxial overgrowth, etc. As an example, we investigate an integrated circuit that includes a distributed feedback laser and a multitask functional section that can act as an ultra-fast attenuator, modulator or amplifier on demand. The distributed feedback laser is based on gain-without inversion to overcome various losses and induce single mode operation. The photonic circuit proposed in this paper is optically activated and holds the promise of highly functional multicomponent integrated photonic circuits fabricated in a single epitaxial growth. View full abstract»

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  • Structural Parameter Dependence of Light Extraction Efficiency in Photonic Crystal InGaN Vertical Light-Emitting Diode Structures

    Page(s): 714 - 720
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    Light extraction efficiency (LEE) in thin-film InGaN vertical light-emitting diode (LED) structures with photonic crystal patterns is studied using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. We systematically investigate the dependence of LEE on various structural parameters of photonic crystal vertical LEDs such as the thickness of the p-GaN and n-GaN layers, and air-hole depth and size. It is found that high LEE of > 80% is obtainable from unencapsulated photonic crystal LEDs for a wide range of structural parameters. In particular, higher LEE is observed for the structures with relatively long-period photonic crystal patterns and possible mechanisms for the large enhancement of LEE are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of Heralded Single-Photon Source Using Four-Wave Mixing in Optical Fibers via Wigner Function and its Use in Quantum Key Distribution

    Page(s): 721 - 727
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    In this paper, we use the Wigner function in order to determine the photon number statistics of a heralded single-photon source constructed from a photon-pair source using four-wave mixing in optical fibers. Having this result, we discuss the performance of a quantum key distribution system when this kind of single-photon source is employed. View full abstract»

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  • Highly Efficient Wavelength-Tunable Anti-Stokes Signal Conversion of Femtosecond Pulses in the Fundamental Mode of Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Page(s): 728 - 733
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    With the photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with the zero dispersion wavelength of fundamental mode around 830 nm designed and fabricated in our lab, the anti-Stokes signals from 603 to 535 nm are efficiently generated in the fundamental mode by Ti:sapphire laser with central wavelength of 820 nm and pulse width of 150 fs. When the pump power increases from 80 to 320 mW in a separation of 40 mW, the output powers of anti-Stokes signals increase 6 times, and the maximum power ratio of anti-Stokes signal at 535 nm to the residual pump component is estimated as 12:1. The maximum output power ratio of the anti-Stokes signal at 535 nm and the Stokes component at 865 nm is about 2:1. The maximum conversion efficiency of P a/P p0 in experiment can achieve up to 42%, and the possible reasons for discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results are analyzed. Moreover, the influences of other factors on experiment process are elementarily discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Pump-Noise Contribution to Frequency Noise and Linewidth of Distributed-Feedback Fiber Lasers

    Page(s): 734 - 741
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (294 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of the pump-noise contribution to frequency noise and linewidth in distributed-feedback fiber lasers is presented. An analytic expression for the frequency domain transfer function from pump to frequency fluctuations is derived and a formula for the pump-dependent frequency noise spectrum given. These results are confirmed experimentally for two dissimilar distributed-feedback fiber lasers with moderate Er concentration. The transition from fundamental thermal noise at low pump intensity to pump induced frequency noise at high pump intensity is experimentally observed, thus, clarifying the general nature of frequency noise in compact fiber lasers. The relationship between frequency noise and linewidth is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Theoretical Investigation of Anisotropic Gain Mechanisms in InGaAsP-Based 1.5- \mu m Quantum Dash Lasers

    Page(s): 742 - 753
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    We examine the electronic structure and optical properties of 1.5-μm InAs/InGaAsP/InP quantum dash-in-a-well (DWELL) and dash-in-a-barrier (DBAR) lasers. Using 1-D and 3-D k.p calculations, we show that the electron states are not confined to the dash layer in the DWELL structures and are poorly confined in the DBAR case, due to the small conduction band offset in InGaAsP systems. The built-in strain induces a large HH-LH splitting, resulting in a significant reduction in the calculated valence band density of states (DOS). Coupled together, these properties can be engineered to give a nearly symmetric conduction and valence band DOS within 0.1 eV of the band edge. The calculated gain due to light polarized along the TE(110) and TE(1-10) directions is anisotropic, with the degree of anisotropy dependent on the dash height and the area density of the dashes. We conclude that the dashes can provide a high modal gain with reduced transparency and threshold carrier density but similar threshold current density compared to equivalent quantum well devices. View full abstract»

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  • Ultra-Long Compact Optical Polymeric Array Waveguide True-Time-Delay Line Devices

    Page(s): 754 - 761
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    New types of UV curable polymeric ultra-long array waveguide true-time-delay (TTD) lines for wideband phased array antennas (PAA) are designed and fabricated using direct UV photolithography process. The unique feature of the approach consists of different 1 × N waveguide splitters, low-loss S-bend cosine waveguide connectors, and 180° array bend waveguides with a constant spacing difference ¿R between adjacent waveguides. The delay time increments are measured from 1.4 ns to 6.6 ps. 1 × 2, 1 × 4, 1 × 8 polymeric star coupler devices are also successfully prepared. The bend loss of different curved waveguides is calculated and analyzed by the 3-D semivectorial beam propagation method (BPM). The optimized structural properties of the UV curable polymeric waveguides and fabrication procedures are demonstrated. The near-infrared field guided-mode patterns of the devices are obtained. The new technique can be well suited for realizing absence of "beam squint" in the antenna pattern as its frequency is switched from L(1-2.6 GHz) to X(8-12 GHz) band. View full abstract»

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  • A Switchable Liquid-Crystal Optical Channel Waveguide on Silicon

    Page(s): 762 - 768
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    An integrated optical switch based on liquid crystal on silicon is reported. The switch consists of an optical waveguide, whose core is made of nematic liquid crystal E7 infiltrated in a SiO2/Si V-groove. The electrooptic effect allows us to control the waveguide propagation condition by means of ITO and Si electrodes. A voltage as low as 2 V applied to the driving electrodes turns the waveguide on. Since the output intensity increases with voltage, the waveguide behaves also as a variable optical attenuator. A maximum ON-OFF extinction ratio in excess of 44 dB was measured. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics is dedicated to the publication of manuscripts reporting novel experimental or theoretical results in the broad field of the science and technology of quantum electronics..

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Aaron R. Hawkins
Brigham Young University