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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2010

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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c1
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  • [Inside front cover]

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): c2
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  • From the Editor-in-Chief

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 1
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    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 2
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  • Altitude Measurement Based on Beam Split and Frequency Diversity in VHF Radar

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 3 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new beam split altitude interferometry based on altitude diversity and frequency diversity for very high frequency (VHF) radar is proposed in this paper. As opposed to microwave radar, VHF radar has a wide beam which is usually split when ground reflection occurs. The reflected wave which is coherent with the direct wave will always be contained in the target echo. In this paper, several antennas of different heights are utilized. Owing to the certain relationship among the phases of the split beams, the elevation region where the targets are located can be determined using the phases of echoes. Using "amplitude-comparison" of echoes from various antennas to get the normalized error signals, the elevation of the target can be obtained by looking it up in the error signal table. The effect of roughness on the altitude measurement accuracy is also analyzed. The real data processing on flat and slope terrains testifies to the validity of the proposed method. The altitude measurement precision, especially in low-elevation regions, is greatly improved by using frequency diversity. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Navigation with Scanning Ladars: Concept & Initial Verification

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 14 - 31
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3098 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper investigates the use of scanning laser radars (LADARs) for 3D navigation of autonomous vehicles in structured environments such as outdoor urban navigation scenarios. The navigation solution (position and orientation) is determined in unknown environments where no a priori map information is available. The navigation is based on the use of planar surfaces (planes) extracted from LADAR scan images. Changes in plane parameters between scans are applied to compute position and orientation changes. Feasibility of the algorithms developed is verified using simulation results and initial results of live data tests. View full abstract»

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  • Sample-Deficient Adaptive Detection: Adaptive Scalar Thresholding versus CFAR Detector Performance

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 32 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The well-known problem of adaptive signal detection in background interference is addressed for situations where only a small number of training data samples are available. Since all known constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) adaptive detectors such as the traditional generalized likelihood-ratio test (GLRT), adaptive matched filter (AMF), and adaptive coherence estimator (ACE) detectors use the generic maximum-likelihood (ML) sample covariance matrix estimate (CME), the sample support necessary for accurate detection must significantly exceed the adaptive system (e.g., antenna array) dimension M, and so is often impractically large. For scenarios with a limited number m of dominant covariance matrix eigenvalues, more efficient diagonally loaded CMEs are available, whose required sample support is comparable to m (rather than M) for efficient interference mitigation. Since detectors that adopt these and other CMEs that use some a~priori information are not strictly CFAR, here we consider a "two-stage" adaptive detection scheme that optimally partitions the total sample support T into two sets: T_CME data samples are used to design the adaptive filter (beamformer), and the remaining T_CFAR samples are used to calculate the adaptive scalar false-alarm threshold. We present a comparative analysis of the detection performance of "one-stage" CFAR and "two-stage" adaptive detectors. View full abstract»

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  • GNSS Acquisition in the Presence of Continuous Wave Interference

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 47 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2958 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The extreme weakness of a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal makes it vulnerable to a wide variety of interfering signals, falling within the GNSS frequency bands. One of the main classes of these disturbing signals is represented by continuous wave interference (CWI), which include all signals that can be effectively represented as pure sinusoids. This paper deals with the performance of GNSS signal acquisition in the presence of CWI. An original model describing the impact of CWI on signal acquisition is proposed and the expressions of both false alarm and detection probabilities are mathematically formulated and validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The paper also investigates the role of the interference amplitude and frequency along with the impact of different system parameters on the detection and false alarm probabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Direction Cosine Matrix Estimation from Vector Observations using a Matrix Kalman Filter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 61 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents several algorithms that use vector observations in order to estimate the direction cosine matrix (DCM) as well as three constant biases and three time-varying drifts in body-mounted gyro output errors. All the algorithms use the matrix Kalman filter (MKF) paradigm, which preserves the natural formulation of the DCM state-space model equations. Focusing on the DCM estimation problem, the assumption of white noise in the gyro and in the vector observations errors yields reduced and efficient filter covariance computations. The orthogonality constraint on the DCM is handled via the technique of pseudomeasurement, which is naturally embedded in the MKF. Two additional known "brute-force" procedures are implemented for the sake of comparison. Extensive Monte-Carlo simulations illustrate the performances of the different estimators. When estimating only the DCM, it is shown that all the proposed orthogonalization procedures accelerate the estimation convergence. Nevertheless, the pseudomeasurement technique shows a smoother and shorter transient than the brute-force procedures, which on the other hand yield more accurate steady-states. The reduced covariance computations yield a more accurate steady-state than the full covariance computations but show a slower transient. When estimating the DCM as well as the gyro biases and drifts, enforcing orthogonalization seems to penalize the DCM estimation as long as the biases are not correctly identified. For the sake of computation savings during long duration missions, a mixed estimator, switching between long periods of DCM-only estimation and short periods of DCM-biases estimation, appears to be a promising strategy. View full abstract»

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  • Energy Optimal Waypoint Guidance Synthesis for Antiship Missiles

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 80 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Planar waypoint guidance synthesis methods for antiship missiles (ASMs) using optimal guidance laws are proposed. The energy optimal trajectory optimization problem with waypoint constraints is converted to an unconstrained optimization problem of finding the optimal boundary conditions at waypoints for the guidance laws. An optimal guidance law (OGL) for a 1st-order lag ASM with terminal constraints on the impact angle and lateral acceleration is newly proposed for this purpose. The proposed method produces the energy optimal trajectory with high numerical efficiency. If the ASM is approximated by a lag-free system, optimal boundary conditions become waypoint passing angles which can be simply determined from a set of linear algebraic equations. Since there are no time-consuming numerical optimizations in this approach, the energy optimal trajectory passing through all the waypoints can be generated in real time. View full abstract»

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  • Survey of Maneuvering Target Tracking. Part II: Motion Models of Ballistic and Space Targets

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 96 - 119
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2566 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is the second part in a series that provides a comprehensive survey of maneuvering target tracking without addressing the so-called measurement-origin uncertainty. It surveys motion models of ballistic targets used for target tracking. Models for all three phases (i.e., boost, coast, and reentry) of motion are covered. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Mobile Sensor Positioning for Multi-Static Target Tracking

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 120 - 132
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1647 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are playing an increasingly prominent role in both military and civilian applications. We focus here on the use of multiple UAV agents in a target tracking application where performance is improved by exploiting each agent's maneuverability. Local time-delay and Doppler measurements made at each UAV are used as inputs to an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which tracks the target's position and velocity. Two simple metrics are defined to quantify the accuracy of the tracking algorithm, and heading feedback to the UAVs is used to minimize the metric and improve tracking performance. A simplified version of one of the algorithms that reduces computational complexity is also presented. Simulations demonstrate the significant improvement that results when the UAV sensors are allowed to be optimally positioned during tracking. View full abstract»

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  • Maximum Likelihood State Estimation of Semi-Markovian Switching System in Non-Gaussian Measurement Noise

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 133 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the work presented here, we consider state and parameter estimation of a semi-nonlinear Markov jump system in a non-Gaussian noise environment. The non-Gaussian measurement noise is approximated by a finite Gaussian mixture model (GMM). We propose a maximum likelihood (ML) solution to this state estimation problem which leads to two expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms. The first is a batch EM method which takes all the available data in the conditional expectation of the state in the E-step. An interacting multiple model (IMM) smoother is employed to evaluate the conditional expectation of the state by which a suboptimal estimate of system state is directly obtained. The Gaussian mixture parameters are then updated in the M-step. The second is a recursive EM algorithm which results from a stochastic approximation procedure and uses a standard IMM filter. For performance evaluation, posterior Cramer-Rao bound (PCRB) on the state estimation is adopted. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Unreliable CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) over Cislunar Communication Links

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 147 - 169
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) file delivery protocol, also known as CFDP, is a new standard protocol designed to meet a comprehensive set of file transfer requirements in space communications, especially deep space missions. There has been theoretical and experimental evaluation on the performance of CFDP operation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and geo-stationary Earth orbit (GEO) space environments. However, very few works have evaluated the performance of CFDP in cislunar space, even though the protocol has been particularly developed for deep space communications. In this work we discuss an experimental investigation of the core file-delivery operation of unreliable CFDP, operating with reliable transmission control protocol (TCP), over a simulated cislunar communication link under various channel conditions. Our intention is to evaluate the transmission effectiveness of the core file-delivery operation in unreliable CFDP running on top of a reliable TCP/IP stack over a long-delayed cislunar link, especially when accompanied by link disruptions and a high bit error rate (BER). The performance of unreliable-CFDP/TCP is also compared with other protocol options of CFDP, such as reliable-CFDP/TCP and reliable-CFDP/UDP. The experiment was carried out through realistic file transfers by running the CFDP protocol stack over a communication test-bed incorporating the qualities that define cislunar communication channel characteristics. The research results and discussions presented in this paper should work equally well in any space mission with a round-trip time (RTT) that is comparable to that of the cislunar space. View full abstract»

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  • Knowledge-Aided Bayesian Radar Detectors & Their Application to Live Data

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 170 - 183
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper considers the problem of adaptive radar detection in Gaussian clutter with unknown spectral properties. We employ a Bayesian approach based on a suitable model for the probability density function (pdf) of the unknown clutter covariance matrix. We devise two detectors based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) criterion both one-step and two-step. The suggested decision rules achieve the same performance as the non-Bayesian GLRT detectors when the size of the training set is sufficiently large. However, our new detectors significantly outperform their non-Bayesian counterparts when the training set is small. The analysis is also supported by results on real L-band clutter data from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory phase one radar and on high fidelity radar data from the knowledge-aided sensor signal processing and expert reasoning (KASSPER) program. View full abstract»

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  • Envelope-Law and Geometric-Mean STAP Detection

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 184 - 192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two detectors for space-time adaptive processing (STAP) are proposed here. These are variants that use envelope-law and geometric-mean (GM) (or logarithmic) processing, both being well-known concepts from conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) square-law radar detection. The variants are based on normalized adaptive matched filter (NAMF) STAP processing, and their CFAR property is established. Threshold setting for the detectors for specified false alarm probability (FAP) is accomplished using fast simulation based on importance sampling. Performance analyses of these detectors reveal almost indistinguishable loss in detection probability in homogeneous Gaussian interference compared with conventional square-law STAP detector versions. In addition, they exhibit robust detection performance in the presence of interfering targets in the training data for both nonfluctuating as well as fluctuating target models. Comparisons are made with the corresponding envelope-law and GM variants of the adaptive matched filter (AMF) detector previously proposed in a recent paper. View full abstract»

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  • Composite GNSS Signal Acquisition over Multiple Code Periods

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 193 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2342 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new signals employed by modern global navigation satellite system (GNSS) will be characterized by a data/pilot structure and by the presence of secondary codes. These innovations require special acquisition techniques for efficiently recovering all the transmitted power and dealing with the problem of sign transitions. In this paper three integration strategies, noncoherent, semi-coherent, and differentially coherent integrations, are analyzed for the joint acquisition of data and pilot signals over multiple primary code periods. Each strategy is statistically characterized and false alarm and detection probabilities are provided. To the best of our knowledge the characterization and comparison of these algorithms are new. Monte Carlo simulations and real data analysis demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model. View full abstract»

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  • Generalised Covariance Union: A Unified Approach to Hypothesis Merging in Tracking

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 207 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1993 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-hypothesis tracking (MHT) techniques can become prohibitively computationally expensive as the number of hypotheses increases. In order to maintain an estimate with bounded computational cost, multi-hypothesis methods often merge the estimates together. When the hypotheses are distributed according to a known probability then standard mixture reduction (SMR) methods exist for merging estimates. Also, covariance union (CU) has become a popular approach to merging hypotheses when their distribution is not known. This paper generalises CU to a new theory, which we refer to as generalised covariance union (GCU). GCU merges estimates when their distribution is not known precisely but is, instead, bounded above and below. We show that CU and the SMR approaches are limiting cases of GCU. We demonstrate the efficacy of the new approach via a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking application with time delayed satellite signals. View full abstract»

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  • Feature for Distinguishing Propeller-Driven Airplanes from Turbine-Driven Airplanes

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 222 - 229
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (993 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel feature for distinguishing propeller-driven airplanes from turbine-driven airplanes is proposed: the absolute difference between the Euclidean lengths of the amplitude spectrums of two neighboring high-resolution range profiles (HRRP). A preclassification method based on the proposed feature is also presented. Experimental results for measured data verify the efficiency of the proposed feature. View full abstract»

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  • Ambiguity Functions for Spatially Coherent and Incoherent Multistatic Radar

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 230 - 245
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2358 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The ambiguity function is a key tool for determining the target resolution capability of a radar system. Recently, multistatic radar systems have been proposed where target detection is jointly performed on a vector of captured signals arising from multiple spatially dispersed transmitters and/or receivers. In the work presented here, expressions for the ambiguity functions of such systems are derived based on corresponding statistically optimal multistatic detectors, which themselves depend on the spatial coherence of target fluctuations observed by each receiver. These expressions allow the ambiguity in resolving target position and velocity vectors in two or three dimensions to be determined for any transmitted waveform and multistatic topology. New plots are introduced to illustrate the resulting ambiguity responses by example, and the dependency on spatial, target, and waveform parameters is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Maneuvering Target Tracking in the Presence of Glint using the Nonlinear Gaussian Mixture Kalman Filter

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 246 - 262
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of maneuvering target tracking in the presence of glint noise is addressed in this work. The main challenge in this problem stems from its nonlinearity and non-Gaussianity. A new estimator, named as nonlinear Gaussian mixture Kalman filter (NL-GMKF) is derived based on the minimum-mean-square error (MMSE) criterion and applied to the problem of maneuvering target tracking in the presence of glint. The tracking performance of the NL-GMKF is evaluated and compared with the interacting multiple modeling (IMM) implemented with extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filter (PF) and the Gaussian sum PF (GSPF). It is shown that the NL-GMKF outperforms these algorithms in several examples with maneuvering target and/or glint noise measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous Acquisition and Track Scheme with Multiple Terminals Based on Subspace Method for Optical Satellite Networks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 263 - 277
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1274 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an inter-satellite optical multiple access scheme, which combines space division multiple access (SDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) in such way that a cluster of picosatellites communicate by means of a laser beam with a detector matrix receiver located on the master satellite and equipped with a common optical system for incoming beams. The detector has a field of view (FOV) large enough to include multiple terminals, in which signals arriving from different terminals with different directions are detected by different pixels. A spread spectrum technique is used, and each signal is modulated by its own unique pseudorandom (PN) sequence. Even though the two signals overlap, each pixel is de-spreading the desired signal according to the associated PN sequence. Furthermore, in order to acquire and track multiple terminals simultaneously, a blind algorithm is presented by exploiting the structure information of the data output of each pixel, which is based on a signal subspace approach using the sample matrix of the received signals. Performance measures in terms of the asymptotic performance and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are obtained to assess the viability of the proposed scheme. Numerical results are presented to explain the impact on the performance of the proposed models. The approach significantly reduces stringent requirements of simultaneous acquiring and tracking multiple platforms instead of using a number of independent gimbaled telescopes by the master satellite and is easy to implement in real time applications. View full abstract»

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  • Short Multipath Insensitive Code Loop Discriminator

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 278 - 295
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is well known that one of the most significant errors in GPS pseudo-range measurement is the multipath error. Many researchers have been involved in this major issue, and promising results have been achieved in mitigating multipath errors. Most of these studies, however, do not really improve the tracking error in presence of short multipath. A novel code loop discriminator, which is insensitive to multipath signals having a relative delay lower than one half the correlator spacing is addressed here. The benefit of this discriminator, called short-multipath insensitive code loop discriminator (SMICLD), has been evaluated theoretically and implemented using MatLab/Simulink. The proposed method requires neither hardware nor software complexity. The novel loop tracking error, as well as the narrow correlator (NC) tracking error, were determined and compared. Simulation results showed that the proposed code discriminator outperforms the narrow correlator discriminator in terms of simplicity and performance. View full abstract»

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  • New Approach for Calculating Position Domain Integrity Risk for Cycle Resolution in Carrier Phase Navigation Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 296 - 307
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new theoretical approach is described to quantify position-domain integrity risk for cycle ambiguity resolution problems in satellite-based navigation systems. It is typically conservatively assumed that all incorrectly fixed cycle ambiguities cause hazardously large position errors. While simple and practical, this conservative assumption can unnecessarily limit navigation availability for applications with stringent requirements for accuracy and integrity. In response, a new method for calculating the integrity risk for carrier phase navigation algorithms is developed. In this method we evaluate the impact of incorrect fixes in the position domain and define tight upper bounds on the resulting navigation integrity risk. Furthermore, a mechanism to implement this method with partially-fixed cycle ambiguity vectors is also derived. The improvement in navigation availability using the new method is quantified through covariance analysis performed over a range of error model parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Data Compression for Multi-Parameter Estimation for Emitter Location

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 308 - 322
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1193 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Because a primary task of multi-sensor systems is to make estimates based on the data collected and shared throughout the sensor system, it is important to design data compression methods that reduce the volume of data to be shared, while causing only a minimal degradation of the quality of these estimates. An important aspect, not specifically considered previously in compression research for sensor systems, is that sensor systems generally have to make multiple estimates from the data. Furthermore, it is unrecognized in the literature that these multiple estimates generally have conflicting compression requirements and that finding the right way to balance these conflicts is crucial. The key tools we bring to bear on this area are: 1) the use of a Fisher-information-based distortion measure that is designed specifically for multiple estimates, and 2) the use of numerical optimization methods to achieve desired compression trade-offs among the multiple estimates. We first develop results that support using the trace of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) as a distortion measure for the simultaneous multiple-parameter estimation problem. We then apply these results to the problem of time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) and-frequency-difference-of-arrival- (FDOA) based location estimation of an RF emitter. We show that within this problem there is a fundamental trade-off between the impact of compression on TDOA estimation and the impact of compression on FDOA estimation; furthermore, we show that this trade-off can be addressed by adapting the compression scheme to the sensor-emitter geometry using a geometry-adaptive compression scheme. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems focuses on the equipment, procedures, and techniques applicable to the organization, installation, and operation of functional systems designed to meet the high performance requirements of earth and space systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Lance Kaplan
Army Research Laboratory