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Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date February 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 45
  • IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation [Front cover]

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  • IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society

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  • From the Editor-In-Chief

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  • Basic study of fitting method for base curve extraction in lightning impulse test techniques

    Page(s): 2 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (638 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The IEC, which prescribes lightning impulse test techniques for electric power equipment, is about to introduce the k-factor method for evaluating the overshoot of impulse waveforms. Its procedure specifies that waveforms are to be fitted with a double exponential function to derive a base curve. Some derived waveforms, however, deviate upwards from the central lines of the recorded waveforms in the wavefront area. This paper examines a more rational method of extracting a base curve by considering the relationships between equivalent electric circuits and the solutions of their governing equations. A trial calculation with the new methods gives results with lower crest values and slower rises than the existing method. View full abstract»

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  • Study of impedance parameters of cerium modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Page(s): 5 - 17
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    A high-temperature solid-state reaction technique was used to prepare the polycrystalline samples of cerium (Ce) modified lead zirconate titanate with Zr/Ti ratio 65:35 (i.e., Pb(Zr0.65-xCexTi0.35)O3 (PZCT)). Preliminary X-ray structural analysis exhibits the formation of the new compositions of PZT. In order to study the compositional effects on the electrical properties (complex impedance Z*, complex modulus M*, electrical conductivity and relaxation mechanisms) of PZCT, a nondestructive experimental technique (i.e., complex impedance spectroscopy) was used. The complex impedance analysis with Nyquist plots shows that the impedance parameters of all the PZCT samples contain bulk effect. The presence of single arc in the complex modulus spectra of PZCT confirms the single phase of PZCT with high relaxation time. The asymmetric behaviour of semi-circular arcs and shifting of peaks suggest the existence of non-Debye (Cole-Cole) type of relaxation mechanism in the PZCT systems. View full abstract»

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  • Dielectric breakdown of polyimide films: Area, thickness and temperature dependence

    Page(s): 18 - 27
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    Changes in the dielectric breakdown field of polyimide (PI) films have been studied from 25 to 400°C under dc ramps. Both the area (from 0.0707 to 19.635 mm2) and thickness (from 1.4 to 6.7 ¿m) dependences of the dielectric breakdown field have been carried out using the Weibull distribution function. The 63%-breakdown field value (i.e. the ¿-scale parameter) of PI shows a decrease with increasing area, thickness and temperature but always remains above 2 MV/cm. The ß-scale parameter of the distribution shows a typical decrease with increasing area, however, it exhibits an increase with increasing thickness. This 'curious' behavior is discussed on the basis of the percolation theory. No temperature-dependence is clearly observed. Moreover, physical interpretations are carried out using the pre-breakdown current analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Nonlinear conduction in aromatic polyurea thin films and its influence on dielectric applications over a broad temperature range

    Page(s): 28 - 33
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    We investigate nonlinear conduction in aromatic polyurea thin films and its influence on the dielectric applications over a broad temperature range. The experimental data indicate that several high field conduction mechanisms coexist in the polymer films and one conduction mechanism may dominate over the others depending on different temperatures. The results also reveal that owing to the non-linear increase of the conduction loss with field, the dielectric loss at high field can be many orders of magnitude larger than that at low field. Therefore, besides the electrical breakdown strength, the conduction loss at high field and their temperature dependence behavior are other key factors in developing polymer dielectric materials for high energy density dielectric applications over a broad temperature range. View full abstract»

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  • A picosecond-jitter electron-beam-triggered high-voltage gas spark gap

    Page(s): 34 - 38
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    Modes of precision triggering of a high-pressure nitrogen spark gap at voltages in the range from some tens of kilovolts up to one hundred of kilovolts have been investigated. The spark gap was triggered by a high-current electron beam. Experimentally, a total jitter no more than 25 ps relative to the leading edge of the beam-accelerating voltage pulse was attained. The time for which the spark gap was in the induced conduction state corresponds to the duration of the triggering beam current. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation of dust loaded V-I characteristics of a commercial thermal power plant precipitator

    Page(s): 39 - 44
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    A new approach based on finite difference method, is proposed for the simulation of electrical conditions in a dc energized wire-duct electrostatic precipitator with and without dust loading. Simulated voltage-current characteristics with and without dust loading were compared with the measured characteristics for analyzing the performance of a precipitator. The simple finite difference method gives sufficiently accurate results with reduced mesh size. The results for dust free simulation were validated with published experimental data. Further measurements were conducted at a thermal power plant in India and the results compares well with the measured ones. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of humidity on the breakdown characteristics of air in non-uniform fields at 30 kHz

    Page(s): 45 - 52
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    The paper reports about the role of humidity on the breakdown of air in non-uniform fields at 30 kHz - a frequency within the VLF/LF bands used for long distance communication. Experiments were conducted using rod/rod and rod/plane configurations with gap lengths ranging from 8 to 1000 mm. The results indicate that the breakdown voltage at 30 kHz is affected by humidity with varying impact based on gap length. Short (8-45 mm) gaps show a reduction in the breakdown voltage with humidity, while no significant variation is observed for long gaps (125-1000 mm). Breakdown voltages are observed to be markedly lower for 30 kHz when compared to the same gap at 60 Hz. Breakdown mechanisms for explaining this phenomenon are proposed. A correction factor to calculate breakdown voltage as a function of humidity for VLF is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Improved method of calculating lightning stroke rate to large-sized transmission lines based on electric geometry model

    Page(s): 53 - 62
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    The characteristics of the lightning shielding of large-sized transmission lines have been calculated based on an electric geometry model (EGM) proposed by Armstrong and Whitehead. However, the characteristics of lightning strokes to large-sized transmission lines observed in recent years differed from calculation results, hence the present study was conducted to improve the conventional calculation method. First, the relationship between the striking distance and the lightning current was reviewed. Specifically, the air gap discharge characteristics based on test data with complementing the large gap region were applied. In addition, the return stroke velocity distribution obtained by actual measurement was newly applied. Second, the distribution of lightning waveforms was reviewed; the distribution of peak values of lightning current with the distribution of front duration was used in this study. With these improvements, the calculated lightning stroke rate to power lines and ground wires differs less from actual observations than that calculated by the conventional method. View full abstract»

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  • Positive corona inception voltages and corona currents for air at various pressures and humidities

    Page(s): 63 - 70
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    The variation of positive dc corona characteristics with air pressure and humidity using a point/plane electrode system was studied in a perspex chamber allowing the pressure and humidity to be varied. A method of calculation was developed to determine the corona current for humid air over a range of pressures and humidities in which the effective ionization coefficient was calculated as a linear interpolation of the effective ionization coefficients for dry air and water vapor. The calculation method involved the solution of partial differential equations using a particle-in-cell algorithm. This also allowed the determination of the corona inception voltages for a range of pressures and humidities as the voltage at which the corona current first appeared. The validity of these calculations was confirmed by a series of experimental determinations of the corona inception voltages and of the variation of the corona current with the applied voltage for the same range of pressures and humidities. It was found that the corona current increased when the air pressure or humidity decreased (at constant applied voltage) mainly because of the rise in the space charge density or the positive ion mobility, respectively. The coefficient C, in the relationship between the corona current, the applied dc voltage and the corona inception voltage, declined with the increase of humidity. The rate of decrease of C with humidity became larger as the pressure was reduced. An approximately inversely proportional relationship was found to exist between C and the relative air density at constant humidity. This variation of C was principally associated with the variation in the positive ion mobility. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of flashover voltage and non-uniform pollution correction coefficient of short samples of composite insulator intended for ±800kV UHVDC

    Page(s): 71 - 80
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    Differences in the amount of pollution on the top and bottom surfaces of an insulator have a great influence on the DC pollution flashover voltage. Up to now, many investigations have been carried out on non-uniform pollution flashover performance of porcelain and glass insulators, but very few on composite insulators. In this paper the influence of non-uniform pollution distribution on DC composite insulators on their flashover performance was analyzed, and a correction formula for the non-uniform pollution flashover voltage was proposed, based on artificial pollution tests carried out on short samples of a composite insulator intended for ±800 kV UHVDC. The test results showed that, when the ratio (T/B) of the salt deposit density (SDD) on the top surface to that on the bottom surface is between 1/1 and 1/10, the value of the characteristic exponent a indicating the effect of SDD on the flashover voltage ranges from 0.22 to 0.255. The value of a is nearly independent of T/B. However, the flashover voltage U50 decreases with the increase in T/B. The correction formula indicating the influence of non-uniform pollution distribution on the flashover voltage could be expressed as K=1 - b×log(T/B). For the tested composite insulators, the factor b was 0.141 to 0.156, which is smaller than that of porcelain or glass insulator. That is to say, the influence of T/B on the flashover voltage of the composite insulator is weaker than those on the porcelain and glass insulators. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic investigations of long-rod insulators and their material properties

    Page(s): 81 - 88
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    The paper presents a nondestructive ultrasonic method of investigating long-rod insulators used on overhead power lines and in substations. A correlation between the degree of degradation of porcelain C 120 and the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation parameters was established. The ultrasonic method was used to analyze the quality of groups of line and post insulators after many years of service. Also a new mechanoacoustic method of investigating the stages in the degradation of insulator porcelain was applied. As a result of the investigations carried out on samples of porcelain C 130 the successive stages in the degradation of ceramic insulators during their service life were determined. View full abstract»

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  • Insulator condition analysis for overhead distribution lines using combined wavelet support vector machine (SVM)

    Page(s): 89 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Condition analysis of overhead power distribution system insulators using combined support vector machine (SVM) and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) seems to be promising for distribution system monitoring (DSM) automation to cope with the increasing system complexity. Though system well-being analysis for engineering applications has been used mostly for electric power system reliability studies, the same principle has been extended for assessing the condition of insulators in a distribution system based on the extent of their damage. Video surveillance with fixed cameras provide the required images of power lines along with insulators at regular intervals and same is sent to a control room using remote terminal units (RTUs) for analysis. Not only the health of the insulators, but also the sagging of the lines, breakage of both insulators and lines can be captured with such cameras. This paper mainly focuses on application of wavelet-transform based feature extraction for digital image processing and SVM for subsequent condition analysis of insulators. The most significant contribution of the paper is to compute the condition indices for overhead power distribution line insulators to overcome difficulties related to vehicular applications in video surveillance. The results contained in this paper validate the efficacy of the proposed methodology for wide-scale applications in overhead power distribution system monitoring (DSM) automation. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of dust deposition on suspended insulators during simulated sandstorm

    Page(s): 100 - 105
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    In the present work, we studied the dust deposition characteristics on suspended insulators under the simulated sandstorm conditions in a laboratory. Based on the simulation experiments, the basic dust deposition and distribution characteristics were studied, such as the difference of deposition among sheds at different locations, the difference of deposition between large and small sheds, the relationship between deposition quantity and flow speed of air and dust as well as the relationship between deposition quantity and experimental duration. Our study provides important insights for more advanced studies on this topic in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Approximation of transmission line parameters of single-core and three-core XLPE cables

    Page(s): 106 - 115
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    A transmission line model of a power cable is required for the analysis of the behavior of high-frequency phenomena, such as partial discharges, lightning impulses and switching transients, in cables. A transmission line is characterized by its characteristic impedance, attenuation coefficient and propagation velocity. The semiconducting layers in an XLPE cable have a significant influence on these parameters. Unfortunately, the dielectric properties of these layers are usually unknown and can differ between similar types of cables. In this paper it is shown that nevertheless the characteristic impedance and propagation velocity of single-core and three-core XLPE cables can be estimated using available information from the cable specifications. The estimated values are validated using pulse response measurements on cable samples. View full abstract»

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  • Degradation of low-density polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene by partial discharge

    Page(s): 116 - 124
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    To study the degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) by partial discharge (PD), experiments were conducted in a nitrogen (N2) and (N2+O2) gas atmosphere. After being subjected to the PD, samples were examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR. The AFM images clearly revealed the creation of pits on the surface of degraded samples. A large difference in the pit pattern was observed between samples subjected to the PD in N2 and those subjected to the PD in (N2+O2). The FTIR spectra detected in samples subjected to the PD in (N2+O2) showed that carbonyl compounds were produced on the surface of degraded LDPE. Experiments were performed using an experimental system incorporating GC-MS to measure the gas components produced during degradation. Results of experiments showed that carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced when LDPE and XLPE are subjected to the PD in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The amount of CO2 was found to increase concomitantly with the period of voltage application and oxygen concentration in the area where PD occurs. Based on experimental results, the processes of LDPE and XLPE degradation by PD were examined along with the antioxidant effect on degradation. View full abstract»

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  • Microscopic view of aging mechanism of polyimide film under pulse voltage in presence of partial discharge

    Page(s): 125 - 132
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    Inverter-fed motors are damaged due to pulse voltage. The situation leads to early failure of insulation. Polyimide is an important insulating material in the inverter-fed motors. Its insulation aging process and failure mechanism are different from traditional AC and DC voltage. In this paper, structure change of polyimide film aging under pulse voltage above partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV) is investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermally stimulated current (TSC) and lifetime test. It reveals that the degradation of structure in polyimide propagates from surface to interior with continuous aging, creating three layers in section. In the TSC spectrum, two main well-resolved peaks, namely ¿ and ß, exist in the 20-200°C range. The configuration corresponding to ¿ peak in polyimide is damaged more severely than the configuration corresponding to ß peak and its degradation is accelerated with increase in frequency. View full abstract»

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  • A frequency-based RF partial discharge detector for low-power wireless sensing

    Page(s): 133 - 140
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    Partial discharge (PD) monitoring has been the subject of significant research in recent years, which has given rise to a range of well-established PD detection and measurement techniques, such as acoustic and RF, on which condition monitoring systems for highvoltage equipment have been based. This paper presents a novel approach to partial discharge monitoring by using a low-cost, low-power RF detector. The detector employs a frequency-based technique that can distinguish between multiple partial discharge events and other impulsive noise sources within a substation, tracking defect severity over time and providing information pertaining to plant health. The detector is designed to operate as part of a wireless condition monitoring network, removing the need for additional wiring to be installed into substations whilst still gaining the benefits of the RF technique. This novel approach to PD detection not only provides a low-cost solution to on-line partial discharge monitoring, but also presents a means to deploy wide-scale RF monitoring without the associated costs of wide-band monitoring systems. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of rise time on partial discharge extinction voltage at semi-square voltage waveforms

    Page(s): 141 - 148
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work presents measurements of the partial discharge (PD) extinction voltage in three different types of test objects, using semi-square voltages with 2 ¿s and 100 ¿s rise time. A needle creating corona discharges, a twisted pair specimen commonly used for testing motor insulation and a paper/oil test object modelling the turn-to-turn insulation of a transformer winding were investigated, presenting extinction voltages between approximately 1 kV and 8 kV. For the twisted pair specimen the PD extinction voltage was significantly lower at the shorter rise time, whereas for the other test objects, just a small or no difference could be detected. The conclusion is that depending on what range of rise times and what insulation system that are studied, there may be an influence of the rise time of the applied voltage on the PD extinction voltage. View full abstract»

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  • A generic knowledge-based approach to the analysis of partial discharge data

    Page(s): 149 - 156
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    Partial discharge (PD) diagnosis is a recognized technique to detect defects within high voltage insulation in power system equipment. A variety of methods exist to capture the signals that are emitted during PD, and this paper focuses on the ultra high frequency (UHF) and IEC 60270 techniques. Phase-resolved patterns can be constructed from the PD data captured using either of these techniques and due to the individual signatures that different defects generate, experts can examine the phase-resolved pattern to classify the defect that created it. In recent years, knowledge regarding PD phenomena and phase-resolved patterns has increased, providing an opportunity to employ a knowledge-based system (KBS) to automate defect classification. Due to the consistent physical nature of PD across different high voltage apparatus and the ability to construct phase-resolved patterns from various sensors, the KBS offers a generic approach to the analysis of PD by taking the phase-resolved pattern as its input and identifying the physical PD processes associate with the pattern. This paper describes the advances of this KBS, highlighting its generic application through the use of several case studies, which present the diagnosis of defects captured through both the IEC 60270 and UHF techniques. This paper also demonstrates, in one of the case studies, how a limitation of previous pattern recognition techniques can be overcome by mimicking the approach of a PD expert when the pulses occur over the zero crossings of the voltage waveform of the phase-resolved pattern. View full abstract»

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  • Cross-wavelet transform as a new paradigm for feature extraction from noisy partial discharge pulses

    Page(s): 157 - 166
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    In this work a new approach based on cross-wavelet transform towards identification of noisy Partial Discharge (PD) patterns has been proposed. Different partial discharge patterns are recorded from the various samples prepared with known defects. A novel cross-wavelet transform based technique is used for feature extraction from raw noisy partial discharge signals. Noise is a significant problem in PD detection. The proposed method eliminates the requirement of denoising prior to processing and therefore it can be used to develop an automated and intelligent PD detector that requires minimal human expertise during its operation and analysis. A rough-set theory (RST) based classifier is used to classify the extracted features. Results show that the partial discharge patterns can be classified properly from the noisy waveforms. The effectiveness of the feature extraction methodology has also been verified with two other commonly used classification techniques: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based classifier and Fuzzy classifier. It is found that the type of defect within insulation can be classified efficiently with the features extracted from cross-wavelet spectra of PD waveforms by all of these methods with a reasonable degree of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and experimental verification of on-line PD detection in MV covered-conductor overhead networks

    Page(s): 167 - 180
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    The falling trees on covered-conductor (CC) overhead distribution lines produce partial discharges (PDs). The measurements have been taken in the laboratory and PD signal characteristics under various circumstances have been described. In this paper, an on-line single-phase PD monitoring system using Rogowski coil is simulated in EMTP-ATP. The simulation results are compared with those obtained from the laboratory measurements. The proposed model can be used to estimate the length of the practical CC lines at which PDs due to falling trees can be detected and localized; thus, deciding the number and positioning of the sensors over a particular length of the CC lines. The different noise sources have been described that cause interference with low level PD signals, which is a major challenge for on-line/on-site condition monitoring. The design aspects of the wireless sensor for this specific application are also discussed. Automatic detection of falling trees will reduce visual inspection work after storms and it will improve reliability and safety of the CC distribution system. View full abstract»

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  • Partial discharge detection as a tool to infer pollution severity of polymeric insulators

    Page(s): 181 - 188
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (974 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the analysis of partial discharge characteristics of silicone rubber insulators, with the aim to develop a better diagnostic tool to identify the pollution severity of outdoor insulators. In this work, laboratory-based pollution performance tests are carried out on silicone rubber insulators under ac voltage at different pollution levels and relative humidity conditions, using sodium chloride as a contaminant. Partial discharge (PD) is acquired through an innovative PD detection system which is able to collect PD waveforms beside PD patterns. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of PD pulses at different surface pollution conditions are studied. Statistical parameters of PD patterns are also evaluated in order to achieve a quantitative assessment of pollution severity of polymeric insulators. The results on silicone rubber insulators show that the pollution severity of outdoor polymeric insulators could be identified from the partial discharge pattern analysis. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation contains topics concerned with dielectric phenomena and measurements with development and characterization of gaseous, vacuum, liquid and solid electrical insulating materials and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Reuben Hackam