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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1  Part 2 • Date Feb. 2010

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 257
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Design and Experimental Validation of Radiation Hardened by Design SRAM Cells

    Page(s): 258 - 265
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1154 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The design and electrical characterization of a total ionizing dose hardened by a design static random access memory (SRAM) cell using annular layout and guard rings are presented. Since foundry SRAM cells can be validated during process development and manufacturing ramp but radiation hardening by design cells cannot, we use a specialized test structure to validate the cell design here. Stability, manufacturability, and hardness are experimentally investigated using a 4 kbit SRAM structure, fabricated on one version of the foundry 90 nm process. The structure, combined with a novel test and simulation based extraction procedure, allows direct measurement of the as-fabricated cell electrical characteristics. Variation of the SRAM switching points due to irradiation as well as the individual transistor threshold voltage variability is measured in the SRAM array test structure. Irradiation tests show negligible impact on switching voltage and increase in the standby current less than 1.5% after 2 Mrad(Si). The effects on the cell margins are also analyzed. The specific SRAM cell layout, which uses a very low aspect ratio, is intended to minimize multibit upset of horizontally adjacent cells. This impact is also discussed with measured heavy ion results. View full abstract»

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  • Catastrophic Failure in Highly Scaled Commercial NAND Flash Memories

    Page(s): 266 - 271
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    Heavy ion single-event measurements on a variety of high density commercial NAND flash memories are reported. Three single event effect (SEE) phenomena were investigated: single effect upsets (SEUs), single effect functional interrupts (SEFIs), and a new high current phenomenon which at high LETs results in catastrophic loss of ability to erase and program the device. View full abstract»

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  • Use of Laser to Explain Heavy Ion Induced SEFIs in SDRAMs

    Page(s): 272 - 278
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    In this work, using heavy ion and pulsed laser tests on a 110 nm 256 Mbit SDRAM, different SEFI types and other logic-related radiation effects are studied and explained. Effects seen using heavy ions were reproduced and localized on the die with the laser. Among the effects, Fuse-Latch Upsets were found to be responsible of typical addressing errors and were more particularly investigated. Moreover, an unusual logic-related effect, called SET in Voltage Buffer, was induced using heavy ions, and localized afterward with the laser. Soft SEFI and Hard SEFI were also investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Worst-Case Test Conditions of SEGR for Power DMOSFETs

    Page(s): 279 - 287
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    Heavy ion test results show worst-case test conditions for single-event gate rupture (SEGR) of power MOSFETs. Contrary to common belief, the worst-case ion condition for SEGR is not the ion with the deepest penetration depth in the device or highest LET at the die surface, but the ion beams with Bragg peak positioned at or near the interface of the epitaxial layer and the highly doped substrate. The factors that have significant impact on SEGR thresholds are evaluated and discussed. The factors that are considered include: ion beam, drain bias, gate bias, ion species, ion range, surface LET and the construction layer of the power DMOSFET. An estimated worst-case ion range table for krypton, xenon and gold is provided for reference. View full abstract»

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  • Pixelated Readout Circuit for Pair-Monitor at International Linear Collider

    Page(s): 288 - 291
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The pair monitor measures the beam profile at the interaction point of the international linear collider. It extracts the information from the directional distribution of a large number of electron-positron pairs created by collision of bunches. The pairs are detected by pixel detectors placed close to the beam on both sides of the interaction point, and a readout ASIC that meets the stringent requirements has been developed. In order to measure the beam profile as a function of location within a train, and also to deal with the high hit rate, the pixel detector is read out in 16 time slices per bunch train. In this paper, we describe the design of the readout circuit and present the result of performance tests. View full abstract»

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  • A 10-bit Low-Power Small-Area High-Swing CMOS DAC

    Page(s): 292 - 299
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    The design and measurements of a prototype general purpose digital to analog converter for readout systems in high energy physics experiments are presented. The main goals for the proposed DAC are low power consumption, small die area and high-swing voltage output. The 10-bit DAC design is based on a current steering architecture which includes a high-swing class AB output amplifier. The prototype ASIC is fabricated using 2P-4M 0.35- ¿m technology. Measurements of maximum differential (DNL) and integral (INL) nonlinearity both show 0.42 LSB. The total power consumption is below 0.6 mW while the core area is 0.18 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Counting of Electrochemically Etched Tracks in Compact Discs. Application to Retrospective Measurements of Rn-222

    Page(s): 300 - 308
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    This work describes an algorithm for automatic counting of alpha tracks in scanned images of electrochemically etched CDs and DVDs. It is demonstrated that the algorithm copes with the specific problems encountered in retrospective 222Rn measurements with CDs and DVDs; it reliably separates overlapping tracks and ignores artifacts in the image. The algorithm is validated by comparison to manual counting and a very good correlation is found. The measurement range of 222Rn concentrations in dwellings and soil gas is estimated. It is shown that the wide span of track densities that can be covered by the algorithm combined with the specific advantages of the compact disc method can provide reliable measurements in the whole range of 222Rn concentrations of practical interest. For retrospective measurements of 222Rn in dwellings the estimated range is from 10 Bq/m3 to 100 kBq/m3 for five years exposure time. For 222Rn in soil gas the estimated range is from 1 kBq/m3 to 10 MBq/m3 for ten days exposure time. View full abstract»

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  • Low Count Anomaly Detection at Large Standoff Distances

    Page(s): 309 - 316
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    Searching for hidden illicit sources of gamma radiation in an urban environment is difficult. Background radiation profiles are variable and cluttered with transient acquisitions from naturally occurring radioactive materials and medical isotopes. Potentially threatening sources likely will be nearly hidden in this noise and encountered at high standoff distances and low threat count rates. We discuss an anomaly detection algorithm that characterizes low count sources as threatening or non-threatening and operates well in the presence of high benign source variability. We discuss the algorithm parameters needed to reliably find sources both close to the detector and far away from it. These parameters include the cutoff frequencies of background tracking filters and the integration time of the spectrometer. This work is part of the development of the Standoff Radiation Imaging System (SORIS) as part of DNDO's Standoff Radiation Detection System Advanced Technology Demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program. View full abstract»

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  • On the Search for Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Signatures of ^{235}{\rm U} and ^{238}{\rm U} Above 3 MeV

    Page(s): 317 - 322
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    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotope-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample that is exposed to MeV-energy photons. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials such as 235U. We conducted a pair of measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U above 3 MeV and of 238U above 5 MeV using an 8 g sample of highly enriched uranium and a 90 g sample of depleted uranium. No new signatures were observed. The minimum detectable integrated cross section for 235U varies from 4 eV b at 3 MeV up to 120 eV b at 8 MeV. View full abstract»

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  • First Measurements of the Inclined Boron Layer Thermal-Neutron Detector for Reflectometry

    Page(s): 323 - 327
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    A prototype detector based on the inclined boron layer principle is introduced. For typical measurement conditions at the Liquids Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, its count rate capability is shown to be superior to that of the current detector by nearly two orders of magnitude. View full abstract»

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  • Dissipation-Based High Gain Filter for Monitoring Nuclear Reactors

    Page(s): 328 - 339
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    Growing electricity requirement and the serious pollution caused by burning petroleum and coal give the current rebirth of nuclear energy industry. State observation is one of the key and basic technologies of system monitoring which is very necessary to the safe and effective operation of today's nuclear reactors. Since nuclear reactors are complex and nonlinear systems, it is quite necessary to design a nonlinear state-observer with high-performance for nuclear reactors. A dissipation-based high gain filter (DHGF) is presented for nonlinear systems in this paper, and robustness analysis is also given. The DHGF is then applied to the state-observation for a nuclear heating reactor (NHR), and simulation results show the feasibility of the DHGF. View full abstract»

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  • Smart Soft-Sensing for the Feedwater Flowrate at PWRs Using a GMDH Algorithm

    Page(s): 340 - 347
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    The thermal reactor power in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is typically assessed using secondary system calorimetric calculations based on accurate measurements of the feedwater flowrate. Therefore, precise measurements of the feedwater flowrate are essential. In most PWRs, Venturi meters are used to measure the feedwater flowrate. However, the fouling phenomena of the Venturi meter deteriorate the accuracy of the existing hardware sensors. Consequently, it is essential to resolve the inaccurate measurements of the feedwater flowrate. In this study, in order to estimate the feedwater flowrate online with high precision, a smart soft sensing model for monitoring the feedwater flowrate was developed using a group method of data handling (GMDH) algorithm combined with a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). The uncertainty of the GMDH model was also analyzed. The proposed sensing and monitoring algorithm was verified using the acquired real plant data from Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3. View full abstract»

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  • A Physics-Based Engineering Methodology for Calculating Soft Error Rates of Bulk CMOS and SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Integrated Circuits

    Page(s): 348 - 357
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a new methodology for characterizing the electrical behavior and soft error rate (SER) of CMOS and SiGe HBT integrated circuits that are struck by ions. A typical engineering design problem is to calculate the SER of a critical path that commonly includes several circuits such as an input buffer, several logic gates, logic storage, clock tree circuitry, and an output buffer. Using multiple 3D TCAD simulations to solve this problem is too costly and time-consuming for general engineering use. The new and simple methodology handles the problem with ease by simple SPICE simulations. The methodology accurately predicts the measured threshold linear energy transfer (LET) of a bulk CMOS SRAM. It solves for circuit currents and voltage spikes that are close to those predicted by expensive 3D TCAD simulations. It accurately predicts the measured event cross-section vs. LET curve of an experimental SiGe HBT flip-flop. The experimental cross section vs. frequency behavior and other subtle effects are also accurately predicted. View full abstract»

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  • Modification of the LM124 Single Event Transients by Load Resistors

    Page(s): 358 - 365
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    The influence of a load resistor on the shape of the single event transients was investigated in the LM124 operational amplifier by means of laser tests. These experiments indicated that, as a general rule, load resistors modify the size of the transients. SPICE simulations helped to understand the reasons of this behavior and showed that the distortion is related to the necessity of providing or absorbing current from the load resistor, which forces the amplifier to modify its operation point. Finally, load effects were successfully used to explain the distortion of single event transients in typical feed-back networks and the results were used to explain experimental data reported elsewhere. View full abstract»

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  • Dose Distribution in Cone-Beam Breast Computed Tomography: An Experimental Phantom Study

    Page(s): 366 - 374
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We measured the spatial distribution of absorbed dose in a 14 cm diameter PMMA half-ellipsoid phantom simulating the uncompressed breast, using an X-ray cone-beam breast computed tomography apparatus, assembled for laboratory tests. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were placed inside the phantom in six positions, both axially and at the phantom periphery. To study the dose distribution inside the PMMA phantom two experimental setups were adopted with effective energies in the range 28.7-44.4 keV. Different values of effective energies were obtained by combining different configurations of added Cu filtration (0.05 mm or 0.2 mm) and tube voltages (from 50 kVp to 80 kVp). Dose values obtained by TLDs in different positions inside the PMMA are reported. To evaluate the dose distribution in the breast shaped volume, the values measured were normalized to the one obtained in the inner position inside the phantom. Measurements with a low energy setup show a gradual increment of dose going from the "chest wall" to the "nipple" (63% more at the "nipple" compared to the central position). Likewise, a gradual increment is observed going from the breast axis toward the periphery (82% more at the "skin" compared to the central position). A more uniform distribution of dose inside the PMMA was obtained with a high energy setup (the maximum variation was 33% at 35.5 keV effective energy in the radial direction). The most uniform distribution is obtained at 44.4 keV. The results of this study show how the dose is distributed: it varies as a function of effective energy of the incident X-ray beam and as a function of the position inside the volume (axial or peripheral position). View full abstract»

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  • Further Study of Boron-10 Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Detection of Fast and Thermal Neutrons

    Page(s): 375 - 380
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    Boron-10 loaded liquid scintillators were studied in order to improve n/¿ separation. Pulse shape discrimination (PSD) was implemented by means of a zero-crossing (ZC) method to distinguish between ¿-rays and fast/slow neutrons. Significant progress was done for BC523A2 and EJ339A2 scintillators loaded with reduced amount of 10B (2% and 2.5%, respectively), as compared to the results obtained earlier with BC523A loaded with 4.4% of 10B. The improvement was probably caused by the reduction of 10B content, as indicated in the reported study. A 10B loaded scintillator EJ309B5 based on non-flammable liquid was also studied, showing the best separation of thermal neutron capture events from fast neutrons, ¿-rays and noise. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor Using SOI Technology With a Thick Device Layer

    Page(s): 381 - 386
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    Monolithic active pixel detectors fabricated in SOI (silicon on insulator) technology are novel sensors of ionizing radiation which exploit SOI substrates for the integration of readout electronics with a pixel detector. The fully-depleted sensing diode is manufactured under the SOI buried oxide (BOX) in the volume of the `handle wafer', while readout circuitry occupies the upper silicon SOI `device layer'. However, the initial prototypes suffered from significant leakage currents and early breakdown of pixel diodes. These effects limited the production yield. Moreover, the p-wells within the device layer extended to the interface with the BOX, which caused some local potential wells below the BOX at the top of the depleted sensor area. As a result, the effective charge collection efficiency was significantly decreased. This paper describes a solution for these problems employing a thicker 4 ¿m SOI device layer. The use of this detector structure has increased the effective charge collection efficiency to over 99%. View full abstract»

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  • Synchrotron Tests of a 3D Medipix2 X-Ray Detector

    Page(s): 387 - 394
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    Three-dimensional (3D) photodiode detectors offer advantages over standard planar photodiodes in a range of applications, including X-ray detection for synchrotrons and medical imaging. The principal advantage of these sensors for X-ray imaging is their low charge sharing between adjacent pixels, which could improve spatial and spectral resolution. A 'double-sided' 3D detector has been bonded to a Medipix2 single-photon-counting readout chip, and tested in a monochromatic X-ray beam at the Diamond synchrotron. Tests of the 3D detector's response spectrum and its Line Spread Function have shown that it has substantially lower charge sharing than a standard planar Medipix2 sensor. Additionally, the 3D detector was used to image diffraction rings produced by a powdered silicon sample, demonstrating the detector's use in a standard synchrotron experiment. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement of the Productivity in the THM Growth of CdTe Single Crystal as Nuclear Radiation Detector

    Page(s): 395 - 399
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    The effect of the THM growth rate on the CdTe crystalline quality and the detector performance was intensively investigated. The maximum growth rate for the single crystal growth was found to be approximately 15 mm/day which was 3 times greater than the conventional one. By optimizing other growth conditions, 90% of every ingot volume has become a single crystal. Te inclusions in the CdTe single crystal grown at various growth rates were also investigated by IR transmission microscopy. There was no correlation between the behavior of Te inclusions and the growth rate. The detector performance was also independent of the growth rate. Taking advantage of the large volume CdTe single crystals, about 700 000 Schottky detectors with 4 mm × 7.5 mm × 1 mm were fabricated for the research and development of the new positron emission tomography (PET) system using CdTe detectors. The average FWHM for the 662 keV line from 137Cs and its standard deviation were 2.24% and 0.48%, respectively. This uniformity was essential for the development of the new PET system. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Foundation [advertisement]

    Page(s): 400
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science information for authors

    Page(s): C3
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  • Affiliate Plan of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society [advertisement]

    Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science focuses on all aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.

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