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IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Guest Editorial

    Publication Year: 1975
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  • An Overview of Economies of Scale in Existing Communications Systems

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):2 - 14
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2532 KB)

    This paper defines ``economies of scale'' and its measure, together with related cost concepts, including first, annual, equated, and long-range incremental costs. New partial first cost functions are suggested for subscriber loops, switching, transmission, and multiplex systems, and how these may be fitted together to acquire perspective at the system level is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Relations Between Public Policy Issues and Economies of Scale

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):14 - 22
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2155 KB)

    Notions of economies of scale have always played a unique role in public policy formation, although most often implicity rather than explicitly. It is the cornerstone of the theory of natural monopoly and provides the primary justification for direct government regulation of telecommunications common carriers. The relations between the technical economic concept of economies of scale and current p... View full abstract»

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  • Some Estimates of Returns to Scale in the Telephone Industry

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):23 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1664 KB)

    By estimating production functions from statistical data on the telephone industry, it is possible to calculate coefficients that indicate probable levels of returns to scale. Two different production functions are employed, later suitably modified to take account of technological change, and input requirements functions are calculated. An attempt is made to describe average cost curves. The regre... View full abstract»

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  • Economies of Scale, Networks, and Network Cost Elasticity

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):30 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2143 KB)

    A foundation for examining network economy of scale effects is presented. A natural measure of the network scale effect is the network cost elasticity e, defined as the ratio of the fractional decrease in network average cost per circuit mile to the fractional increase in total circuit miles carried by the network. The maximum scale effect is given by e = 1 while e = 0 signifies no scale effect. T... View full abstract»

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  • The Economics of New Information Networks

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):40 - 43
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)

    The entities providing value-added network (VAN) service make the implicit assumption that by leasing private lines from the telephone carriers, they can make more efficient use of the lines than can the telephone carriers. If this is proven true, the VAN's should have scale economies at network sizes much smaller than the telephone network, while achieving other desirable technical and economic p... View full abstract»

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  • The Impact of Organization Size on Employee Motivation

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):43 - 45
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    Behavioral factors in the economies of providing communications services are known to be very important, but they are essentially unquantified. What is known about some of the factors and relationships among them that do affect the economies of scale, particularly in the area of employee motivation, is reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Modern Control Concepts in Hydrology

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):46 - 53
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1403 KB)

    Two approaches to an identification problem in hydrology are presented, based upon concepts from modern control and estimation theory. The first approach treats the identification of unknown parameters in a hydrologic system subject to noisy inputs as an adaptive linear stochastic control problem; the second approach alters the model equation to account for the random part in the inputs, and then ... View full abstract»

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  • A Multilevel Approach to Planning for Capacity Expansion in Water Resource Systems

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):53 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2176 KB)

    Supply and demand models are developed as aids in planning future water resource expenditures. The supply model yields least-cost schedules of projects to meet assumed levels of demand. The demand model, conversely, allocates available water supplies within a regional input-output economy to most efficiently utilize the available resource. As more and more water is made available at various future... View full abstract»

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  • An Inverse Optimal Control Problem and Its Application to the Choice of Performance Index for Economic Stabilization Policy

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):64 - 76
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2397 KB)

    The specification of a performance criterion is one of the basic requirements for the formal analysis of quantitative decision processes. A procedure of quantitatively selecting the performance index for economic stabilization policy by solving the so-called inverse optimal control problem is developed. When a closed-loop system with a known control policy is given, the inverse optimal control pro... View full abstract»

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  • A Learning System with the Ability to Grasp Its Situation

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):76 - 83
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1500 KB)

    This paper reports a machine that is able to respond correctly to inputs having multiple meanings by grasping its situation. Unlike the conventional learning systems, the machine models the context relation between input patterns by a learning process. The machine can grasp its situation by the use of the modeled context relation, and hence it can respond correctly. To be concrete, the machine can... View full abstract»

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  • Optimization Strategies in Adaptive Control: A Selective Survey

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):83 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2587 KB)

    A great number of techniques have been applied to the general problem of adaptive control. What began as a study of engineering adaptive control problems involving dynamics, system and measurement noise, monitoring, transduction, and on-line instrumentation seems to have moved towards learning theory and methodology research that uses a refined plant/environment model as a vehicle of demonstration... View full abstract»

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  • Grammatical Inference: Introduction and Survey - Part I

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):95 - 111
    Cited by:  Papers (56)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2852 KB)

    The problem of grammatical inference is introduced, and its potential engineering applications are demonstrated. Inference algorithms for finite-state and context-free grammars are presented. The application of some of the algorithms to the inference of pattern grammars in syntactic pattern recognition is illustrated by examples. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Optimal Control and Optimal Regulator Theory to the ``Integrated'' Control of Insect Pests

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):111 - 116
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1031 KB)

    ``Integrated'' control of pest species refers to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological actions for purposes of regulation. Attempts at the theoretical optimization of pest control exist in the literature (find seven such studies cited in the reference section). These studies have been analytical studies with simplified models or have been dynamic programming studies with low-order mo... View full abstract»

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  • System Interaction Measures

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):116 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1580 KB)

    Interaction measures are presented that use the parameters of the controlled process to quantify interactions between controls and subsystems. The notions introduced include a basic measure of interaction, a measure of the ``distance'' (lack of interaction) between controls (subsystems), a measure of control (subsystem) ``leverage'' (relative importance of parameters in affecting a control or subs... View full abstract»

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  • A Spatial Resolution Measure of Cutaneous Vision

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):124 - 125
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (522 KB)

    An experiment was designed to measure the spatial resolution of a visual prosthetic. Blind subjects were instructed to identify from tactile stimulation the orientation of grated targets of specific spatial frequencies. The bandwidth of the probability of correct detection of orientation versus the spatial frequency is taken as a measure of the system resolution. For a 20° field of view, the equi... View full abstract»

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  • A Clustering and Data-Reorganizing Algorithm

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):125 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (802 KB)

    A clustering and data-reorganizing algorithm based on the concept of the shortest spanning path of a graph is given. This algorithm can be used to reorganize and/or cluster a large file of data. View full abstract»

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  • A Sequential Nonparametric Pattern Classification Algorithm Based on the Wald SPRT

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):128 - 134
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1598 KB)

    A sequential nonparametric pattern classification procedure is presented. The method presented is an estimated version of the Wald sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). This method utilizes density function estimates, and the density estimate used is discussed, including a proof of convergence in probability of the estimate to the true density function. The classification procedure proposed ma... View full abstract»

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  • Finite Fading Memory Filtering

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):134 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)

    The ``fading memory'' filter of Sorenson and the ``finite memory'' filter of Jazwinski are rigorously tied together. The resultant linear filter is shown to be sequential embodying the salient advantages of the fading and finite policies. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis for a General Automaton with Distinguishable Receptors and Effectors

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):137 - 140
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB)

    In previous work the jth automaton of a system of interactive automata was treated as a black box containing a stimulus processor that received stimuli and produced responses. Here the automaton is broken down into greater structural detail, making the receptors and effectors distinguishable from the stimulus processor. The sets of stimuli and triadic responses remain observed sets over a moment b... View full abstract»

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  • Comments on "A Quantitative Theory of Criminal Justice" -Walking the Line in Societal Engineering

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):140 - 141
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    Not infrequently, societal engineers are accused of neglecting human values and of proposing impractical solutions to oversimplified problems. Sometimes this criticism is invited, and perhaps justified, by a tendency to go too far, too fast, in the modeling of complex social systems. As an example, these comments consider some possible reactions to Rabow's model of criminal justice. View full abstract»

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  • Some Thoughts on Dreyfus' ``Critique of Artificial Reason''

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):141 - 145
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1358 KB)

    Dreyfus' two major arguments against an optimistic view on artificial intelligence are: 1) failure of artificial intelligence during the period 1957-1967 to achieve the initial promises, and 2) wrong assumptions underlying the optimistic view on artificial intelligence. It is shown that neither argument is a valid one. His suggestions for alternative views are sometimes interesting, but present no... View full abstract»

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  • Book Reviews

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):145 - 153
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1975, Page(s):154 - 156
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    Freely Available from IEEE