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Systems, Man and Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1975

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Displaying Results 1 - 17 of 17
  • Economic-Enviromental Power Dispatch

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 485 - 489
    Cited by:  Papers (39)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1018 KB)  

    A revised dispatch procedure for power is described that meets the demand for energy while accounting for both cost and emission considerations. First, a tradeoff curve, representing all alternative dispatch policies, is derived for each demand level. Since air pollution damage is a function of the spatial distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere, an air pollution diffusion model is utilized in order to evaluate each dispatch policy on the tradeoff curve from an air impact point of view. Under the postulate of rational behavior, the utility function of the decision maker can be described by a quasi-concave function whose maximum point is found among points on the tradeoff curve. An interactive search method, based on the golden section search technique, is then devised in order to guide the decision maker toward finding the dispatch policy that maximizes his utility function. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Driver-Vehicle Multiloop Response Properties with a Single Disturbance Input

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 490 - 497
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1377 KB)  

    Multiloop response properties of controllers are, in general, very difficult to obtain because an independent forcing function is needed for each describing function to be measured, and interpolation procedures may be required to obtain intermediate describing functions at common frequencies. Even then, a certain amount of untangling is required before the final results are obtained. When the loops that are closed and the nature of the describing function forms adopted in each loop are known or hypothesized, matters can be made much simpler. Then, the quantitative values of the individual describing functions can be readily identified using appropriate closed-loop describing function measures and decomposition procedures. Two examples are provided for the measurement of driver-vehicle multiloop response properties using a single disturbance input. The validity of the procedure is based on current multiloop operator adjustment rules and is made plausible by comparison with experimental data. View full abstract»

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  • Alcohol Effects on Driving Behavior and Performance in a Car Simulator

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 498 - 505
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1552 KB)  

    A fixed-base simulation has been developed to test the effect of alcohol on driving performance. The simulation includes both lateral steering control and a discrete visual detection, recognition, and response task set up to provide the workload and division of attention typical of real world driving. Measurements of both driver control behavior and driver-vehicle performance were obtained for the steering task, and detection and recognition indexes and reaction time were measured on the discrete task. Preliminary results on scanning behavior as measured with an eye-point-of-regard monitor are also presented. Data are given for eighteen drivers, ranging in age from 21-65, at blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.06, and 0.11. Alcohol causes larger lane and heading deviations, and increases detection and reaction times on the discrete task. Control-behavior measures show that the driver's control gain decreases, but stability margins are maintained under alcohol, while driver remnant increases. Such effects could be due to indifference thresholds and/or intermittent attention in the control task. Both continuous steering control and discrete peripheral ``sign'' response tasks were performed, singly and combined, to investigate the effects of divided attention. Performance on the steering control task was decreased when both tasks were done concurrently, but the sensitivity to alcohol effects was similar. The driving simulation has proven an efficient tool for alcohol research. It has gained acceptance from subjects as a valid approximation of driving, and the various related measurements have proven to be reliable and sensitive to levels of intoxication. View full abstract»

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  • The Application of Human Operator Describing Functions to Studies on the Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Human Performance

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 506 - 519
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3310 KB)  

    Two projects have been carried out to study the application of human operator describing functions in the investigation of the influence of drugs (alcohol and marijuana) on subjects performing a compensatory visual-manual tracking task. The describing functions were measured through the application of power spectral density techniques to the signals circulating in the control loop. A range of drug dosages was employed which included alcohol alone, marijuana alone, and a combined dose of marijuana and alcohol. Significant alterations in the describing functions were observed and interpreted as changes in amplitude, phase, and operator injected noise (remnant). Linear models fitted to the raw describing function data are used to summarize the observed trends in the human operator's dynamic characteristics. The results provide an insight into the changes in human performance produced by alcohol and marijuana. View full abstract»

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  • A Mathematical Theory of Man-Machine Document Assembly

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 520 - 526
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1160 KB)  

    A mathematical model of document assembly using a computerized word processing system is introduced. In this process the operator prepares a typed document by assembling it from segments of text which are either retrieved from a file and copied on to the document or retyped by the operator. This model is used to obtain the optimal operation strategy, and the expected processing time as a function of the document's length and the man-machine parameters. Based on these results, some criteria are suggested for evaluating alternative word processors with respect to this application and for determining tradeoffs involved in designing such systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Real-Time Stereoscopic Small-Computer Graphics Display System

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 527 - 533
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3613 KB)  

    A brief review of the principles of stereoscopy is given followed by a discussion of candidate methods for providing stereoscopic viewing of display data. An analog computer implementation of a stereoscopic graphics display system is described. The analog implementation provides real-time display capability but has no data storage capability. Implementation with a small digital computer provides data storage but is significantly slower for displaying dynamic changes in the data. Other points of comparison between the two systems are given with the conclusion that a hybrid system would combine good features of both. Experimental evaluation relative to eye fatigue is given for three specific viewing techniques. Example stereograms are given for both the digital and analog systems. Of particular interest was application of the display system for viewing biomedical data, as illustrated by an example display of a vectorcardiogram. View full abstract»

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  • Discrimination of Neural Coding Parameters in the Auditory System

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 533 - 542
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1773 KB)  

    The discriminability of small changes in amplitude and frequency of a pure tone auditory stimulus is examined in terms of statistical estimators of neural coding parameters. The neural spike train encoding process is described in terms of a multimodal histogram of interspike intervals. Such a multimodal process has the important property that both stimulus amplitude and stimulus frequency can be encoded in the same spike train. Performance of the neural coding parameters is evaluated using the Cramér-Rao bound as a measure of discriminability of statistical estimators. The dependence of the Weber fraction for stimulus frequency and stimulus amplitude is derived as a function of frequency, amplitude, and observation interval. These results are compared to results of psychophysical experiments. It is concluded that while statistical estimates based on one primary auditory nerve fiber would be insufficient to account for psychophysical performance, estimates based on about 10-12 fibers sampled in parallel would be sufficient. View full abstract»

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  • Observations on the Duration of Ph.D. Programs

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 543 - 544
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)  

    A statistical distribution is reported for the lengths of Ph.D. programs from which are derived functions analogous to those of elementary reliability theory. These show that the anticipated future duration of these research programs does not decrease uniformly, so that there are diminishing returns from further work almost to the point where the expected date of completion remains a constant distance in the future. View full abstract»

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  • ROBNAV: A Range-Based Robot Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 544 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1641 KB)  

    An algorithm has been developed that efficiently solves a large class of robot navigation and obstacle avoidance problems using range information as its sole input from the environment. The system resides in a minicomputer and requires very small memory (1500 words) and computing time (1.35 s) allocations while solving simulated problems of broadly ranging spatial complexity and operational intricacy. It is thus a prime candidate for use in mobile robots or manipulators where real-time operation is desired. View full abstract»

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  • Learning for Unknown Signal Pattern with Feedback Link

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 552 - 557
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1044 KB)  

    An on¿off sequence of an unknown signal pattern that is time-varying or fixed is dealt with. The optimum analogue feedback signal is obtained, which minimizes the average energy transmitted in the forward direction. The nonsupervised situation is also discussed. The effectiveness of the feedback method over the nonfeedback method is twice for the typical case. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of Pseudorandom Numbers with Specified Univariate Distributions and Correlation Coefficients

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 557 - 561
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (945 KB)  

    This correspondence presents a procedure for generating correlated random variables with specified non-Gaussian probability distribution functions (pdf's) such as might be required for Monte Carlo simulation studies. Specifically, a method is presented for generating an arbitrary number of pseudorandom numbers each with a prescribed probability distribution and with a prescribed correlation coefficient matrix for the collection of random numbers. Collections of typical numbers generated with the method are evaluated with chi-squared tests for the distribution functions and with confidence intervals for the correlation coefficients derived from maximum likelihood estimates. In all cases tested the generated numbers passed the tests. View full abstract»

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  • Orienting Mechanical Parts by Computer-Controlled Manipulator

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 561 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (27)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3558 KB)  

    In order to assemble mechanical parts which are initially disordered, a computer-controlled manipulator needs some procedure for orienting these parts. An apparatus is described which assists the manipulator in performing this function. The device is a dihedrally tipped open box attached to a vibrator. When placed in the box, a typical mechanical part assumes one of a small finite number of possible orientations. Once the particular orientation is established, the manipulator shifts the part into the desired orientation. View full abstract»

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  • A Flow-Graph Formula for the Stationary Distribution of a Markov Chain

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 565 - 566
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB)  

    It is shown that a stationary distribution of a regular Markov chain can be obtained directly from its transition graph. The technique is similar to signal flow-graph methods, however, it uses trees of the graph rather than loops. The proof is direct and simple. View full abstract»

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  • Contributors

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): 567 - 569
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): nil1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 1975 , Page(s): c2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (26 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE