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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1964

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Speech Synthesis from Stored Data

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 2 - 12
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB)  

    The synthesis of speech by joining together segments derived from natural speech has not proven to be satisfactory with segments smaller than words, especially because of discontinuities in pitch and formant frequencies at the junctions. It appears that segmentation of the control signals for an analog synthesizer may avoid these difficulties. This paper describes an experimental system to investigate this method. A library of synthesizer control signals corresponding to subword segments of speech is now being developed. The equipment used to generate the library of control signals, as well as that used to synthesize connected speech from the library, is described. The synthesizer is a transistorized terminal analog of the cascade type. The synthesizer control signals are originally derived from functions drawn on a transparent plastic belt with opaque tape and scanned by a CRT and photomultiplier. The control signal functions are varied until the speech segment being studied is satisfactory. The resulting control signals corresponding to the speech segment are then automatically digitized and recorded on punched cards for addition to the library. Connected speech may be generated by computer assembly of the synthesizer control signals corresponding to a sequence of speech segments. In the assembly of connected speech from the library segments, pitch and timing may be specified independently of the sequence of segments if desired. View full abstract»

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  • Attenuation of a Magnetic Field by a Superconductor

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 13 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (514 KB)  

    Observation of magnetic ac field penetration through superconducting tin films has led to the discovery of a 180° phase shift between the magnetic fields on either side of the film under favorable conditions. This result has so far been published only in a short note, and the present paper presents a detailed description of the experimental technique. A more quantitative discussion, with emphasis on the physical aspects of field attenuation in superconductors, will be published in a future paper. View full abstract»

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  • On Some Clustering Techniques

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 22 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB)  

    The problem of organizing a large mass of data occurs frequently in research. Normally, some process of generalization is used to compress the data so that it can be analyzed more easily. A primitive step in this process is the “clustering” technique, which involves gathering together similar data into a cluster to permit a significant generalization. This paper describes a number of methods which make use of IBM 7090 computer programs to do clustering. A medical research problem is used to illustrate and compare these methods. View full abstract»

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  • A Vestigial-Sideband, Phase-Reversal Data Transmission System

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 33 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)  

    A new method of carrier retrieval is described for a suppressed-carrier, vestigial-sideband data transmission system. Tests over voice grade telephone lines indicate that operation at 3000 bits per second (in some cases, 3600 bps) can be obtained reliably over private lines with simple adjustable equalization, whereas fixed compromise equalization will allow speeds up to 2400 bps over a large percentage of lines in the switched network. The possibility of higher speed operation using a multilevel data signal is demonstrated by tests at 6000 and 8000 bps over a carefully equalized private line. View full abstract»

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  • Nondestructive Determination of Thickness and Refractive Index of Transparent Films

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 43 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB)  

    A simple nondestructive method of measuring the refractive index and thickness of transparent films on reflective substrates has been developed. The technique involves the use of a microscope equipped with a monochromatic filter on the objective and a stage that can be rotated so that the reflected light is observed at various angles. The film thickness, d, is given by d = [ΔNλ]/[2µ(cos r2 − cos r1)], where λ is the wavelength of the filtered light, µ is the refractive index, and ΔN is the number of fringes observed between the angles of refraction r2 and r1. This technique is especially suited for films thicker than one micron. Techniques are also described for obtaining accurate thicknesses of films less than one micron by the combined use of monochromatic filters and an interference pattern chart. These techniques can be used to determine film thicknesses ranging from several hundred angstroms to several microns with accuracies of 0.2% on films thicker than 2µ, and accuracies of tens of angstroms on thinner films. Since visual comparisons of color can be used fairly easily for film thickness determinations, the techniques were used to construct a color chart for thermally grown SiO2 films up to 1.5µ thick. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission-Line Response Using Frequency Techniques

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 52 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB)  

    Frequency-domain analysis of transmission-line pulse response is presented. A computer program is used to evaluate the response, using subroutines to describe the line characteristics and terminal conditions. The program is applicable to lines of any cross section in which the TEM mode of propagation exists. The line characteristics are obtained from either formula prediction or frequency measurements on small samples. Because of skin effects or complex geometry, these characteristics can be extremely difficult to calculate, and so an experimental procedure is adopted for determining these parameters. The computer-program results are compared to measured values. View full abstract»

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  • A Fast, Digital-Indexed Light Deflector

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 64 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB)  

    The device described in this paper is capable of positioning a light beam to any one out of, say, 1000 linearly arranged positions. The light beam is controlled by electric signals applied to electro-optic switches. The deflection is performed in either one or two dimensions. The positions are digitally indexed, thus allowing a high-speed-random access to each position. The locations of the positions are determined by the geometric design; therefore they are independent of the amplitude of the control signal and do not follow its fluctuations. The deflected light beam can originate from any source, and the light absorption in the deflector is reasonably small. Thus, when using a laser source, the outcoming beam can be very bright. The contrast ratio of the brightness in switched and unswitched positions is about 100 to 1. The maximum deflection rate depends on the allowable power dissipation in the electro-optic switches. A deflection rate of 2 × 106 deflections per second seems feasible. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on a Class of Binary Cyclic Codes Which Correct Solid-Burst Errors [Letter to the Editor]

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 68 - 69
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IBM Technical Papers Published Recently in Other Journals

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 70 - 80
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (643 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent IBM Patents

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 81 - 82
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (204 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1964 , Page(s): 83 - 84
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (228 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center