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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1967

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • The IBM System/360 Model 91: Some Remarks on System Development

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 2 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (11)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (391 KB)  

    The primary goal of the System/360 Model 91 development program was to produce the highest performance capability that advanced design philosophy and extensions of System/360 circuit technology could achieve, within a balanced development schedule. “Performance,” as used here, means general computer availability and high-speed execution of general problem programs. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM System/360 Model 91: Machine Philosophy and Instruction-Handling

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 8 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (70)  |  Patents (47)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (932 KB)  

    The System/360 Model 91 central processing unit provides internal computational performance one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of the IBM 7090 Data Processing System through a combination of advancements in machine organization, circuit design, and hardware packaging. The circuits employed will switch at speeds of less than 3 nsec, and the circuit environment is such that delay is approximately 5 nsec per circuit level. Organizationally, primary emphasis is placed on (1) alleviating the disparity between storage time and circuit speed, and (2) the development of high speed floating-point arithmetic algorithms. This paper deals mainly with item (1) of the organization. A design is described which improves the ratio of storage bandwidth and access time to cycle time through the use of storage interleaving and CPU buffer registers. It is shown that history recording (the retention of complete instruction loops in the CPU) reduces the need to exercise storage, and that sophisticated employment of buffering techniques has reduced the effective access time. The system is organized so that execution hardware is separated from the instruction unit; the resulting smaller, semiautonomous “packages” improve intra-area communication. View full abstract»

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  • An Efficient Algorithm for Exploiting Multiple Arithmetic Units

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 25 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (186)  |  Patents (136)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (563 KB)  

    This paper describes the methods employed in the floating-point area of the System/360 Model 91 to exploit the existence of multiple execution units. Basic to these techniques is a simple common data busing and register tagging scheme which permits simultaneous execution of independent instructions while preserving the essential precedences inherent in the instruction stream. The common data bus improves performance by efficiently utilizing the execution units without requiring specially optimized code. Instead, the hardware, by ‘looking ahead’ about eight instructions, automatically optimizes the program execution on a local basis. The application of these techniques is not limited to floating-point arithmetic or System/360 architecture. It may be used in almost any computer having multiple execution units and one or more ‘accumulators.’ Both of the execution units, as well as the associated storage buffers, multiple accumulators and input/output buses, are extensively checked. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM System/360 Model 91: Floating-Point Execution Unit

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 34 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (82)  |  Patents (28)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (978 KB)  

    The principal requirement for the Model 91 floating-point execution unit was that it be designed to support the instruction-issuing rate of the processor. The chosen solution was to develop separate, instruction-oriented algorithms for the add, multiply, and divide functions. Linked together by the floating-point instruction unit, the multiple execution units provide concurrent instruction execution at the burst rate of one instruction per cycle. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM System/360 Model 91: Storage System

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 54 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB)  

    This paper discusses the design concepts employed in the development of the IBM System/360 Model 91 storage system. Particular attention is paid to the exploitation of System/360 capabilities in the areas of large storage capacity, concurrent operation, and flexibility, as they apply to the highly overlapped Model 91 system. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a High-Speed Transistor for the ASLT Current Switch

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 69 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB)  

    The evolution of a high-speed current switch transistor design is described from initial design considerations through final optimization of horizontal geometry. It was found that a very narrow geometry was desirable, in order to produce the desired low base resistance (∼40 Ω). Other characteristics of this design include low capacitance, well-controlled emitter forward voltage, and high-frequency cutoff. Compatibility with the SLT form factor assures manufacturability. This transistor when used in ASLT circuits yields circuit delays of 1.8 nsec. View full abstract»

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  • ASLT Circuit Design

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 74 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (646 KB)  

    The full switching-speed potential of high performance transistors is difficult to realize in a current switch configuration because of the instability which exists when many circuits are interconnected in a system. With a phase compensating network in the emitter current source, however, it has been possible to design a stable circuit using 1 Gc/sec transistors. Design techniques and engineering aspects of the circuit which result in a 5-nsec in-the-environment propagation delay are described. Particular attention is given to the dc design, stability analysis, switching performance, evaluation and specification of the circuit. View full abstract»

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  • ASLT: An Extension of Hybrid Miniaturization Techniques

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 86 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB)  

    The hybrid miniaturization technique of applying active and passive components separately to a packaging substrate enables independent customization of components and minimizes stray capacitance between components. Manufacturing advantages result because all components can be pretested, and the critical component joining operation can be performed as a continuous operation. This paper describes IBM's Advanced Solid Logic Technology (ASLT) wherein the capabilities of hybrid circuit technology have been extended to produce a high-speed, high-density digital logic module compatible with automated production. Design considerations and assembly processes are detailed. A development of the power handling capability reviews the various thermal paths within the module. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Wall Creeping in Thin Magnetic Films

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 93 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB)  

    Domain wall creeping in thin magnetic Ni-Fe films has been studied as a function of the film thickness, field pulse amplitude, duration and repetition frequency, and bias fields in the hard direction. The experimental results are reviewed and compared with the three existing theories, which ascribe wall creeping to a) Bloch line motion, b) wall structure changes, and c) changing magnetic charges along the walls, respectively. Based on the first theory, methods are indicated by which a reduction of creep sensitivity of magnetic films might be obtained. View full abstract»

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  • A Rapid Method for Determining Compound Composition of Cement Clinker: Application to Closed Loop Kiln Control

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 106 - 113
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB)  

    A procedure for determination of phase composition of commercial cement clinker using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis is described. An external standard and comparison of peak heights rather than the peak areas are used for rapid analysis. Several standard curves were prepared using diffraction patterns from known mixtures of previously prepared pure components which exist in cement clinker. For purposes of comparison, both the suggested external standard method and the internal standard method which is generally accepted for quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis were used. It was found that the faster external standard method gives analysis of important clinker constituents with accuracy adequate for quality control in a cement plant. With the use of suggested grinding procedure and an automatic sample changer attachment to standard X-ray diffraction equipment, it is possible to obtain an on-line analysis of clinker in one half hour. This analysis can then be deployed in performing closed loop control of a cement kiln with a proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • On the Necessity to Examine D-Chains in Diagnostic Test Generation—An Example [Letter to the Editor]

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 114
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (177 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Technical Papers by IBM Authors Published Recently in Other Journals

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 115 - 121
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 122 - 124
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 125 - 127
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (281 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous two issues

    Publication Year: 1967 , Page(s): 128 - 129
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (233 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center