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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1968

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Displaying Results 1 - 22 of 22
  • The IBM SELECTRIC® Composer: A Foreword

    Page(s): 2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The IBM SELECTRIC® Composer: Philosophy of Composer Design

    Page(s): 3 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (304 KB)  

    The IBM SELECTRIC® Composer is a new kind of printing machine, much like a typewriter. This paper outlines the philosophy of design of the significant systems and mechanisms within the Composer and the primary elements needed to satisfy composition requirements, i.e., good print quality in a variety of classical type styles and sizes; variable vertical line spacing; justification; and an output of final copy that can be judged subjectively by printing experts and laymen alike. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: The Evolution of Composition Technology

    Page(s): 9 - 14
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    In this paper a discussion is presented on how the IBM SELECTRIC® Composer fits into the evolution of composition technology—from the calligraphers of the Middle Ages to the modern photocomposers. The advantages and limitations of the machine are discussed briefly with emphasis being placed on their meaning for the typographer. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Letter Keyboard

    Page(s): 15 - 25
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    This paper describes the design of the letter keyboard for the IBM SELECTRIC® Composer. The design requirements were to provide an information transfer mechanism not only for character selection using the SELECTRIC Typewriter printing system, but also for proportional escapement selection and print impact velocity control. The keyboard was required to be exceptionally reliable, to have the positive SELECTRIC Typewriter touch characteristics, and to be consistent with the keyboard layout standards that are familiar to the operator or typist. The keyboard that has been developed has a completely serial operating sequence. Each event in a sequence is positively latched as it occurs, and remains latched until its function is completed. This insures reliable information transfer without compromising speed or input-signal storage capability. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Type Font Compatibility

    Page(s): 26 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB)  

    Because of the large number of type fonts required to support the IBM SELECTRIC® Composer program, it would not have been economical to manufacture separate type elements for each country in which the machine would be marketed. Also, because the total of the standard alphanumeric characters and the typical basic language requirements for all countries is much greater than could possibly be fitted on the Composer's 88-position type element, special Composer fonts had to be developed for various language group classifications. This paper describes the SELECTRIC Composer's development from a single-language system to a multilingual concept and details the problems involved in achieving compatibility, and thus type font interchangeability. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Dead Key and Dead Key Disconnect Functions

    Page(s): 32 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)  

    Because diacritical marks are needed for the Latin and French-Latin type fonts, the IBM selectric® Composer required a means for printing certain characters without carrier escapement. This note discusses the “dead key” and “dead key disconnect” functions designed to fulfill this requirement. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Mechanical Print Quality

    Page(s): 34 - 40
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (483 KB)  

    The design of an impact printing device (one which produces aesthetically pleasing copy) must include an optimal combination of mechanical design and supplies (ribbon and paper). This paper describes the evolution of design for both mechanisms and supply parameters which has led to the present standards of mechanical print quality in the IBM SELECTRIC Composer. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Statistical Evaluation of Printing Alignment

    Page(s): 41 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (421 KB)  

    This paper describes the measurement and evaluation of print alignment for the SELECTRIC Composer, and discusses the suitability of statistical techniques for achieving both. This paper deals extensively with techniques and procedures for collecting data; however, it is not intended to define a generalized method for statistical evaluation. Printing alignment is shown to be described objectively and precisely by the distribution of measured misalignment; misalignment is precisely defined. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Proportional Escapement Mechanism

    Page(s): 48 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (637 KB)  

    The IBM SELECTRIC Composer's escapement system employs rotating elements, rather than the conventional rack system, to provide the required displacement. This permits the basic unit of escapement to be varied, and allows the number of units per escapement cycle to vary in proportion to character width. In this paper the authors discuss the machine requirements that led to this approach and describe the elements that have evolved. The analysis used to evaluate the design (and modify it to some extent) is also recorded, in a separate section. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Memory Backspace

    Page(s): 60 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB)  

    This paper describes the design of the memory backspace system as it now appears in the IBM SELECTRIC Composer. The memory backspace system employs a sensing pawl mechanism in conjunction with the escapement pinwheel and the unit backspace mechanism to provide character-by-character backspace capability. By sensing set pins on the pinwheel, the mechanism “remembers” the location of previously typed characters and permits the carrier to be returned precisely to any print position within the memory “length” without operator measurement or visual alignment. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Development of the Rebound Governor

    Page(s): 65 - 67
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    Rebound of the escapement system of the SELECTRIC Composer after escapement is limited by the rebound governor, a device consisting of an overrunning clutch and a mass that is coupled to the system only during rebound. The development of the rebound governor is described in this paper and its effect on the escapement system is shown by oscilloscope traces of system displacement versus time. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Justification Mechanism

    Page(s): 68 - 75
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    This paper describes the development and design history of the SELECTRIC Composer justification mechanism. The authors present a brief definition of justification and how it relates to the printing industry; the requirements imposed upon a justification device that are peculiar to the SELECTRIC Composer; a description of the justification mechanism and its design, development and testing; and a final evaluation of the design relative to the attainment of its designated objectives, both as a mechanism and as a component of the SELECTRIC Composer. View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Multiple Index Mechanism

    Page(s): 76 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (701 KB)  

    When high-quality printed copy is desired, the ability to use variable styles of type in one printing system is a fundamental requirement. This feature has existed to a limited extent for some time in low-cost, cold-type printing equipment and typewriters, and has been notably realized in the changeable typehead of the IBM SELECTRIC Typewriter. The ability to vary type size, however, is rarely found in such systems and has been restricted for the most part to commercial hot-type equipment or to manual methods. To remove this restriction in the IBM SELECTRIC Composer, it was necessary to design an index mechanism which would provide variable line-to-line increments. Increment selection was to be flexible enough to accommodate several sizes of type, but it had also to be reliable and easily controlled by the operator. The design which has resulted and is described in this paper is a dual-ratchet, planetary gear system. Platen increments of from 5 to 20 “points” can be selected, and the platen can be indexed manually one point at a time. Other features are also provided, including a “carriage-return, no-index” which permits changing styles on the same line of type without manual “rollback." View full abstract»

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  • The IBM SELECTRIC Composer: Carbon Ribbon Feed Mechanism

    Page(s): 87 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (405 KB)  

    High quality impact printing requires that a sufficient supply of printer ink be presented to the print element for each character. It is also required that this supply of ink last for a reasonable length of time. To enable the IBM SELECTRIC Composer to meet the standards considered necessary under these criteria, it was necessary to increase the character yield per ribbon by a factor of two over that which was provided by the IBM SELECTRIC Typewriter. To do this a new constant ribbon tension control device had to be designed to eliminate the inertia and geometry effects associated with the larger composer ribbon spools. It was also necessary to eliminate ribbon feeding on no-print or spacebar operations and to provide various load controls. View full abstract»

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  • Force-Frequency Coefficient of Singly Rotated Vibrating Quartz Crystals

    Page(s): 92 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (507 KB)  

    Frequency perturbations in vibrating quartz crystals, caused by externally applied forces, have been investigated for some time. The parameters affecting the force-frequency sensitivity were recently established and evaluated, making possible the derivation of a normalized coefficient Kf. An empirical chart, showing the coefficient Kf for all singly rotated crystals, (yxl)θ, is presented for all directions of force in the azimuth angle ψ. The maximum force-frequency coefficient is found to be |Kf| ≅ 30 × 10−15 (msN−1) for angles θ = +17°, +26.5° and +64°. A crystal cut (yxl) − 18.5° shows a constant coefficient Kf = +5.3 × 10−15 (msN−1) for all angles of ψ. Coefficients Kf (ψ) for BT-, Y- and AT-cut crystals are also shown on separate graphs. The force-frequency behavior of every crystal cut in the singly rotated Y-cut group can be determined from the chart. The chart is a useful tool for the design of frequency standards and precise force-sensing elements. More significantly, the chart provides normalized experimental data to form a basis for a theoretical treatment of the force-frequency effect. View full abstract»

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  • Some Magnetic Properties of Vacuum-deposited Coupled Films

    Page(s): 100 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB)  

    The magnetic properties of vacuum-deposited multilayer films constructed in a closed-flux configuration in an integrated structure have been studied as a function of: a) film thickness; b) substrate temperature, and c) the character of the conductor metals. It is found the static magnetic properties of the magnetic layers depend on the material in the previous layers as well as the thickness and deposition temperature of those layers. Techniques of optimizing and controlling the magnetic properties are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Shear Stresses in a Notched Circular Disk

    Page(s): 110 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB)  

    In the dicing of a silicon disk into separate integrated circuit chips, an alignment notch is commonly used to maintain the disk in a precise and stable position throughout the process. This notch is formed in a grinding operation which causes mechanical damage to the crystal structure in the vicinity of the notch. The increase in crystal dislocation density will degrade the performance of any circuit chips located in the damaged area. Hence, it is important to learn the extent of damage in the disk so that the affected region can be avoided during the production of chips. View full abstract»

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  • The Resonistor: A Frequency Selective Device Utilizing the Mechanical Resonance of a Silicon Substrate

    Page(s): 113 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB)  

    This communication describes an approach to tuned monolithic circuitry which utilizes the mechanical resonance of a silicon substrate. The proposed device is compatible with monolithic technology and will operate from a few hundred cycles to hundreds of kilocycles. The basic device consists of a silicon cantilever mechanically deflected by electrically induced thermal expansion. Diffused silicon piezo-resistive elements are used to detect stress in the cantilever and provide an electrical output. Maximum stress and electrical output occur when the cantilever is driven at its mechanical resonant frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Page(s): 119 - 121
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most efficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM division and location are identified as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division; CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; RES, Research Division; and SDD, Systems Development Division. East Fishkill, Endicott, Owego, Poughkeepsie, Harrison, and Yorktown Heights are in New York; San Jose and Los Gatos, in California; Boulder, Colorado; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Huntsville, Alabama; and Cambridge, Massachusetts. View full abstract»

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  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Page(s): 122 - 123
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Page(s): 124 - 126
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous two issues

    Page(s): 128 - 129
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center