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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1969

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Foreword

    Page(s): 2 - 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Computer-operated X-ray Laboratory Equipment

    Page(s): 5 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (547 KB)  

    Many instruments in research laboratories are now operated under varying degrees of computer control, not merely to accumulate and store data, but to obtain information about the sample sooner. The need for the scientist to interact with the computer is then as important as the instrument-computer interaction. This requirement leads to strong differences in implementation between laboratory automation and process control, and also suggests that the scientist must consider his over-all information needs as well as his instrument needs. A control computer shared by several people doing x-ray diffraction and fluorescence work is used as an example to illustrate some of these aspects of laboratory automation. View full abstract»

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  • Automation of a Wide-range, General-purpose Spectrophotometric System

    Page(s): 15 - 27
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    The application of an IBM 1800 computer to the control and data acquisition functions of a wide-range spectrophotometric system is described. The optical part of the system is designed primarily for solid-state spectroscopy in the reflectance mode, the energy range of interest being roughly 1 to 12 eV (104 to 105cm−1). The operations of the computer include regulation of the wavelength setting, determination of the system gain, analog-to-digital conversion of the output signal, and positioning of the sample and detector. Two experimental configurations are employed, depending on whether or not the sample and detector are to remain stationary or to be repositioned during a run. The former holds for electroreflectance, fluorescence, and photoconductivity studies, while the latter pertains to ordinary reflectance and transmittance measurements. The principal advantage to be derived from on-line computer control of such experiments, besides more rapid accumulation and reduction of data, is the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio by averaging many repetitive scans over the same energy range. The emphasis in this paper is on the software used to implement these operations. View full abstract»

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  • New Research Techniques for the Life Sciences

    Page(s): 28 - 35
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    A data collection and analysis system, using a high-speed, general-purpose digital computer, has been developed at the California Institute of Technology and applied to the study of visual processes of pattern recognition in living nervous systems. The experimental technique employs a rapid, flexible method of neural network modeling that permits an analysis of network functional behavior and a comparison with experimental data. Some details are given of research on neural activity in the visual system of the insect order Diptera. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-assisted Spectroscopy

    Page(s): 36 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    The logical and timing requirements and the control circuitry of spectrometers in all energy ranges, chromatographs, scanning interferometers and microdensitometers, and a large class of related experimental apparati are very similar. From the standpoint of on-line computation and control, they can be considered parametric variations of a single experiment. With a magnetic resonance spectrometer as an example, we describe briefly the central, common elements of the necessary computer-instrument interface and of adequately flexible and open-ended control programs. Some examples of results follow. View full abstract»

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  • Combination of On-line Analysis with Collection of Multicomponent Spectra in an On-line Computer

    Page(s): 46 - 51
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    A digital computer has been interfaced to four 256-channel analyzers. All functions of normal multichannel analyzers have been reproduced by suitable coding. In addition, a weighted least-squares method for estimating on line the contribution of individual radionuclides in a multicomponent pulse height spectrum has been incorporated. Details of the mathematics and coding methods, which include special modifications to an existing FORTRAN system for on-line use, are described. View full abstract»

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  • An Interactive Graphics System for Nuclear Data Acquisition

    Page(s): 52 - 60
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    The graphics terminal described was developed for low-energy nuclear-physics data acquisition and control, and is currently in use at the Yale University Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory as part of an IBM System/360 Model 44-based system. It is comprised of dual cathode ray tube displays, a light pen, and function keyboard, and includes character generation, display simulation, and photographic facilities. It is capable of plotting 200,000 points per second with variable intensity. The display programming structures, which support highly interactive communication between physicist and computer, are discussed in detail. A data acquisition programming system permits the creation and manipulation of self-describing global data and display entities. Examples of the resultant increased experimental sophistication and efficiency are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Simulation and Experimental Research

    Page(s): 61 - 64
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    The usefulness of computer simulation in interpreting and extending experimental information is presented via a practical example taken from the area of chemical metallurgy. View full abstract»

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  • Computer Facilities for the Laboratory

    Page(s): 65 - 74
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    Digital computers have become indispensable aids for many laboratory disciplines, allowing the performance of experiments which would be infeasible without the aid of a computer. Until recently, these computations have usually been carried out off-line, i.e., experimental data has been acquired in real time and subsequently processed on a large central computer. Small, relatively inexpensive digital computers first entered the laboratory as a substantial aid in real-time acquisition of data and control of experiments. Such computers, however, suffer severe limitations with regard to ultimate processing of the data. Hence the data processing must still generally be done on a large computer. View full abstract»

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  • Use of a Time-sharing Computer in Nuclear Chemistry

    Page(s): 75 - 78
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    The Oregon State University computer-analyzer system couples the advantages of on-line data acquisition and analysis with the low cost of a time-sharing computer. The system operates in two modes. In Mode A, a 4096-channel analyzer serves as a data acquisition and buffer storage device with the contents of the analyzer memory being transmitted via telephone lines to the Oregon State University computer for analysis. In Mode B, the correlated outputs of N analog-to-digital converters (corresponding to an N-parameter event) are transmitted to the computer in real time for storage and analysis. Additional information, programming and computations may be entered at any time from a remote terminal console. The results of the data analysis can be returned immediately to the remote terminal console or to any regular computer output device. This system has the advantages of being able to utilize the full facilities of a large computer, its FORTRAN compiler, etc., for on-line data acquisition and analysis while avoiding the responsibilities of hardware maintenance and systems programming for the nuclear chemists. View full abstract»

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  • Computer-controlled Optical Spectrometer

    Page(s): 79 - 86
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    Hardware developed to implement the computer control of a single-beam monochromator operating under a time-sharing system is described. A stepping motor and associated circuitry yield very precise wavelength positioning in an open loop configuration and with a minimum of computer use. The circuits used to position and step the wavelength are described in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Growth of a Laboratory Computer System for Nuclear Physics

    Page(s): 87 - 92
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    A computer system may typically be expected to progress through a cycle terminating in overloading. The experience with an early system at the author's nuclear physics laboratory serves as an example. The original computer and a similar machine later installed with it are now overloaded and a new system is under construction. The success of the interactive data analysis on the original system has made it desirable to enhance the display and light pen facilities while reducing the computer time involved in generating the displays. The use of a data storage/display disc effectively provides off-line displays but requires more manipulation in data acquisition. The solution is found in the large number of processing units economically feasible with third-generation equipment. Two linked computers will perform data acquisition and analysis, the smaller performing data acquisition under the control of the larger, which will run a fairly simple time-sharing system. Together with several I/O processors, this hierarchy of processors will provide ease of program development and a very high degree of computational power and data acquisition capability. View full abstract»

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  • Measuring Optical Transfer Functions of Lenses with the Aid of a Digital Computer

    Page(s): 93 - 103
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    The problems involved in lens testing, as opposed to the testing of one lens under one set of conditions, are of sufficient magnitude and complexity that the use of a computer is almost imperative to make the job practical. A machine and method for evaluation of lenses is described which employs a digital computer as a major component, has no restrictions as to the quality of lenses which may be accommodated, and requires no precision targets or auxiliary optics of any type. The results are in a form directly applicable to predictions of performance of complicated systems where the lens is one of several linear dissipators. The reader is introduced to lens testing considerations and a brief discussion of methods, followed by a detailed description of a specific implementation and computerized approach. Next, the basic mathematics involved, including a practical procedure for truncating a Fourier series, are explained in some detail. Finally, examples of measured output and machine accuracy and stability examination are given. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Computers at CERN

    Page(s): 104 - 113
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    This paper surveys the many ways computers and connected special devices are used in the laboratory of high energy nuclear physics research of CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Geneva, Switzerland. View full abstract»

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  • An Experimental System for Time-shared, On-line Data Acquisition

    Page(s): 114 - 118
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    With the increasing availability of terminal-oriented, time-shared computers, it now becomes feasible to extend the method of use to include real-time, on-line data acquisition and data reduction. Here described is a particular embodiment of such a system, using an IBM 1050 terminal and the IBM Research M44/44X and the APL/360 Model 50 computers. Reasons leading to the choice of equipment, special devices, programming considerations, data rates and some economic factors are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time Reduction of Nuclear Physics Data

    Page(s): 119 - 125
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)  

    Small scientific computers have been widely used in research laboratories for on-line data acquisition to improve the efficiency of data collection and to perform sophisticated data manipulation before storage. An equally productive use of such computers is for the subsequent reduction of these data in real time, permitting interaction between investigator and computer and providing immediate interpretation of masses of data. This report describes the philosophy and techniques developed for the SCANS (Stanford Computers for the Analysis of Nuclear Structure) system for the reduction in real time of multichannel pulse-height spectra, which comprise the bulk of data in Nuclear Physics. The programming language for users is FORTRAN, to provide flexibility and ease in introducing and modifying sophisticated concepts such as nonlinear least-squares fitting. Software interface to specific real-time hardware devices such as oscilloscope display and light pen is accomplished via library subroutines which perform a variety of general purpose services. Several different applications of this approach to various types of data spectra are discussed to illustrate the degree of mutual interaction achieved between investigator and computer and the resultant optimization of reduction techniques to suit particular types of data. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of a Control Computer in a Chemistry Department

    Page(s): 126 - 131
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    The Chemistry Department of the Stony Brook Campus of the State University of New York is composed of a number of faculty members whose research experiments fall generally into two categories; (1) steady data acquisition and control tasks with relatively small data and demand rates, and (2) continuous scan-type measurements of various data rates. An IBM 1800 control system is employed as the nerve center of a computer-based experiment complex. This paper discusses the multi-experiment control system used at Stony Brook Chemistry, giving some details of experiments performed by faculty members as examples of its application. It is pointed out that one of the objectives of this computerized department is creation of a course in the use of computers in chemistry. With a data-acquisition computer available in the department, the course can include actual bench practice in data acquisition and control tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Use of a Terminal System for Data Acquisition

    Page(s): 132 - 138
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    The application of a mathematically-oriented conversational computing system to data collection and computer control for a specific experiment is described. Relatively simple interfaces are used between the experiment and computer terminal to provide for voltage analog inputs and outputs to the experiment. The terminal is connected to the computer by way of conventional voice-grade telephone lines. It is concluded that this type of data acquisition system is quite useful for experiments in which several-second computer response time can be tolerated, data reduction is necessary and the computer load is insufficient to justify the use of a local computer. An additional facility which provides for the ability to plot data was found to be extremely useful. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM authors

    Page(s): 139 - 141
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    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most efficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions and locations are identified as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division; CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; DPG, Data Processing Group; FSD, Federal Systems Division; RES, Research Division; and SDD, Systems Development Division. East Fishkill, Endicott, Kingston, Owego, Poughkeepsie, and Yorktown Heights are in New York; Los Gatos, Palo Alto, and San Jose, California; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Rochester, Minnesota; Huntsville, Alabama; and Boeblingen, Germany. Journals. View full abstract»

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  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Page(s): 142 - 143
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Page(s): 144 - 147
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center