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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 5 • Date Sep. 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • The Conference on Holography and the Computer

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):476 - 477
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)

    Holography and modern digital computing technology represent two apparently unrelated aspects of information processing, both of which have matured rapidly in the last five years. Over the past few years, however, interactions between the two fields have become more apparent. To take note of these interactions, a Conference on Holography and the Computer was held in Houston, Texas, December 10... View full abstract»

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  • Some Effects of Fourier-domain Phase Quantization

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):478 - 484
    Cited by:  Papers (16)  |  Patents (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB)

    If the Fourier transform of a function g(x) is quantized, the function recovered by inverse transformation differs from g(x). By means of a biased limiter model, the effects of Fourier-domain phase quantization are studied. Amplitude information is assumed fully retained, while phase is quantized to N equally spaced levels. The recovered function is shown to consist of several different contributi... View full abstract»

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  • Incoherent Filtering Using Kinoforms

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):485 - 491
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (658 KB)

    Incoherent optical filtering with the kinoform used as a filtering element is discussed. Kinoform theory is briefly reviewed and initial results with “fan” and correlation filters are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic Holography with Crossed Linear Arrays

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):492 - 500
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (747 KB)

    This paper is an analysis of how acoustic (or microwave) holography can be applied to large masses, such as natural bodies of water or the earth, by means of a linear array of microphones and by scanning with one or more transmitters to produce holographic phase shifts. This type of hologram, in which the phased array has a conical antenna pattern, is shown to be superior to the area hologram for ... View full abstract»

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  • Structural-information Storage in Holograms

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):501 - 508
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)

    The number of degrees of freedom, or structural-information content, of the object wave field recorded in a Leith-Upatnieks hologram is expressed in terms of the resolving power and dimensions of the recording medium, the coherence properties of the primary illumination and the position of the point reference source. In contrast with previous studies, the calculation does not involve the paraxial ... View full abstract»

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  • Laser Speckle and Its Elimination

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):509 - 514
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (631 KB)

    “Objective” speckle arises from the uneven illumination of an object with a multiplicity of waves that interfere at its surface. “Subjective” speckle arises at rough objects even if they are illuminated evenly by a single wave. The noise in the image is caused by the interference of the point-figures, which have random phases. Subjective speckle cannot be reduced except... View full abstract»

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  • A Theory of Granularity and Bleaching for Holographic Information Recording

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):515 - 520
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB)

    The Kelly three-stage model of photographic information recording is a mathematical model of black-and-white silver-halide film with granularity neglected. In the work reported here, the theory is extended for use in phase-holographic applications. Granularity effects are contained in the fourth and final stage, a two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, filtered Poisson process. The output of this stage ... View full abstract»

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  • Noise and Distortion in Photographic Data Storage

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):521 - 526
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB)

    Noise and distortion limit the usefulness of the photographic transparency as a data-storage medium. The noise, which tends to be multiplicative, derives from the random distribution of silver grains in the photographic image, as well as from thickness variations in the developed emulsion. Distortion, on the other hand, results from 1) the nonlinear relation between transmittance and exposure, 2) ... View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of Dielectric Holograms

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):527 - 532
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)

    The diffraction efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio for two-dimensional and volume diffuse-signal-beam holograms are calculated and experimentally determined. Calculations are based on the statistical properties of the signal beam, and exact integrals rather than series approximations are used. High signal-to-noise ratio and high diffraction efficiency are possible, with the peak calculated diffr... View full abstract»

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  • High-efficiency Phase-hologram Gratings

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):533 - 538
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    Optimum conditions for the generation of high-efficiency hologram gratings are presented. The most efficient phase holograms were obtained for exposures 10 to 20 times larger than those for optimally exposed amplitude holograms. Hologram gratings produced on Agfa Gevaert 8 E 70 recording plates diffracted 40 percent of the incident radiation into the holographic image. This experimentally obtained... View full abstract»

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  • A Statistical Mechanical Approach to Systems Analysis

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):539 - 547
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB)

    The maximum entropy principle is used as the criterion for calculating the equilibrium state probabilities of a queuing or network system in which service rates are exponentially distributed. A configuration-independent partition function is given as the solution to this network problem; from this function the important properties of the system may be derived. Simple and well known examples are us... View full abstract»

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  • Moment Normalization of Handprinted Characters

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):548 - 557
    Cited by:  Papers (45)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (919 KB)

    Handprinted characters can be made more uniform in appearance than the as-written version if an appropriate linear transformation is performed on each input pattern. The transformation can be implemented electronically by programming a flying-spot raster-scanner to scan at specified angles rather than only along specified axes. Alternatively, curve-follower normalization can be achieved by transfo... View full abstract»

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  • Performance Equivalence of Suboptimally Controlled Nonlinear Systems

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):558 - 562
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    A procedure is described that shows how a technique used to develop performance bounds for a large class of nonlinear dynamic systems with state-dependent control policies can be extended to determine whether a nonlinear system can be controlled so that it is at least “performance equivalent” to an associated optimally controlled linear system. A procedure for generating one or more ... View full abstract»

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  • Concurrent Error Detection for Group Look-ahead Binary Adders

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):563 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (35)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1016 KB)

    This paper presents an evaluation of the relative merits of two schemes for performing concurrent error detection in group look-ahead adders. One of the schemes is a residue mod 3 check and the other is a parity prediction check. The Boolean statements that define the operation of group look-ahead adders, concurrent error detection and the Boolean difference serve as background for interpreting th... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):574 - 578
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (495 KB)

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most efficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions and locations are identified as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division; CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GSD, General Systems Division; RES, Research Divi... View full abstract»

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  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):579 - 580
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s):581 - 583
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous two issues

    Publication Year: 1970, Page(s): 584
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

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The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center