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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1970

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Displaying Results 1 - 18 of 18
  • Plant automation in IBM: a Preface

    Page(s): 588
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (255 KB)  

    IBM's manufacturing plants offer a valuable test ground for studying plant automation techniques. In looking for ways to improve production processes manufacturing engineers in the company's plants have experimented with many approaches to the structure and design of plantfloor computer systems. The structural solutions have ranged from dedicated stand-alone controllers scattered throughout a plant to large hierarchical networks of general-purpose computers serving an entire factory site. The implementations have included combinations of standard and modified commercially available products as well as completely “homemade” devices and software. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Manufacturing Systems: Architectural Considerations

    Page(s): 589 - 604
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1402 KB)  

    This paper is divided into two main parts. The first is concerned with definitions of concepts and terms of importance to the architect of integrated manufacturing systems. It describes the operational environment, how the manufacturing systems are going to be used, and a variety of system requirements. Priorities are established and a set of guiding principles for system design are proposed. In the second part, three basic system structures are analyzed and evaluated in terms of the previously stated priorities and guiding principles. The relation of integrated manufacturing systems to other complex systems is shown to illustrate how generally applicable many of the findings derived from knowledge of the manufacturing environment are to the design of systems for other application fields. The paper concludes by restating the key requirements and formulates what appears to be the greatest challenge for the system architect. That is, the creation of an architectural framework within which the system designers can structure manufacturing systems capable of handling besides the planned tasks a variety of unforeseen applications. Readers familiar with the plant environment and the terms and concepts associated with it may skip the first sections and start with System Requirements. We would, however, advise even the experienced reader to review the definition of real-time systems, which we believe is new. View full abstract»

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  • An Integrated Manufacturing Process Control System: Implementation in IBM Manufacturing

    Page(s): 605 - 613
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB)  

    An integrated manufacturing process control system has been developed and implemented in several of IBM's manufacturing facilities to control process and test equipment used in the manufacture of IBM products. The system architecture consists of a central, on-line, IBM 360 Data Processing System operating under OS/360 which communicates via high-speed data channels to satellite IBM 1800, 1130 and System/360 processors. These satellite processors control various types of process and test equipment. The central system serves as a common data bank and an input/output device for the satellite processors. In addition, the central system performs data analysis and management reporting on information obtained from the manufacturing floor. This paper discusses the general system requirements and specifications along with the hardware and software required to implement those requirements and specifications. Also discussed are problems which were encountered after initial development and plans for future development. View full abstract»

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  • A Transmission Control Unit for High-speed Computer-to-computer Communication

    Page(s): 614 - 619
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (647 KB)  

    An integral part of a process control and testing system used in several IBM plants is the transmission control unit (TCU). This paper discusses the design of the TCU, which provides the communication link between as many as 512 satellite computers and a central computer. It uses a microprogrammed polling scheme to establish connection with the satellites that need service and it permits messages of unrestricted length to be transmitted in either direction at the rate of 2.5 × 106 bits/sec over coaxial cables. With the aid of noise suppression circuits, it operates in the electrically noisy factory environment at an error rate of less than 10−8. View full abstract»

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  • PCOS: A Process Control Extension to Operating System/360

    Page(s): 620 - 632
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB)  

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extension to IBM Operating System/360 that is called PCOS and is intended specifically for use in “real-time” control of IBM manufacturing processes and testing. The most important part of PCOS is a Real-Time Control Program (RTCP) which is initiated at system start-up time as a “never-ending” task. The RTCP controls the execution of application programs and permits system response to requests for their execution within a time on the order of 100 msec. Other contributions are an “express path” for handling input/output operations, an “interpartition communication” program that provides common core storage for use during the execution of application programs, and an appendage to the OS/360 supervisor program to serve a specially designed high-speed multiplexor called the “transmission control unit.” View full abstract»

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  • Computer-aided Testing and Fabrication of Magnetic Tape Heads

    Page(s): 633 - 640
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB)  

    A data collection and analysis system has been developed to control magnetic tape head testing and provide data analysis for manufacturing process control. Data collection is achieved by a system of test terminals controlled by an IBM 1130 computer, which is a satellite of an IBM System/360 Model 50 computer. The data base made possible by this system provides a means of tracing recurring failures and leads to a better understanding of the effects of process variables on the completed product. View full abstract»

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  • Precision Automatic Measuring of X-Y Coordinates

    Page(s): 641 - 651
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (951 KB)  

    This paper reports the development of a computer-controlled machine for non-contact inspection of manufactured parts. The machine, called PAMM (Precision Automatic Measuring Machine), is capable of providing “on-the-fly” measurements accurate to within 100 microinches. The intersection of a rotating spiral slot with a stationary linear slot produces a moving aperture for scanning in small increments over a projected, enlarged image of a part. The scanner assembly moves along an overhead cantilever beam in the x direction, and the part being inspected moves in the y direction along the machine base; position in each direction is monitored by a separate laser interferometer. In the paper conventional methods of coordinate measuring are briefly reviewed, the details of the new design are presented, some experimentally obtained measurements are given, measurement errors induced by photodetector shot noise and aperture roughness are analyzed, and the computer-control and data-analysis techniques are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • IBM System/7 and Plant Automation

    Page(s): 652 - 661
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (895 KB)  

    The recently announced IBM System/7 was developed for use in a broad range of data acquisition and control applications and provides the foundation for comprehensive plant automation applications. Its unique modular structure and broad spectrum of features satisfy the basic plant automation requirements described in the paper by Kinberg and Landeck in this issue. In the present paper the functional characteristics, important design features, and the basic architectural concepts of hardware and software are discussed. An example of the use of this new system in the automation of the System/7 manufacturing process itself is provided to illustrate its use in the testing of complex electronic assemblies as part of an integrated plant automation system. View full abstract»

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  • IBM 2790 Digital Transmission Loop

    Page(s): 662 - 667
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB)  

    A tandem connection of terminals for a data collection system has certain desirable advantages over the more common radial configuration. To make use of these advantages, high-speed transmission links are required. This paper describes the transmission capability necessary for a high-speed digital data repeater when it is restricted to an in-house environment. The transmission techniques discussed are implemented in the IBM 2790 Data Communication System. View full abstract»

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  • The Percus-Yevick Theory and the Equation of State of the 6:12 Fluid

    Page(s): 668 - 676
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB)  

    The Percus-Yevick theory can be used to calculate the pair distribution function and from this the equation of state. The conventional method is to calculate the pressure of compressibility directly, unfortunately yielding poor results for the 6:12 fluid at low temperatures. In this paper results are obtained using an indirect method, in which the energy is calculated from the pair distribution function, and the equation of state is obtained by thermodynamic identities. These results are virtually in exact agreement with the machine calculation results for the 6:12 potential and with experimental results for argon. View full abstract»

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  • Iterated Consensus Method for Multiple-output Functions

    Page(s): 677 - 679
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)  

    The iterated consensus method for obtaining prime implicants of Boolean functions has several advantages with respect to the conventional tabular method. However, when one attempts to apply the iterated consensus method to multiple-output functions using the rules set forth in the existing literature, it is possible that some of the prime implicants will not be produced. This communication presents an algorithm which assures that all prime implicants of multiple-output functions will be found. View full abstract»

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  • On the Correlation Matrices of Trigonometric Product Functions

    Page(s): 680 - 685
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (546 KB)  

    Sets of waveforms called TPF's, which are products of trigonometric functions, may have application in communications technology, network analysis and signal processing. This communication briefly reviews the characteristics of TPF's and presents methods for calculating their cross-correlation coefficients when 1) all TPF's in a set have harmonic factors with the same set of values, and 2) the harmonic factors have different values. View full abstract»

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  • Man-made Superlattice Crystals

    Page(s): 686 - 688
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB)  

    Multiple closely spaced layers of GaAs1−xPx, which approximate a one-dimensional crystalline superlattice, have been created by periodically pulsing PH3 into an AsH3-PH3-Ga-HCl vapor-growth apparatus. The phosphorus mole fraction varies between maximum and minimum values with a period typically less than 200Å. Structures with up to 150 such layers have been produced. The crystal growth process and methods of characterization are discussed briefly. View full abstract»

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  • Comment on “A Topological Theory of Domain Velocity in Semiconductors” [Letter to the Editor]

    Page(s): 689 - 690
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Page(s): 691 - 695
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most eficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions and locations are identified as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division; CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GSD, General Systems Division; RES, Research Division; SDD, Systems Development Division and SMD, Systems Manufacturing Division. East Fishkill, Endicott, Kingston, Owego, Poughkeepsie, White Plains, and Yorktown Heights are in New York; Morris Plains, New Jersey; Los Gatos, Palo Alto, and San Jose, California; Boulder, Colorado; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Rochester, Minnesota; Huntsville, Alabama; Burlington, Vermont; Raleigh and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Vienna, Austria; Boeblingen, Germany; Uithoorn, Netherlands; Hursley, England; and Lidingii, Sweden. Papers are listed alphabetically by name of journal. View full abstract»

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  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Page(s): 696 - 697
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Page(s): 698 - 701
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous two issues

    Page(s): 702
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (194 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center