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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1971

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • A Self-Isolation Scheme for Integrated Circuits

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 430 - 435
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (551 KB)  

    A self-isolation scheme is proposed for fabricating transistors in semiconductor integrated circuits. Such integrated circuits with double-diffused transistors require three diffusions and one epitaxial layer in the proposed process. Since no isolation or reach-through diffusions are involved, this technique could reduce the area of a memory or logic cell by 50% or more. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Development of an Ultralow-Capacitance, High-Performance Pedestal Transistor

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 436 - 441
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (481 KB)  

    High-performance transistors with small geometries require a highly doped collector region to produce a large impurity gradient at the collector-base junction. This allows the structure to sustain high current densities and to attain low collector series resistance. However, the resulting increase in collector transition capacitance degrades the ac characteristics of the transistors. A structure is proposed and experimental results are presented in this paper to demonstrate that the conflicting requirements above, which limit the high-performance characteristics of transistors, can be resolved by the planar IC process. View full abstract»

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  • Planar Mesa Schottky Barrier Diode

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 442 - 445
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  

    Planar silicon technology has been used to fabricate mesa Schottky barrier diodes with high breakdown voltages. This method proves to be superior to alternate methods used to increase the breakdown voltage of Schottky diodes. The processing techniques and characteristics of mesa Schottky diodes are described in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Beam Fabrication of Micron Transistors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 446 - 451
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB)  

    For high-speed performance as well as high packing density, it is desirable to make the components in integrated circuits as small as possible. One of the fundamental problems in making smaller components is that of limitations in the optical technology. This paper describes an experimental process and the results obtained by using an electron-optical system to fabricate small transistors. Planar bipolar transistors with emitter and base contact windows one micron wide have been fabricated, with the electron beam exposure system used to open all the diffusion windows as well as to expose the metallization patterns. Conventional etching techniques are unable to provide 1-µm wide metal paths in half-to one-micron thick metal layers; therefore the lift-off process is used. The dc and ac characteristics presented compare favorably, for the first time using this fabrication process, with the best bipolar transistors produced by optical masking processes. These characteristics provide a guide for refinement in future micron transistor design. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Evaluation of High Energy Ion Implantation Gradients for Possible Fabrication of a Transistor Pedestal Collector

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 452 - 456
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB)  

    The use of ion accelerators to implant impurities in crystals has become the subject of widespread research. Such studies have been limited mainly to low energies with acceleration voltages of 50 to 500 kilovolts. In this energy range, impurities are implanted into the upper micron or less of the surface. View full abstract»

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  • An Arsenic Emitter Structure for High-Performance Silicon Transistors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 457 - 463
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (565 KB)  

    Arsenic-doped emitters have been shown to produce high performance in bipolar silicon transistors. In comparison with phosphorus, the emitter dopant commonly used in the industry, the use of arsenic results in a steeper gradient (1024/cm4), less compensation of the base region, no “emitter dip” effect, and a flatter profile with higher sheet conductivity. Since arsenic atoms are a better match to Si than are phosphorus atoms and the arsenic process requires lower surface concentration for a particular diffusion depth and sheet conductivity, fewer crystal defects are generated. As a result the arsenic emitter process results in a higher device yield and is much more reproducible, even for shallow diffusion depths. Arsenic-emitter transistors, both with and without gold doping, are found to be superior in performance, with 1.6 to 2 times higher gain bandwidth, ƒT and current gain, β, than those with phosphorus emitters with similar geometry. Also the ability of the arsenic emitter to sustain large current densities, exceeding 30,000 A-cm−2, makes it extremely desirable for high density, small geometry, and high-performance silicon devices. View full abstract»

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  • Arsenic Source Vapor Pressure Kinetics and Capsule Diffusion

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 464 - 471
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (613 KB)  

    After diffusion temperature and time, the most important parameters in capsule diffusion source behavior are the dopant vapor pressure characteristics in the capsule. The vapor pressure behavior is a function of the degree of homogenization of the Si-dopant system and hence of the source preparation technology. Various methods of preparing Si-As source material are discussed. Homogenized-source preparation is described as it relates to reproducibility and controlled capsule diffusion behavior. The measurement of the kinetics of arsenic vapor pressure development in a typical capsule system and the role of vapor pressure in determining capsule diffusion behavior are described. Finally, the dependence of arsenic vapor pressure characteristics, and hence of the diffusion, on source weight-to-capsule volume ratio is described. View full abstract»

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  • A Diffusion Model for Arsenic in Silicon

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 472 - 476
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)  

    It is proposed that double acceptor-level vacancies are responsible for arsenic diffusion into silicon. A computer program, which combines this diffusion mechanism with the formation of arsenic clusters and an internal electric field induced by the impurity gradient, is used to calculate arsenic diffusion profiles in wide ranges of diffusion temperatures and surface impurity concentrations. The calculated diffusion profiles are in good agreement with the measured profiles. View full abstract»

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  • On the Relationship of Resistivity to Arsenic Concentration for Heavily Doped n-type Silicon [Letter to the Editor]

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 477
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Numerical Calculation of Magnetic Fields in the Vicinity of a Magnetic Body

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 478 - 482
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (481 KB)  

    Static magnetic fields, resulting from an applied field, are calculated in the vicinity of a magnetic body. Specifically, numerical results are given for a rectangular body of constant permeability. The reduction or shielding of the magnetic fields is calculated in the neighborhood of the body. Integral equations are developed which can be solved numerically on a computer. Typical fields are described for rectangles of different thicknesses, and comparisons with known solutions are shown. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 483 - 485
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most efficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions and locations are identified as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division; CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GSD, General Systems Division; OPD, Ofice Products Division; RES, Research Division; SDD, Systems Development Division; SMD, Systems Manufacturing Division; and WTC, World Trade Corporation. East Fishkill, Endicott, Kingston, Owego, Poughkeepsie, White Plains, and Yorktown Heights are in New York; Los Gatos, Palo Alto, San Jose and Westlake, California; Boulder, Colorado; Lexington, Kentucky; Gaithersburg, Maryland; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Rochester, Minnesota; Huntsville, Alabama; Burlington, Vermont; Raleigh and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Vienna, Austria; Boeblingen, Germany; Hursley, England; Lidingo, Sweden; and Uithoorn, Netherlands. Papers are listed alphabetically by name of journal. View full abstract»

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  • Patents Recently Issued to IBM Inventors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 486 - 489
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 490 - 492
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (389 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author Index for Papers in Volume 15

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 493 - 494
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject Index for Papers in Volume 15

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 495 - 496
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (279 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous issues in Volume 15

    Publication Year: 1971 , Page(s): 497 - 501
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center