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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 2 • March 1972

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Preface: Environmental Science

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s): 90
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB)

    A critical lesson learned in the past decade is that technology skillfully created to increase industrial production and to advance our standard of living is not an unqualified triumph over nature. We have come to realize that decisions to apply sophisticated technology must involve realistic evaluations of probable consequences in the vast interactive system that is our natural environment. View full abstract»

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  • Model for Time-dependent Raindrop Size Distributions; Application to the Washout of Airborne Contaminants

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):91 - 100
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB)

    We have developed a model for computing time-dependent behavior in raindrop size distributions for a variety of initial conditions. The model permits the inclusion of a spatially varying atmospheric profile and takes evaporation and coalescence of raindrops into account on a dynamic basis. We have applied this model to the washout process by rain, whereby small airborne particles are scavenged bel... View full abstract»

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  • Rationale, Limitations, and Assumptions of a Northeastern Forest Growth Simulator

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):101 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (757 KB)

    A cooperative agreement between Yale University and the 1970 summer program of the IBM Research Division resulted in a flexible computer program to simulate the growth of the uneven-aged, mixed-species stands of trees on the 10-meter by 10-meter experimental plots of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study in the White Mountains of northern New Hampshire. Annual increments of tree growth are based on sp... View full abstract»

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  • Subsurface Hydrology at Waste Disposal Sites

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):117 - 129
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB)

    One result of the growing concern over surface-water pollution has been an increase in the popularity of ground-based waste disposal practices that save the streams but have a high potential for subsurface pollution. One of these, sanitary landfill, appears quite promising in its ability to handle large waste loads with a minimum of contamination; but two others, waste lagoons and deep-well inject... View full abstract»

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  • Estimate of Subsidence in Venice Using a One-dimensional Model of the Subsoil

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):130 - 137
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB)

    This work applies a one-dimensional model, based on K. Terzaghi's theory of vertical consolidation, to the calculation of land subsidence in the Venetian Lagoon, caused by extraction of water from artificial wells. Certain assumptions are made in order to compensate for the scarcity of data currently available, and these are discussed with regard to both the geophysical characteristics of the subs... View full abstract»

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  • Nonsupervised Crop Classification through Airborne Multispectral Observations

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):138 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (811 KB)

    Current methods of terrain classification by means of airborne multispectral observations are reviewed with emphasis on the selection of training sets for determination of the categorizer parameters. A method of selecting sample regions for assigning identities to the spectral signatures on the basis of statistically determined similarities, rather than on a priori considerations, is suggested. Th... View full abstract»

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  • Interactive Computer-based Game for Decision-making in Ecology

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):154 - 161
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB)

    This paper describes a prototype Ecology Decision Game which has been developed for experimental use within IBM. The paper is directed to those in ecology desiring to use similar techniques in developing programs that interrelate computing, management science, mathematics, and APL for training and educational purposes. The game is implemented in two modes: an author mode, which permits an author t... View full abstract»

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  • Air Quality Diffusion Model; Application to New York City

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):162 - 170
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB)

    An experimental multisource air pollution diffusion model based on the Gaussian plume formulation is described. The model incorporates point and area sources, time and space dependence of source strengths, and time and space dependence of meteorological variables. Numerical simulation of the SO2 concentration distribution for New York City on January 11, 1971, agrees favorably with expe... View full abstract»

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  • Numerical Investigation of the Atmospheric Dispersion of Stack Effluents

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):171 - 178
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (682 KB)

    This report describes a numerical method based on the best gradient-transfer theory currently available for computing pollutant concentration distributions downwind from a stack. The vertical inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and ground roughness are included in the model. Vertical wind and temperature profiles are calculated numerically from given values of ground roughness and wind speed and relat... View full abstract»

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  • Appendix—Three-dimensional interpretation of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):178 - 179
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)

    The realism of Shir's results may at first appear paradoxical. His numerical model is two-dimensional, so that the simulated stacks are actually line sources, whereas real-atmosphere stacks are (essentially) point sources. The physical dimensions of the source strengths aren't even the same for the two cases. Moreover, even in a unidirectional wind field, atmospheric turbulence acts to diffuse the... View full abstract»

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  • Overlap Emissivity of CO2 and H2O in the 15-µm Spectral Region

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):180 - 183
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB)

    Radiative transfer in model atmospheres including CO2, water vapor, ozone, and clouds can be explored by computer simulation for the purpose of predicting the mean temperature at the surface of the earth. Where two or more gases have overlapping absorption lines, the overlap emissivity determined from the band-averaged expressions is a possible source of uncertainty. This method has bee... View full abstract»

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  • A Model of Charge Transfer in Bucket Brigade and Charge-coupled Devices

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):184 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB)

    Investigation of bucket brigade (BB) and charge-coupled devices (CCD) has resulted in the development of a general model for these devices and their various modes of operation. Similarities and differences between BB and CCD are discussed. The nonlinear partial differential equation of charge motion composed of self-induced drift, thermal diffusion, and electrode fringe-field terms is used to stud... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):188 - 191
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB)

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained most eficiently by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions and locations are identijied as follows: ASDD is the Advanced Systems Development Division: CD, Components Division; DPD, Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GSD, General Systems Division; OPD, Office Product... View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):192 - 195
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (314 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):196 - 198
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (295 KB)
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  • Contents of previous two issues

    Publication Year: 1972, Page(s):199 - 200
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (235 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

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Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center