By Topic

IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1976

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Preface

    Page(s): 2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  

    The successful completion of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) in July 1975 marked the end of NASA's Saturn program and the closing of a period in which the interaction between man and technology has contributed to some of the most spectacular achievements in modem history. It would be difficult to attach a figure of merit to the contribution of digital data processing to the total space program; however, there is no doubt that its role was significant over a broad spectrum of activities. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Computers and the Space Program: An Overview

    Page(s): 3 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (229 KB)  

    Since the earliest days of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the American space program has been dependent on the data processing industry. Without the computer, there would have been no space program and, likewise, without the space program the main technological forces driving the computer industry forward would have been missing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Development of On-board Space Computer Systems

    Page(s): 5 - 19
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1452 KB)  

    This paper describes the functions, characteristics, requirements, and design approaches of the on-board computers for seven space vehicles—Saturn I, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, Gemini, Saturn IB, Saturn V, Skylab, and Space Shuttle. The data contained in this paper represent an encapsulation of sixteen years of space-borne-computer development. In addition, the evolution of computer characteristics such as size, weight, power consumption, computing speed, memory capacity, technology, architectural features, software, and fault-tolerant capabilities, is summarized and analyzed to point out the design trends and the motivating causes. The evolution in utilization of the on-board computers; their interface with sensors, displays, and controls; and their interaction with operators are summarized and analyzed to show the increasing role played by computers in the overall space-vehicle system. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Redundancy Management Technique for Space Shuttle Computers

    Page(s): 20 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (529 KB)  

    This paper describes how a set of off-the-shelf general purpose digital computers is being managed in a redundant avionic configuration while performing flight-critical functions for the Space Shuttle. The description covers the architecture of the redundant computer set, associated redundancy design requirements, and the technique used to detect a failed computer and to identify this failure on-board to the crew. Significant redundancy management requirements consist of imposing a total failure coverage on all flight-critical functions, when more than two redundant computers are operating in flight, and a maximum failure coverage for limited storage and processing time, when only two are operating. The basic design technique consists of using dedicated redundancy management hardware and software to allow each computer to judge the “health” of the others by comparing computer outputs and to “vote” on the judgments. In formulating the design, hardware simplicity, operational flexibility, and minimum computer resource utilization were used as criteria. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Performance Modeling of Earth Resources Remote Sensors

    Page(s): 29 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB)  

    A technique is presented for constructing a mathematical model of an Earth resources remote sensor. The technique combines established models of electronic and optical components with formulated models of scan and vibration effects, and it includes a model of the radiation effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The resulting composite model is useful for predicting in-flight sensor performance, and a descriptive set of performance parameters is derived in terms of the model. A method is outlined for validating the model for each sensor of interest. The validation for one airborne infrared scanning system is accomplished in part by a satisfactory comparison of predicted response with laboratory data for that sensor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data

    Page(s): 40 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1081 KB)  

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and extracting information are also illustrated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Errata [Erratum]

    Page(s): 57
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (186 KB)  
    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Skylab Attitude Control System

    Page(s): 58 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB)  

    The attitude stabilization and control system for Skylab evolved from an analog controller into a fully digital processing system. Features of this system include a software-determined attitude reference to provide general maneuvering ability, an in-orbit programming capability, the use of large control moment gyros for attitude control, and the use of vehicle maneuvers to desaturate gyro momentum. The objectives, requirements, and implementations of the control system software are described, along with the rationales for certain design decisions and discussion of some system dynamics and actual performance. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Large Space Telescope

    Page(s): 67 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB)  

    The Large Space Telescope, which is scheduled to be put into orbit above the Earth's atmosphere by NASA in the early 1980s, is a large, multipurpose optical instrument that is being designed to provide an increase in observational capability of nearly 100×. with respect to brightness, 10× in resolving power, and a substantial bandwidth improvement over ground-based facilities. This paper describes, from a functional performance viewpoint, the LST system and, in greater detail, the on-board Data Management and Pointing Control Systems. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Launch Processing System

    Page(s): 75 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (481 KB)  

    This paper presents a functional description of the Launch Processing System, which provides automatic ground checkout and control of the Space Shuttle launch site and airborne systems, with emphasis placed on the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem. Hardware and software modular design concepts for the distributed computer system are reviewed relative to performing system tests, launch operations control, and status monitoring during ground operations. The communication network design, which uses a Common Data Buffer interface to all computers to allow computer-to-computer communication, is discussed in detail. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Real-Time Orbiter Abort Guidance

    Page(s): 84 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (395 KB)  

    This paper describes a real-time abort guidance algorithm which determines the time sequence of the powered maneuvers and the orientation of the thrust vector throughout an abort-mission action initiated during the orbiter ascent phase. It involves guiding a heavily loaded Space Shuttle vehicle, passing through severe environmental conditions, back to a designated landing area. A graphical example and estimates of the computer requirements are included. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Page(s): 89 - 92
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions are identified as follows: DPD is the Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GPD, General Products Division; GSD, General Systems Division; OPD, Office Products Division; RES, Research Division; SCD, System Communications Division; and SPD, System Products Division. Papers are listed alphabetically by name of journal. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Recent IBM Patents

    Page(s): 93 - 95
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Page(s): 96 - 98
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (334 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous issues

    Page(s): 99 - 100
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center