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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 4 • Date July 1976

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Automatic Programming Through Natural Language Dialogue: A Survey

    Page(s): 302 - 313
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (681 KB)  

    This paper describes and compares four research projects whose goal is to develop an automatic programming system that can carry on a natural language dialogue with a user about his requirements and then produce an appropriate program. It also discusses some of the important issues in this research area. View full abstract»

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  • On Natural Language Based Computer Systems

    Page(s): 314 - 325
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (669 KB)  

    Some of the arguments that have been given both for and against the use of natural languages in question-answering and programming systems are discussed. Several natural language based computer systems are considered in assessing the current level of system development. Finally, certain pervasive difficulties that have arisen in developing natural language based systems are identified, and the approach taken to overcome them in the REQUEST (Restricted English QUESTion-Answering) System is described. View full abstract»

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  • REQUEST: A Natural Language Question-Answering System

    Page(s): 326 - 335
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB)  

    Request is an experimental Restricted English QUESTion-answering system that can analyze and answer a variety of English questions, spanning a significant range of syntactic complexity, with respect to a small Fortune-500-type data base. The long-range objective of this work is to explore the possibility of providing nonprogrammers with a convenient and powerful means of accessing information in formatted data bases without having to learn a formal query language. To address the somewhat conflicting requirements of understandability for the machine and maximum naturalness for the user, request uses a language processing approach featuring: 1) the use of restricted English; 2) a two-phase, complier-like organization; and 3) linguistic analysis based on a transformational grammar. The present paper explores the motivation for this approach in some detail and also describes the organization, operation, and current status of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Conceptual Graphs for a Data Base Interface

    Page(s): 336 - 357
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1041 KB)  

    A data base system that supports natural language queries is not really natural if it requires the user to know how the data are represented. This paper defines a formalism, called conceptual graphs, that can describe data according to the user's view and access data according to the system's view. In addition, the graphs can represent functional dependencies in the data base and support inferences and computations that are not explicit in the initial query. View full abstract»

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  • Bicubic Patch Surfaces for High-Speed Numerical Control Processing

    Page(s): 358 - 367
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    Parametric bicubic patch surfaces have been used for some time in manufacture and design. It is convenient to have such surfaces available as standard numerical control surfaces using the APT programming language. A major drawback is that they are costly to use for data processing of numerical control programs. If, however, nonparametric bicubics are used, computer time, and hence cost, can be reduced dramatically. This paper details a strategy and algorithms for this purpose. Experimental data suggest that computer costs are comparable to, or somewhat lower than, the costs for processing tabulated cylinder surfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Column Access of a Bubble Lattice: Column Translation and Lattice Translation

    Page(s): 368 - 375
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (567 KB)  

    The use of a regular array, or lattice, of magnetic bubbles for the storage of information requires two kinds of functions: the read-write functions involving the generation and discrimination of bubbles with different wall structures, and the access functions involving the insertion and removal of bubbles at selected locations in the lattice. In a column-accessed bubble lattice device, accessing is accomplished by first translating the lattice to position the desired column of bubbles in an input-output access channel and then translating this column along the channel to a detector area outside of the lattice while simultaneously introducing new bubbles from a generator area at the other end of the channel. An analysis of the influence of device design parameters on access rate indicates that the most important parameters are the column translation rate and lattice capacity. A device is described that was designed to study the translation of a lattice of bubbles and of a single column of bubbles within the lattice. Quasistatic operating margins and dynamic measurements of this test device indicate that the column-access configuration provides feasible means for the rapid access of bubbles from a lattice. View full abstract»

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  • Scanning Electron Beam Lithography for Fabrication of Magnetic Bubble Circuits

    Page(s): 376 - 388
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (862 KB)  

    A high-resolution technique is described for the experimental fabrication of Permalloy patterns for magnetic bubble circuits having linewidths as small as 3000 Å The system includes a computer-controlled electron beam, automatic registration, a modified field-stitching method, and exposure control to compensate for proximity effects. Patterns are formed either by electroplating or by evaporation. The system can be used either for directly writing on bubble wafers or for fabricating masks for x-ray or conformable-mask printing. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a Swinging Arm Actuator for a Disk File

    Page(s): 389 - 397
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    An integral disk enclosure that incorporates a novel head-positioning actuator concept is used in the IBM System/32 and in recently announced terminal controllers, such as the Retail Store Controller and the Communication Controller. Based on a swinging arm rather than the conventional linear carriage, the actuator presented the designers with opportunities to create a simplified mechanism and to gain advantages in reliability and cost. This paper describes the geometrical, structural, and electromechanical basis of the design. View full abstract»

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  • Fast Beamforming with Circular Receiving Arrays

    Page(s): 398 - 408
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (572 KB)  

    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) can be applied to circular arrays receiving wideband sonar radiation. As with conventional beamforming, the FFT serves in the first stage to divide the spectrum into narrow frequency bands. Then the array element responses of each band are analyzed in a second stage of FFTs for the Fourier components (modes) of the array excitation function for the respective band. Application of weights of the mode responses, to simulate the radiation efficiency of the modes for any given element radiation pattern and to control the array pattern, yields the Fourier components of the beam pattern. To integrate these Fourier components, inverse FFTs follow which yield as many beam pattern samples as there are array elements. View full abstract»

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  • Structure and Magnetic Anisotropy of Amorphous Gd-Co Films

    Page(s): 409 - 411
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (351 KB)  

    It is found that the structure of amorphous Gd-Co films, as revealed by x-ray diffraction, is correlated with the magnitude of bias voltage present during the sputter deposition. Films sputter deposited with zero bias voltage typically show one broad peak in an x-ray diffraction spectrum, and films sputter deposited with −100 volts bias show two broad peaks with a shoulder between them. These structural differences appear to be related to the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in these films. View full abstract»

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  • Comment on “Segment Synthesis in Logical Data Base Design” [Letter to the Editor]

    Page(s): 412
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Page(s): 413 - 418
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (492 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions are identified as follows: DPD is the Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GPD, General Products Division; GSD, General Systems Division; OPD, Office Products Division; RES, Research Division; SCD, System Communications Division; and SPD, System Products Division. Papers are listed alphabetically by name of journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Page(s): 419 - 421
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (224 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Page(s): 422 - 425
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contents of previous issues

    Page(s): 426 - 428
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center