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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 3 • Date May 1977

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Thermal Effects on the Photoresist AZ1350J

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 210 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (759 KB)  

    An experimental study is reported on the various effects produced by the baking steps normally used in processing positive photoresists for application in microelectronics. The particular material investigated is AZ1350J, made by the Shipley Company, Inc. The thermal effects are studied in terms of a newly modified model that characterizes the exposure and development processes in photoresist. The changes in performance of the photoresist as a result of prebake, post-exposure bake, and post-development bake are discussed and are related to the parameters in the model that govern exposure and development. The model is derived from physical rather than chemical measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal Analysis of Positive Photoresist Films by Mass Spectrometry

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 219 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    Mass spectrometry is used to monitor the effect of temperature on positive photoresist and its two major components, a base resin and a photoactive compound. This technique is also used to identify the photolytic products of photoresist by exposing it in situ to ultraviolet radiation and to identify the resulting volatile products when it is heated after exposure. Quantitative data are obtained for the two major thermal products of photoresist, and the activation energy is calculated for the thermal degradation of the photoactive compound. View full abstract»

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  • Conduction Studies in Silicon Nitride: Dark Currents and Photocurrents

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 227 - 244
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (43)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1492 KB)  

    Dark conduction and photoconduction phenomena in amorphous, stoichiometric Si3 N4 films incorporated into metal-silicon nitride-silicon (MNS) structures are studied in detail. Results demonstrating the importance of hole conduction in Si3N4 thin films are presented. The importance of trapped space charge injected from the contacts is shown in an analysis of the effects of Si3N4 thickness and the choice of gate metal on conduction. Contact effects that are apparent in the current characteristics of thin Si3N4 layers become dominated by bulk conduction mechanisms as the silicon nitride film increases in thickness. Optical interference effects in photoconduction are used to determine the origin of photocarriers. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Signature Verification Based on Accelerometry

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 245 - 253
    Cited by:  Papers (21)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (843 KB)  

    The fine structure of the muscle forces that are exerted during the writing of a signature is constant and well defined for most people. In general, the fine structure is not subject to conscious control. Based on these observations, an experimental system has been designed that utilizes a person's signature dynamics to verify identities. The design and operational features of this system are described. Experiments on 70 subjects during a four-week period show a 2.9 percent rejection of valid signatures and a 2.1 percent acceptance of forgeries. An average of 1.2 trials was necessary for verification. The forgers were knowledgeable about the verification technique and did their best to deceive the system. The acceptance rate of random forgeries, i.e., accidental matching of two separate signatures, was 0.16 percent. View full abstract»

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  • Discrete Link Capacity and Priority Assignments in Communication Networks

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 254 - 263
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (854 KB)  

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete link capacity assignment in store-and-forward packet switching communication networks. Our problem formulation calls for minimizing the network cost while satisfying all the average packet delay constraints specified for different classes of packets. Heuristic algorithms which give near-optimal solutions of the problem are developed. We first describe a discrete link capacity assignment algorithm for networks with arbitrarily defined classes of packets having individual delay constraints. The problem of priority assignment on different classes of packets is then investigated, and an algorithm is developed which assigns suboptimal priorities on classes of packets based on parameters such as delay requirement, path length, packet length, and packet rate. These two algorithms for capacity assignment and priority assignment are combined and tested over a number of examples. It is found that a substantial reduction on network cost can be achieved by the use of a simple priority queuing discipline. View full abstract»

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  • Buffer Performance Analysis of Communication Processors During Slowdown at Network Control

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 264 - 272
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (701 KB)  

    An approximate model based on renewal theory has been developed for the performance analysis of communication processors during Network Control Program (NCP) slowdown. Performance values, which include cycle length, buffer utilization, and message loss, were computed as functions of traffic loads and user-assigned threshold values of free buffers were used for slowdown control. Comparison of results obtained by the approximate method with simulated results shows a high degree of accuracy for the approximation. View full abstract»

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  • Improving the Computation of Lower Bounds for Optimal Schedules

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 273 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    Ways of decreasing the number of operations needed to compute the lower bounds of optimal schedules, by reducing the number of time intervals that must be considered, are presented. The bounds apply to a system of identical processors executing a partially ordered set of tasks, with known execution times, using a non-preemptive scheduling strategy. In one approach we find that the required number of intervals depends on the graph. In our other approach, which subsumes the first, the number of intervals is decreased to at most min [D2/2, n2], where D is the deadline to complete the tasks and n is the number of tasks. The actual number of intervals for a particular graph can be considerably smaller than this worst case. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Memories with Faster Random and Sequential Access

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 281 - 288
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    This paper extends the dynamic memory proposed by Aho and Ullman in two directions. Instead of a shuffle permutation, block shuffles are introduced. By choosing suitable block sizes, faster random and sequential access may result. Another direction of extension comes from the addition of a reverse cyclic permutation, which results in even faster random and sequential access. Analyses for both the worst and the average cases are given. Generalizations to arbitrary radices are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitance Probe Study of Rotating-Head/Tape Interface

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 289 - 293
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB)  

    A modified version of the capacitance probe technique is used to investigate the head-tape interface in a rotating head configuration. The relationship between air-bearing spacing and contour design is studied as a function of tape tension, head protrusion, and velocity; in addition, the effect of wave dynamics on flying height is examined. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 294 - 297
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions are identified as follows: DPD is the Data Processing Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GPD, General Products Division; GSD, General System Division: OPD, Office Products Division: RES, Research Division; SCD, System Communications Division; and SPD, System Products Division. Papers are listed alphabetically by name of journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 298 - 301
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1977 , Page(s): 302 - 304
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center