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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1979

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 2
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (153 KB)  

    Sputtering plays a crucial role in the preparation of thin films of metals, semiconductors, and insulators for many industrial applications. Although other deposition techniques such as evaporation, electroplating, and chemical vapor deposition exist, sputtering, because of the numerous controllable parameters involved, offers an excellent opportunity for manipulating such basic physical properties as conductivity, grain structure and size, morphology, impurity or dopant level, adhesion, optical transmission, etc., as well as dimensional (film thickness) and chemical (composition) properties. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical Properties of RF Sputtering Systems

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 3 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)  

    A theory is developed that gives a relatively complete electrical characterization of rf sputtering systems. Three types of systems are analyzed: tuned substrate, driven substrate, and controlled area ratio of electrode (CARE) systems. The theory is applicable to any of these systems that do not use magnetic fields to confine the plasma. Given the input rf power and voltage at the target, and any other parameters that can be specified as independent variables (e.g., pressure, substrate drive voltage, tuning impedance, and system geometry), the theory provides explicit values for all dc and rf electrical parameters of the system. The dc bias developed at the substrate is explained and related to the resputtering energy. In addition, an approximate calculation is presented for the ion density in the plasma; this calculation allows a semiquantitative estimate of the rf voltage developed at the target for a given value of rf input power. It also shows the influence of pressure and frequency on rf sputtering system operation. Comparisons are made with real rf sputtering systems; these show that the theory is quite successful in predicting the operation of these systems. In addition, a much better understanding is achieved of some of the complex electrical phenomena encountered in these systems. The theory should prove useful both for new system design and for diagnostic work on existing equipment. View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Scattering and Ionization on RF Impedance in Glow Discharge Sheaths

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 16 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (564 KB)  

    The effects of scattering and ionization on the rf impedance of a glow discharge sheath are calculated using an equivalent dc sheath model. The effects of scattering are treated in terms of a drag force; equilibrium between the ion drift velocity and field is not required. The ratio of first ionization coefficient to pressure, α/p, is assumed to be constant, and the ion energy and ion current injected from the glow are assumed as initial parameters. In the limit of low pressures, the calculation agrees with the Child-Langmuir law. At intermediate pressures, the results agree with the mobility limited solution. At high pressures, the product of pressure and sheath dimension, pd, becomes constant because of ionization effects. The results of this calculation, obtained by numeric integration, can be accurately approximated by an interpolation formula. This formula provides a simple means for calculating the rf impedance of a sheath. View full abstract»

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  • Sputtering Process Model of Deposition Rate

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 24 - 32
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (627 KB)  

    A model of the sputtering process has been developed that predicts the deposition rate of a sputtering system with parallel-plate geometry. By using data for sputtering yield vs voltage obtained from an ion-beam sputtering system, the model applies a new theory for computing the backscatter of the sputtered material, and, from the results, predicts deposition rates. The model also considers the effects of charge exchange in the sheaths, and of re-emission of sputtered material at the substrate. The model is valid for magnetic, tuned substrate, driven substrate, and controlled area ratio diode systems. Comparison with observed deposition rates shows good agreement for clean systems. An experimental APL program that uses the model has been written. View full abstract»

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  • Some Chemical Aspects of the Fluorocarbon Plasma Etching of Silicon and Its Compounds

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 33 - 41
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (14)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (701 KB)  

    Mass spectrometric sampling of fluorocarbon glow discharges and in situ measurements of the etch rate of Si and SiO2 with quartz crystal microbalances have been used to provide additional insight concerning the chemistry involved when additive gases such as O2, H2, N2, H2O, and C2F4 are injected into a CF4 glow discharge. The results obtained in our low-pressure, long-residence-time system indicate that the etching behavior of the discharge is not significantly influenced by the molecular structure of the injected gas molecules but is determined primarily by the elemental composition of the glow discharge. This phenomenologically observed result can be used to predict qualitatively the relative etching behavior of a large class of gaseous etchant mixtures as well as the role of various electrode or wall materials in the plasma etching process. Although this oversimplified interpretation should not be extended to short-residence-time plasma systems, it is believed to be valid for some of the configurations used in plasma etching and reactive ion etching. View full abstract»

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  • Photochemical Decomposition Mechanisms for AZ-Type Photoresists

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 42 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (977 KB)  

    The photochemical decomposition mechanism of orthonaphthoquinonediazides has been investigated principally by infrared and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. The results demonstrate that the decomposition proceeds via a ketene intermediate to a photoproduct, the nature of which depends on the reaction conditions. Model resist systems were prepared by mixing orthonaphthoquinonediazides and 2,3,6-trimethylphenol or the diazide plus Novolak resin. Under ambient thermal and humidity conditions, ultraviolet (UV) exposure of the diazide yields 3-indenecarboxylic acid as the final photoproduct. However, UV exposure in vacuo results in ester formation via a ketene-phenolic OH reaction. The decomposition pathway and ensuing reactions have been shown to be the same for both 1- and 3-orthonaphthoquinonediazides attached to mono- and trihydroxybenzophenones. The technological implications for resist processing derived from these studies are also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Annealing of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Film-Based Magnetic Recording Media for Improved Dimensional Stability

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 56 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (615 KB)  

    PET-film-based magnetic recording media are subject to a number of dimensional instabilities, a major one being in-plane shrinkage due to stress relaxation in the biaxially oriented substrate. Annealing the media allows stress relaxation without significantly degrading other properties and makes possible the use of higher track densities. Effects of annealing on mechanical properties, coefficients of thermal and hygroscopic expansion, and long-term dimensional stability of the media are described. View full abstract»

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  • Laminated Films with Isotropic In-Plane Properties

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 66 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (889 KB)  

    Commercially available polymer films used in structural applications, such as biaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate), exhibit pronounced anisotropy in mechanical properties, thermal expansion, and long-term dimensional stability. Films with more nearly isotropic in-plane properties have been produced by laminating plies of PET film at various angles to one another. In addition, composite films have been made with nearly isotropic properties and with significantly reduced coefficients of expansion compared to those of commercially available polymer films. A laminate with PET faces bonded to a low expansion alloy foil core had the best dimensional stability and the least anisotropy of the films studied. View full abstract»

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  • On Future-Dependent Block Coding for Input-Restricted Channels

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 75 - 81
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (508 KB)  

    Consider a restricted channel whose constraints may be characterized by a finite state machine model. Conventional coding techniques for such channels result in codes where the choice of a word to be transmitted is only a function of the current state and the information to be represented by this word. This paper develops techniques for constructing codes where the code word choice may also depend on future information to be transmitted. It is shown that such future-dependent codes exist for channels and coding rates where no conventional code may be constructed. View full abstract»

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  • Algorithm to Check Network States for Deadlock

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 82 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  

    The problem of checking the states of a system for deadlock is treated for a single class of systems, or networks, and for a single class of resources, or buffers. An algorithm is described that, for a given state, requires O[m + n2] operations, where m and n are, respectively, the number of tasks and nodes in the state. (In general, m is greater than n.) View full abstract»

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  • Break-Up of a Liquid Jet: Second Perturbation Solution for One-Dimensional Cosserat Theory

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 87 - 92
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB)  

    The second perturbation solution is derived within the nonlinear one-dimensional Cosserat theory for a liquid jet emanating from a nozzle with harmonic excitation. Numerical results are presented for parameters relevant to ink-jet printing technology. Satellite drops are predicted but always in the backward merging condition. The results are compared with the corresponding solution obtained by Pimbley and Lee, who used a different one-dimensional set of equations with a different formulation of the problem and obtained forward merging satellite drops under some conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Book Review

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 93 - 94
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 95 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions are identified as follows: DPD is the Data Processing Division; DSD, Data Systems Division; FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GPD, General Products Division; GSD, General Systems Division; OPD, Office Products Division; RES, Research Division; SCD, System Communications Division; and SPD, System Products Division. Journals are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 102 - 104
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (245 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Authors

    Publication Year: 1979 , Page(s): 105 - 106
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center