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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 4 • Date July 1983

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • High-Resolution Carbon-13 NMR of Polymers in the Solid State

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 302 - 312
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (826 KB)  

    This paper reviews the salient features of the methods used for resolution and sensitivity enhancement in 13C NMR spectra of solids. Performance characteristics of the unique variable-temperature cross-polarization magic angle spinning (VT-CPMAS) apparatus developed in our laboratory are given. We present results of structural studies on fluoropolymers using this technique, and discuss ... View full abstract»

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  • Magic Angle Spinning NMR of Conducting Polymers

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 313 - 320
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (595 KB)  

    Because of their typically intractable nature, conducting polymers as a class of materials have proved particularly difficult to characterize by the conventional techniques of polymer analysis. We present here examples of the application of a powerful new tool, cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) 13C NMR spectroscopy, to the investigation of the structure and reactions of th... View full abstract»

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  • Polymer Structure Determination Using Electron Diffraction Techniques

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 321 - 329
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (762 KB)  

    The crystallographic structure of organic crystals is most commonly studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Unfortunately, rather large crystals, at least 106 µm3, are required for XRD analysis, and it is often quite difficult and sometimes impossible to prepare such large crystals. On the other hand, electron diffraction techniques, although not nearly as pr... View full abstract»

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  • Electrochemical Synthesis of Electrically Conducting Polymers from Aromatic Compounds

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 330 - 31
    Cited by:  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (882 KB)  

    Amorphous, electrically conducting polymeric films can be deposited from acetonitrile solutions of specific aromatic compounds containing an appropriate electrolyte. Free-standing films peeled off a platinum electrode have electrical conductivities σ between 10−3 and 1 Ω−1-cm−1. Polymers resembling the better-known polypyrrole hav... View full abstract»

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  • Mechanical Properties of Electrochemically Prepared Polypyrrole Films

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 342 - 347
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB)  

    The mechanical and conducting properties of free-standing films of polypyrrole toluenesulfonate depend on the preparation conditions. Films prepared in aqueous ethylene glycol solvent mixtures show a variation of two orders of magnitude in the conductivity and of a factor of three in the tensile strength. View full abstract»

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  • Electron Microscopy of Carbon-Loaded Polymers

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 348 - 355
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB)  

    It is very difficult to fully characterize the spatial distribution of particles in carbon-loaded polymers using traditional methods. One approach has been to cross-section the polymers, using ultramicrotomy techniques, to a thickness of 80–100 nm. These sections are then examined in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Unfortunately, the information on particle dispersion obtained fro... View full abstract»

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  • Color Display and Interactive Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Data

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 356 - 366
    Cited by:  Papers (11)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB)  

    Three-dimensional results from engineering and scientific computations often involve the display and interpretation of a large volume of complex data. A method is developed for color display of 3D data with several interactive options to facilitate interpretation. The method is based on representing points whose values fall within a specified range as a single hue. An image is formed by overlaying... View full abstract»

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  • Row-by-Row Dynamic Image Analysis of a Matrix of Scanned Points

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 367 - 375
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB)  

    A practical image analysis algorithm is described that incorporates features to permit it to carry out its analysis on a row-by-row basis, in contrast to a full image matrix basis. A significant storage saving is realized, since the total image to be scanned is substantially larger than that used by this method. The dynamic build-up of the image on a scan-by-scan or row-by-row basis is carried out... View full abstract»

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  • A Hybrid Optical-Digital Image Processing Method for Surface Inspection

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 376 - 385
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB)  

    A hybrid measurement technique is proposed for high-precision surface inspection. The technique uses an interferometer to image microscopic surface defects. In order to quantify the degree of various surface defects, the interferograms are scanned, digitized, and subsequently converted to a binary image by using an adaptive thresholding technique which takes into account the inhomogeneity of the i... View full abstract»

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  • A Processor-Based OCR System

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 386 - 399
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1064 KB)  

    A low-cost optical character recognition (OCR) system can be realized by means of a document scanner connected to a CPU through an interface. The interface performs elementary image processing functions, such as noise filtering and thresholding of the video image from the scanner. The processor receives a binary image of the document, formats the image into individual character patterns, and class... View full abstract»

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  • Image Thresholding for Optical Character Recognition and Other Applications Requiring Character Image Extraction

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 400 - 411
    Cited by:  Papers (36)  |  Patents (48)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (967 KB)  

    Two new, cost-effective thresholding algorithms for use in extracting binary images of characters from machine- or hand-printed documents are described. The creation of a binary representation from an analog image requires such algorithms to determine whether a point is converted into a binary one because it falls within a character stroke or a binary zero because it does not. This thresholding is... View full abstract»

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  • Exclusive-OR Representations of Boolean Functions

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 412 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB)  

    With the goal of making exclusive-OR formulations of switching functions more readily available to designers for implementation in LSI and VLSI technologies, we introduce the concept of an exclusive-OR space in which an exclusive-OR normal form is defined to correspond to the conventional disjunctive normal form. A geometrical representation of exclusive-OR space is described, and its various base... View full abstract»

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  • Recent Papers by IBM Authors

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 417 - 422
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions or groups are identifed as follows: CHQ is Corporate Headquarters: CPD, Communication Products Division: DSD. Data Systems Division; FED, Field Engineering Division: FSD, Federal Systems Division: GPD, General Products Division; GSD, General Systems Division: GTD, General Techn... View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Publication Year: 1983 , Page(s): 423 - 424
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (139 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center