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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 1984

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Preface: Advances in materials and processes for printed circuit packaging technology

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):652 - 654
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB)

    The basic set of sciencesr elated to printed circuit board production includes almost all of the basic disciplines of the materials scientist. This is well illustrated here in a set of papers encompassing studies in materials characterization, analytical chemistry, polymer chemistry, electrochemical reactions, surface phenomena, diffusion and permeation, mechanics, and metallurgy View full abstract»

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  • Moisture solubility and diffusion in epoxy and epoxy-glass composites

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):655 - 661
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    The solubility and kinetics of moisture transport mechanisms in epoxy-type resin and resin-glass composites have been investigated over a range of partial pressure and temperature. Moisture absorption-desorption in these systems is a quasi-reversible process, the kinetics of which are non-Fickian (Type II) and dependent on prior history. The multistaged sorption and transport behavior are interpre... View full abstract»

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  • Bending-cantilever method for the study of moisture swelling in polymers

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):662 - 667
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    Self-induced bending of a bilayer strip is shown to be a simple but sensitive method for the study of water absorption and swelling in polymers. Expressions for both the time-dependent and equilibrium curvature of the strip have been derived, enabling both diffusional and dilatational parameters to be extracted from experimental data. To illustrate the technique, it is shown that a vacuum-dried ep... View full abstract»

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  • Mechanisms of electroless metal plating: I. Mixed potential theory and the interdependence of partial reactions

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):668 - 678
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB)

    Electroless plating reactions are classified according to four overall reaction schemes in which each partial reaction is either under diffusion control or electrochemical control. The theory of a technique, based on the observation of the mixed potential as a function of agitation, concentration of the reducing agent, and concentration of metal ions, is presented. By using this technique it is sh... View full abstract»

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  • Mechanisms of electroless metal plating: II. Decomposition of formaldehyde

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):679 - 689
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (822 KB)

    A detailed investigation of the decomposition of formaldehyde was carried out to account for the fact that formaldehyde decomposition on Group VIII metals, e.g., Pd, occurs without simultaneous hydrogen generation, while on Group IB metals, e.g., Cu, formaldehyde decomposition is accompanied by hydrogen evolution. It was found that in principle metals may be divided into three main classes: (a) me... View full abstract»

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  • Initiation of electroless Cu plating on nonmetallic surfaces

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):690 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (666 KB)

    Electroless plating of a metal on a dielectric substrate requires the prior deposition of a catalyst such as a Pd-Sn colloid consisting of a metallic Pd core surrounded by a stabilizing layer of Sn ions. The activation step (deposition of the colloid) is usually followed by an acceleration step (removal of excess ionic tin). Adhesion of the deposit to the substrate is improved by mechanical and ch... View full abstract»

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  • Microstructure evolution during electroless copper deposition

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):697 - 710
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1373 KB)

    A study using transmission and scanning electron microscopy was made of the evolution of the microstructure of electroless plated Cu on activated amorphous substrates and on single-crystal Cu grains. On amorphous substrates activated in a PdCl2-SnCl2 colloidal solution, Sn atoms dissolved into the plating solution concurrently with Cu deposition on the substrate during the in... View full abstract»

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  • Micromechanics of multilayer printed circuit boards

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):711 - 718
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)

    Analytical and experimental techniques are reported for the evaluation of micromechanical components in multilayer printed circuit boards. The concern in this investigation comes from the Z-axis thermal mismatch between epoxy-glass and copper that generates stresses when the board is subject to a temperature change. Finite-element modeling for both plated through-holes (PTH) and buried via (PV) st... View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of interconnections between packaging levels

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):719 - 725
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB)

    In large-scale integrated circuits, the interface between ceramic modules and the next level—epoxy-glass circuit boards or cards—contains a large number of pin arrays. Because the modules and the card are usually quite rigid and mechanically strong, the interface between the module and the card is commonly the weakest region in the assembly system. This interface is where the differe... View full abstract»

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  • Immersion tin: Its chemistry, metallurgy, and application in electronic packaging technology

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):726 - 734
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (8)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (704 KB)

    The surfaces in copper-plated through-holes in printed circuit boards for complex electronic packaging can be made solderable by immersion deposition of tin. The properties of the prepared surfaces vary from those of “white immersion tin,” which is easily wetted by molten tin solder, to those of “gray immersion tin,” which is nearly nonwettable. The wettability affects ... View full abstract»

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  • High-temperature stability of a polyimide film

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):735 - 740
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (451 KB)

    Polyimide (PMDA-ODA) films were analyzed by mass spectroscopy to determine their high-temperature stability. Using a high-resolution instrument, the identity of the low-molecular-weight evolved gases was confirmed. With a semiquantitative technique, the effect of a vacuum pre-bake was shown to reduce outgassing appreciably during subsequent treatment at high temperature. Subjection of the films to... View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Gafac in complex solution matrices

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):741 - 747
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    A new analytic method is described for determining the concentration of Gafac Re-610 (trademark of the GAF Corporation, New York, NY) in multicomponent solutions. This method utilizes a simple methylene chloride extraction to separate the Gafac from interfering chemical species, such as cupric sulfate. The ultraviolet absorbance of the methylene chloride extract is then measured at 276 nm and is s... View full abstract»

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  • Recent papers by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):748 - 756
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (693 KB)

    Reprints of the papers listed here may usually be obtained by writing directly to the authors. The authors' IBM divisions or groups are identified as follows: CHQ is Corporate Headquarters; CPD Communication Products Division; DSD, Data Systems Division: ESD, Entry SystemsD ivision: FED, Field Engineering Division; FSD, Federal Systems Division; GPD, General Products Division: GTD, General Technol... View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):757 - 760
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (274 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author Index for papers in Volume 28

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):761 - 764
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Subject Index for papers in Volume 28

    Publication Year: 1984, Page(s):765 - 768
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

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The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center