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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1985

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 442
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB)  

    The attempts to create machines capable of character-by-character direct printing in the 18th and 19th centuries were motivated by the sociological and technological changes brought about by the industrial revolutions in the Old and New Worlds. As industries became larger and more complex, the demand for the rapid dissemination of information created a need for immediate production of the printed word, and hence in the early 20th century the manual typewriter became the instrument for producing correspondence and other documents. This fostered a worldwide industry for the production of typewriters for almost every known language with subsidiaryin dustries for producing paper, ribbons, etc. and also created a need for skilled operators. Although the quality and reliability of typewriters constantly improved with time, they largely remained manually operated mechanical devices that printed one letter per keystroke from a single typebar that impacted a ribbon and transferred the character to the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of the ®SELECTRIC System/2000

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 443 - 448
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB)  

    This paper presents an overview of the papers in this issue of the IBM Journal of Research and Development covering the design and implementation of the ®SELECTRIC System/2000 Typewriter/Printer products. The SELECTRIC System/2000 products comprise a nonimpact typewriter and printer, two impact typewriters, and an impact printer which use printwheel technology. The development approach for the SELECTRIC System/2000 products, which included design for automation, introduction of new technologies, and product development concurrent with manufacturing, was accomplished by the use of common architecture, hardware, and software. View full abstract»

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  • Resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing: A historical review and introduction to a new printing technology

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 449 - 458
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)  

    This paper describes a new high-quality thermal transfer printing process in which a printhead consisting of a linear array of small-diameter electrodes produces highly localized Joule heating of a resistive thermal transfer printing ribbon. The heat generated in the resistive ribbon results in the melting of a thermoplastic ink which is then transferred to a printable medium, such as paper, by contact. The origins of the technology in IBM are discussed, together with a description of the resistive ribbon materials and structure, the printhead, and some experimental printer performance values. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of the resistive ribbon technology in a printer and correcting typewriter

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 459 - 469
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1070 KB)  

    This paper describes key technology implementation details and performance characteristics of a printer and typewriter using the resistive ribbon technology. The work describes the first commercial application of this print and correction technology. Key parameters necessary for proper system function such as current, various forces, velocities, and component integration are discussed. The rationales behind various compromises and problem solutions are given. A discussion of the characteristics of the print produced, along with application strengths and weaknesses, completes the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of a resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing process

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 470 - 477
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (708 KB)  

    Resistive ribbon thermal transfer printers transfer ink from a ribbon to paper as the result of localized Joule heating of the ribbon structure. For this printing process, this paper discusses the voltage-versus-current response of the electrode-ribbon current path, the temperature distributions throughout the ribbon structure, and the correlation of print response with electrical input power and average ribbon temperatures. Nominal input power per electrode is approximately 190 mW. For input power near this level, thermal models predict that ribbon materials which pass directly under energized electrodes reach the highest temperatures; the hottest zone in the ribbon surrounds the composite-aluminum interface. Approximately 0.1 mm downstream from the electrodes, the heated ribbon materials come to nearly constant temperature. The area of the printed image correlates with this average ribbon temperature and input power. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a membrane switch-type full-travel tactile keyboard

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 478 - 487
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1082 KB)  

    This paper describes the approaches to design and the rationale that successfully satisfied the requirements for a full-travel keyboard with usage exceeding 10 million actuations per character, satisfactory N-key roll-over, and phantom key control. Emphasis was placed on technical understanding of the effects of all material and design decisions. Interactions among design, material, and processing variables were revealed through statistical parameter modeling and environmental exposure studies. This knowledge facilitated the control of critical parameters to permit an order-of-magnitude reduction of actuation forces and tolerances. Product reliability was achieved through evaluation, environmental protection features, and stringent process controls. This paper highlights the design, materials, and processing aspects of the membrane switch developed for low-force keyboard applications. It also discusses effects of environmental factors on the individual components and overall system function. View full abstract»

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  • System control for a printwheel typewriter

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 488 - 493
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (559 KB)  

    This paper presents the design goals and architecture of the IBM ®WHEELWRITER typewriters. Some of the development efforts and resulting technical innovations, such as a unique print hammer design which minimizes sensitivities to current variations, are discussed. Included is a discussion of a variable-reluctance stepper motor driver that has selectable damping. A novel scheme for initializing the printwheel and escapement motors is given; this includes sensing the font weight. The electronic architecture of the typewriter and the design of a simplified algorithm to handle the many different keyboards that can be attached to the machine with a minimum amount of data storage are explained. View full abstract»

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  • System controls for a resistive ribbon printer

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 494 - 508
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1183 KB)  

    The system controls for a printer using the resistive ribbon print technology involve conventional requirements, such as moving the print mechanism relative to the paper, with a new requirement, controlling the electrical energy to the ribbon, an electrothermal component. Other special requirements are dictated by using the same ribbon for hard copy print/erase while ensuring that the print and erase operations are acceptable to the user. This paper discusses the design and performance of the system controls for a resistive ribbon printer that was developed for use in an interactive typewriter application and as an output printer for a personal computer. View full abstract»

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  • Ink temperatures in resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 509 - 518
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB)  

    A knowledge of ink temperatures is important in thermal transfer printing technologies. This paper reports on an experimental technique which uses an infrared radiometric microscope to measure the temperature of ink deposited by the resistive ribbon process on transparent substrates. A detailed examination has been made of the spatial and temporal profiles of ink temperatures as a function of input current, printing speed, substrate materials, and number of active electrodes. The results on a ®Kapton substrate permit estimation of the ink temperatures reached during printing on paper. The peak ink temperatures are observed to depend linearly on input current and inversely on an approximately linear function of writing speed from 2 to 8 inches per second. Based on a phenomenological model, these results lead to a functional relationship among speed, print current, and ink temperature during printing. The model permits projections to be made of the current required over a wide range of printing speeds. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical properties of resistive ribbon

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 519 - 526
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB)  

    In resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing, a printhead consisting of an array of electrodes passes current into a thin ribbon to generate heat for transferring ink to paper. The ribbon is made of a polymeric material containing carbon black so as to be conducting, and has aluminum deposited on one side of the ribbon for a base contact. In this paper, the electrical conduction processes within the ribbon are discussed. Current-voltage measurements have been made with electrodes of various types in order to separate effects due to contact resistance, aluminum/resistive ribbon interfacial resistance, and bulk conduction in the resistive ribbon. Measurements have been made over a range of frequency and temperature to determine the basic conduction mechanisms. A model of conduction is presented that is in qualitative agreement with the data. View full abstract»

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  • Thermal behavior of resistive ribbon for single-stylus excitation

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 527 - 537
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (982 KB)  

    This paper provides a quantitative description of the heating and cooling behavior of the resistive ribbon used in resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing. Since the focus is upon the ribbon, this description has been facilitated by substituting a single, tapered tungsten stylus as a model for a single printhead element. The experiment used an infrared spot pyrometer to measure ribbon surface temperatures downstream from the stylus while a laminate of ribbon and paper was continuously moved beneath the stylus and subjected to current pulses. Measured cooling rates under steady-state excitation at different ribbon velocities showed a behavior consistent with two simple analytic models which describe heat loss into the stylus during heating and two-dimensional diffusion into a half-plane during cooling. A detailed, time-dependent computer simulation using finite-element methods was used to provide a more detailed description of the process by taking into account the local geometry of the heat input distribution and the layered nature of the ribbon-paper laminate. The resulting three-dimensional temperature distributions are given for the steady-state case. View full abstract»

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  • Recent papers by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 538 - 542
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (474 KB)  

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information; all papers are either authored or co-authored by IBM employees. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the author whose full address is given in the listing. Papers are listed alphabetically by author. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1985 , Page(s): 543 - 544
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center