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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 5 • Date Sept. 1986

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Wide-range, low-operating-voltage, bimorph STM: Application as potentiometer

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):443 - 450
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (815 KB)

    An STM is described which operates at voltages ≤120 V. Its 3D scanner offers a wide range of displacements, has low drift and hysteresis, and exhibits good resolution. These features make it interesting for technical applications. In addition, its use as a potentiometer is described. View full abstract»

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  • Traversal time for tunneling

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):451 - 454
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)

    Tunneling of carriers through a barrier is characterized not only by a transmission and reflection probability, but also by the time it takes a carrier to traverse the barrier. Recent work which discusses the traversal time is summarized, and its relevance is highlighted by discussing several tunneling phenomena. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of vacuum tunneling currents: Anomalous barrier heights

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):455 - 459
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB)

    A design of STM which does not use vacuum internal vibration isolation and may be cooled to liquid helium temperatures is described. Tunneling current characteristics underlying STM operations are discussed. A model is presented to explain the anomalously low (<1 eV) tunneling barrier heights often observed. On the basis of this model we suggest criteria for obtaining reliable STM images. View full abstract»

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  • Mono-atomic tips for scanning tunneling microscopy

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):460 - 465
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (48)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    By field-ion microscopy techniques, we have been able to create stable tips whose very ends are made up of just one individual atom, deposited from the gas phase onto an upper terrace of a pyramidal (111)-oriented tungsten tip. The first three layers of the tip consist of one, three, and seven atoms, respectively. Consequences of these observations for the understanding of energy transfer between ... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning tunneling microscopy of cleaved semiconductor surfaces

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):466 - 471
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (603 KB)

    Scanning tunneling microscopy is used to study the surface topography of cleaved GaAs(110) and Si(111) surfaces. For GaAs we observe 1 × 1 periodicity, with an [001] corrugation amplitude of typically 0.2 Å and a [̅110] corrugation amplitude of ~0.05 Å. Surface point defects are observed, consisting typically of ∼0.7-Å-deep depressions extending along... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning tunneling microscopy of surface microstructure on rough surfaces

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):472 - 477
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB)

    An important feature of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is its ability to image nonperiodic or disordered surfaces with atomic or near-atomic lateral and vertical resolution. Many physical and chemical properties of surfaces and interfaces are sensitive to, and in some cases determined by, random roughness or surface disorder, although our understanding is hampered by the lack of suitable ... View full abstract»

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  • Near-field optical scanning microscopy with tunnel-distance regulation

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):478 - 483
    Cited by:  Patents (11)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (577 KB)

    Unprecedented optical image resolution (20 nm to 30 nm) has been obtained with a near-field optical scanner using light with a wavelength of half a micrometer. The key element is an extremely small aperture (∼10 nm) placed at the very top of a pyramidal screen. The aperture is scanned in the immediate proximity of the surface to be investigated, using vacuum tunneling to sense the distance.... View full abstract»

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  • Chemical applications of scanning tunneling microscopy

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):484 - 491
    Cited by:  Patents (11)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (703 KB)

    The development of a scanning tunneling microscope at the California Institute of Technology is well under way. Electron tunneling has been demonstrated, and preliminary surface images of gold films have been obtained. Additional instrumental development is required to achieve the atomic resolution which is required for the study of chemical processes on surfaces. A theoretical model is also being... View full abstract»

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  • Surface modification with the scanning tunneling microscope

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):492 - 499
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (10)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (763 KB)

    We describe the design and operation of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) intended for studying surfaces. We are able to prepare samples with ion bombardment and heating, and to characterize them with LEED and Auger analysis in situ before scanning with the STM. Data acquisition and analysis are computer-controlled, with a wide variety of options for presentation. In the near future, we will b... View full abstract»

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  • STM activity at the University of Basel

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):500 - 508
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB)

    We have built a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with a design similar to that published by Binnig and Rohrer. An electromagnetic device called the “maggot” has been developed for nanometer-scale movement over a wide temperature range. So far we have studied the surface topography of a Pd(100) single crystal, of a glassy Pd81Si19 alloy, and of graphite. Final... View full abstract»

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  • Applications of a high-stability scanning tunneling microscope

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):509 - 514
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)

    We have constructed a scanning tunneling microscope which is quite insensitive to vibrations and has a low thermal drift. Low thermal drift is obtained by using a compensating structure for the z-axis (perpendicular to the sample surface) of the scan unit and by utilizing symmetry in the x- and y-directions. To get a low sensitivity to vibrations, we made the scanning unit compact and rigid. A ver... View full abstract»

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  • Construction of a UHV scanning tunneling microscope

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):515 - 519
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (470 KB)

    In our laboratory, we have built an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The STM is mounted onto one flange in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber which is connected by a transfer chamber to a surface-analysis system equipped with 500-Å-resolution SAM/SEM, XPS, LEED, and sample-heating and sample-cleaning facilities. Samples and tips can be moved throughout the combined vacuum syst... View full abstract»

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  • A scanning tunneling microscope for the investigation of the growth of metal films on semiconductor surfaces

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):520 - 524
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (491 KB)

    We describe a scanning tunneling microscope which is part of an apparatus designed for the investigation of metal-semiconductor surfaces. The main parts of the tunneling unit are the piezoelectric walker (“louse”) carrying the sample for the coarse approach and a piezoelectric xyz system for movement of the tip. The xyz system is self-compensating with regard to uniform thermal expan... View full abstract»

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  • Scanning tunneling microscope automation

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):525 - 532
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (735 KB)

    A computerized system for scanning tunneling microscope control, data acquisition, and display is presented. It is based on the IBM Personal Computer Model XT or AT. An IBM Data Acquisition and Control Adapter card is used for the PC to control the electronic equipment and to measure the voltages applied to the three STM piezoelectric elements and the tunneling current. An IBM Professional Graphic... View full abstract»

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  • Theory of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy: Resolution, image and field states, and thin oxide layers

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):533 - 542
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (865 KB)

    Theoretical studies on the scanning tunneling microscope and its spectroscopic version are reviewed. This research has shown that the conductance of the tunneling electrons is strongly influenced by the classical image potential. The introduction of this potential increases the conductance, although the slope of the logarithm of the conductance versus electrode separation remains practically const... View full abstract»

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  • Computer automation for scanning tunneling microscopy

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):543 - 552
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1069 KB)

    Computer automation has become a necessary part of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We have designed a comprehensive data acquisition and image processing IBM PC/AT workstation to complement the STM. The computer is used to control the raster scans, to acquire multichannel analog data, and to store the data for later analysis both at the workstation and on a host computer. New features inc... View full abstract»

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  • The behavior and calibration of some piezoelectric ceramics used in the STM

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):553 - 556
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB)

    The high resolution and displacement measurement in the scanning tunneling microscope are dependent upon the behavior of the piezoelectric ceramics used for moving the tip. In this paper certain characteristics and features of piezoelectric ceramics relevant to the desired precision are discussed. These characteristics are the relaxation aftereffects that follow the change of the applied electric ... View full abstract»

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  • Recent papers by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):557 - 567
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (943 KB)

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Papers are listed alphabetically by author. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1986, Page(s):568 - 572
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB)
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The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center