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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s): 3
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (73 KB)

    This issue of the IBM Journal of Research and Development notes the 35th anniversary of Rolf W. Landauer, IBM Fellow, with this Corporation and, coincidentally, his sixtieth birthday. The papers in this issue, in part, reflect a symposium organized in his honor by Markus Büttiker, Seymour P. Keller, and Marc H. Brodsky on “Basic Concepts in Quantum and Stochastic Transport” he... View full abstract»

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  • World as system self-synthesized by quantum networking

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):4 - 15
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1095 KB)

    The quantum, strangest feature of this strange universe, cracks the armor that conceals the secret of existence. In contrast to the view that the universe is a machine governed by some magic equation, we explore here the view that the world is a self-synthesizing system of existences, built on observer-participancy via a network of elementary quantum phenomena. The elementary quantum phenomenon in... View full abstract»

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  • Notes on the history of reversible computation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):16 - 23
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (777 KB)

    We review the history of the thermodynamics of information processing, beginning with the paradox of Maxwell's demon; continuing through the efforts of Szilard, Brillouin, and others to demonstrate a thermodynamic cost of information acquisition; the discovery by Landauer of the thermodynamic cost of information destruction; the development of the theory of and classical models for reversible comp... View full abstract»

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  • Information transport obeying the continuity equation

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):29 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (765 KB)

    We analyze nontrivial dynamical systems in which information flows as an additive conserved quantity—and thus takes on a strikingly tangible aspect. To arrive at this result, we first give an explicit characterization of equilibria for a family of lattice gases. View full abstract»

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  • Origin of life and physics: Diversified microstructure—Inducement to form Information-Carrying and Knowledge-Accumulating systems

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):37 - 46
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (921 KB)

    The process leading to the origin and evolution of life is caused by the presence of distinct physical and chemical conditions at a distinct location in the universe. A specified system originates and evolves under the continuous influence of a complex operational environment. The system develops toward increasing independence of the original environment by becoming increasingly complex. Modeling ... View full abstract»

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  • Density of states of one-dimensional random potentials

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):47 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB)

    Following an introduction to the early history of the theories of the density of electronic states in one-dimensional structures, pioneered, among others, by R. Landauer and J. C. Helland, a particular model, that of a multistep random potential, is discussed. It is shown that Kolmogorov-type equations can be obtained for the probability distribution of the phase of the wave function, and, by solv... View full abstract»

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  • Bloch electron in a magnetic field: Mixed dimensionality and the magnetic-field-induced generalized quantum Hall effect

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):52 - 57
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB)

    The energy spectrum of a Bloch electron in a magnetic field is one-dimensional. This leads to the Peierls instability and the magnetic-field-induced transition to the quantized Hall effect. The wave function is two-dimensional. This decreases the Peierls gap and makes it exponentially vanishing with magnetic field. Disorder lifts the degeneracy and one-dimensionality of the spectrum. High disorder... View full abstract»

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  • Residual resistivity dipoles, electromigration, and electronic conduction in metallic microstructures

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):58 - 62
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB)

    For an impurity in a bulk metal, the connection between electromigration and electric fields associated with dc conductivity is understood in terms of Landauer's residual resistivity dipole. This connection is examined, and appropriate generalizations are made for an impurity in a two-dimensional electron gas and for an impurity near a metal surface. The residual resistivity dipole field decays le... View full abstract»

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  • Coherent and sequential tunneling in series barriers

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):63 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1109 KB)

    A simple approach which can describe both coherent tunneling and sequential tunneling is applied to resonant tunneling through a double-barrier structure. This approach models phase-randomizing events by connecting to the conductor a side branch leading away from the conductor to a reservoir. The reservoir does not draw or supply a net current, but permits inelastic events and phase randomization.... View full abstract»

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  • Diffusion from an entrance to an exit

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):76 - 81
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (457 KB)

    Asymptotic and exact solutions are derived from first principles by various methods for the moments of the number of steps or traversal time, etc., of a particle which diffuses, most specifically on a linear chain, to an exit site without previously leaving via an entrance site. The presentation is expository and uses standard methods. View full abstract»

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  • Band tails, path integrals, instantons, polarons, and all that

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):82 - 92
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (969 KB)

    This paper reviews the explanations recently developed by the authors and their collaborators of how disorder leads to exponential band tails and to Urbach tails in optical absorption. It starts with the simplest single-potential-well models which, despite their simplicity, are remarkably successful in accounting for the experimental facts. It then identifies the weaknesses, hidden or explicit, in... View full abstract»

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  • Miniaturization of electronics and its limits

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):84 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)

    The long-continued advance of the performance of information processing technologies has been based on miniaturization of components. The history of miniaturization is presented through examples. They suggest that limits proposed by Landauer in the 1960s will be reached in two or three decades. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental questions in the theory of electromigration

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):93 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)

    The theory of electromigration is focused on the force acting on a lattice defect in a metallic sample that carries an electric current. Much work has been done to obtain a better understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms. The force has been calculated numerically for defects in several metals, and a qualitative agreement with the experiments has often been found. There are, however, sti... View full abstract»

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  • Tunneling times and a quantum clock

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):99 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    The problem of measuring tunneling times by means of a quantum clock is found to lead to difficulties which are thought to arise because the Hamiltonian of the coupled system does not separate into particle and clock parts. View full abstract»

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  • Coherent voltage oscillations in small normal tunnel junctions and the crossover to the incoherent regime

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):103 - 106
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB)

    We discuss the possibility of charge oscillations in a normal tunnel junction, driven by an external current source (Iex), in the coherent limit. In that limit the dephasing time tɸ is larger than the period tp ≡ e/Iex. This behavior is modified when tɸ decreases. View full abstract»

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  • Relative stability in nonuniform temperature

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):107 - 111
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)

    Landauer has suggested that the relative stability of a particle diffusing in a bistable potential is affected by an intervening hot layer. We derive this effect both from thermodynamics and from the diffusion equation. For this purpose the proper form of the diffusion equation in a nonuniform medium is established for the case of a Brownian particle. If the diffusion takes place in a ring, the ho... View full abstract»

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  • Boundary-layer theory for the extremely underdamped Brownian motion in a metastable potential

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):112 - 118
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    A theory for the boundary layer near the critical trajectory for the extremely underdamped Brownian motion in a metastable potential is presented. The probability distribution function in phase space near this critical trajectory, the average escape energy, and the correction terms for the zero-friction-limit escape rate are calculated. View full abstract»

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  • Bistability in active circuits: Application of a novel Fokker-Planck approach

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):119 - 126
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (596 KB)

    The problem of metastability in electronic circuits with negative differential resistance, originally pioneered by Landauer in 1962, is reconsidered from the viewpoint of a Fokker-Planck modeling for nonlinear shot noise (master equation). A novel Fokker-Planck approximation scheme is presented that describes correctly the deterministic flow and the long-time dynamics of the master equation. It is... View full abstract»

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  • Quantum noise and quantum Langevin equations

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):127 - 136
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)

    The quantum Langevin equation of Ford, Kac, and Mazur is rederived and shown to be equivalent to an adjoint equation. This latter can be handled by means of van Kampen's cumulant expansion to yield derivations of the quaiclassical Langevin equation, stochastic electrodynamics, quantum optical, and quantum Brownian motion master equations (under appropriate conditions). The result of Benguria and K... View full abstract»

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  • Symmetry and transport in disordered systems

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):137 - 143
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB)

    The transfer matrix for a disordered system enables averages of integer powers of the resistance to be found, RN; application of the symmetric group generalizes this formula to fractional and negative N, providing a powerful tool for the study of transport. Consequences for fluctuations in resistance, 1/f noise, and frequency response are discussed, as well as a new sort of state, of fr... View full abstract»

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  • Correlated discrete transfer of single electrons in ultrasmall tunnel junctions

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):144 - 158
    Cited by:  Papers (38)  |  Patents (29)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB)

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies have revealed a new family of effects taking place in very small tunnel junctions at low temperatures. The effects have a common origin, the correlated discrete tunneling of single electrons and/or Cooper pairs resulting from their electrostatic (“Coulomb”) interaction. This paper presents a brief review of the single-electron part of the f... View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):159 - 163
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB)

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints ofthe papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Information on books may be obtained by writing the publisher. Papers and books are listed alphabetically by author. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1988, Page(s):164 - 168
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center