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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 4 • Date July 1988

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Displaying Results 1 - 12 of 12
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 440
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (119 KB)  

    The preceding (May) issue of this journal contains papers devoted to the scientific aspects of electron transport in very small structures (nanostructures). This issue features the technological aspects of fabricating ultrasmall structures, and includes both the evolution and development of lithographic techniques and current research efforts. Together the two issues comprise a compendium of some ... View full abstract»

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  • Materials and processes for microstructure fabrication

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 441 - 453
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1335 KB)  

    The fabrication of structures considerably smaller than the devices and circuits that are mass-produced for use in computers and other electronic equipment is the subject of this paper. Devices of <1 µm (microstructures) and <100 nm (nanostructures) minimum dimensions were made possible in a practical sense only after the introduction of electron beams and the associated pro... View full abstract»

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  • Nanolithography with a high-resolution STEM

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 454 - 461
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (774 KB)  

    A high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with a beam diameter approaching 0.6 nm has been adapted for the patterning of complex fine-line nanostructures. An IBM PC XT is used as the pattern generator to direct the scan electronics from a Cambridge Stereoscan 250 which have been interfaced with the scanning coils of the STEM. A study of the ultimate resolution of the newly... View full abstract»

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  • Nanostructure technology

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 462 - 493
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2912 KB)  

    The ability to fabricate structures with lateral dimensions in the sub-100-nm range has opened a new field of research. This paper first reviews recent advances in nanolithography techniques, with a brief discussion of their relative merits and fundamental limits. Special emphasis is given to the scanning electron-beam method, which is the most widely used nanolithography method at the present tim... View full abstract»

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  • High-throughput, high-resolution electron-beam lithography

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 494 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (739 KB)  

    The introduction of the shaped-beam imaging technique has greatly enhanced the exposure efficiency of electron-beam lithography systems. IBM's EL systems provide the throughput needed for lithography applications in semiconductor fabrication lines. The resolution of these systems has been steadily improved over the past 15 years in support of the semiconductor lithography trend toward submicron di... View full abstract»

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  • Resolution limits for electron-beam lithography

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 502 - 513
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1298 KB)  

    This paper discusses resolution limits for electron-beam fabrication. Electron beams have been used to produce structures 1 nm in size and useful devices with minimum features of about 20 nm. In all cases the resolution is set primarily by the range of the electron interaction phenomena that form the structures, and not by the size of the electron beam used to write the patterns. The beam can be a... View full abstract»

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  • Advanced electron-beam lithography for 0.5-µm to 0.25-µm device fabrication

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 514 - 522
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1030 KB)  

    High-resolution lithographic capability is required for the fabrication of fully scaled semiconductor devices at minimum dimensions of 0.5 µm to 0.25 µm—the prototype for the semiconductor logic and memory CMOS devices of the 1990s. Electron-beam exposure tools provide this capability. Fully scaled 0.5-µm test devices were fabricated using a modified EL-3 variable shape... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of page-reference strings of an interactive system

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 523 - 535
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1153 KB)  

    The performance of real-storage-management algorithms in interactive systems suggests that locality of reference extends to a significant degree across users' transactions. This paper investigates this locality of reference by analyzing page-reference strings gathered from live systems. The data confirm the supposition: They suggest that reference patterns are dominated by system data references t... View full abstract»

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  • Parallel encrypted array multipliers

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 536 - 551
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB)  

    An algorithm for direct two's-complement and sign-magnitude parallel multiplication is described. The partial product matrix representing the multiplication is converted to an equivalent matrix by encryption. Its reduction, producing the final result, needs no specialized adders and can be added with any parallel array addition technique. It contains no negative terms and no extra “correcti... View full abstract»

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  • A many-valued logic for approximate reasoning

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 552 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB)  

    A new system for many-valued logic, the Extended Post system of order p, p ≥ 2, is proposed as a system of logic supporting reasoning with facts and rules which are reliable to a specified extent. In an Extended Post system there are as many operations of logical disjunction and logical conjunction as there are truth values. The truth value associated with a particular operation of disjunct... View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 566 - 575
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (886 KB)  

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Information on books may be obtained by writing the publisher. Papers and books are listed alphabetically by author. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1988 , Page(s): 576 - 579
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (269 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center