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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 3 • Date May 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):288 - 290
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (706 KB)

    Lithography, the printing of patterns on surfaces, is one of the key elements of semiconductor manufacturing. Lithography determines the minimum feature size in the semiconductor chip, thereby gating the speed of operation of the circuit and controlling the number of circuit elements that can be placed on the chip. This relationship among lithography, circuit complexity, and performance has closel... View full abstract»

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  • Early history of X-ray lithography at IBM

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):291 - 298
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1051 KB)

    We present a reconstruction of the early work on X-ray lithography at the IBM East Fishkill facility in 1969 and 1970 and a summary of the efforts at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, between 1973 and 1976. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray lithography in IBM, 1980–1992, the development years

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):299 - 318
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1939 KB)

    The IBM X-ray lithography research and development program is outlined, from a personal perspective, covering the period from the inception of the program in 1980 through the development of IBM's own storage ring for X-ray production in 1992. The following aspects, among others, are discussed: origins of the program; acquisition of an X-ray port at Brookhaven National Laboratory; masks for X-ray l... View full abstract»

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  • X-ray lithography from 500 to 30 nm: X-ray nanolithography

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):319 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1050 KB)

    Proximity X-ray lithography (XRL), using wavelengths between 0.8 and 1.5 nm, provides a near-ideal match to the “system problem” of lithography for feature sizes from 500 to 30 nm, by virtue of “absorption without scattering” and recently developed mask technology. The effects of photoelectrons, at one time thought to be problematic, are now understood not to limit reso... View full abstract»

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  • Modeling X-ray proximity lithography

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):331 - 350
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2113 KB)

    Advanced semiconductor circuits, such as DRAMs, are based on very complex fabrication processes. Because of the cost and complexity involved, it is rapidly becoming impossible to adopt a “trial-and-error” approach in the development stage of a new process. Fortunately, the advances in computer power spurred by the new semiconductor devices have made it possible to compute the respons... View full abstract»

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  • The Helios 1 compact superconducting storage ring X-ray source

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):351 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2601 KB)

    The basic properties of synchrotron radiation are described, the design of storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation is outlined, and the criteria for matching storage ring design to the needs of X-ray lithography are discussed. Simple scaling laws are presented showing the benefits for a storage ring of using the higher fields which superconducting magnets are able to provide. Helios 1 is a ... View full abstract»

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  • Performance of the IBM synchrotron X-ray source for lithography

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):373 - 384
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1183 KB)

    The compact superconducting synchrotron X-ray source at the IBM Advanced Lithography Facility in East Fishkill, New York has been in service to customers since the start of 1992. Its availability during scheduled time is greater than 90%, with recent months frequently surpassing 95%. Data on the long-term behavior of the X-ray source properties and subsystem performance are now available. The full... View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations for the IBM X-ray lithography facility

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):385 - 393
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1476 KB)

    Synchrotrons, like other large particle accelerators, have historically been the tools of universities and national laboratories for research. Moving this technology to industry presents many challenges which do not exist in an academic environment. One major challenge is to develop a facility to house and support the ring in a manufacturing-like mode where operator, customer, and public concern f... View full abstract»

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  • X-ray lithography beamlines in the IBM Advanced Lithography Facility

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):395 - 410
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1763 KB)

    In 1991 a storage ring designed as a source of X-rays for X-ray lithography was delivered, installed, and commissioned in the IBM Advanced Lithography Facility (ALF) in East Fishkill, New York. Beamlines of two different designs have been constructed and installed on the ring to deliver the X-rays to the exposure stations. One design is intended for use with a stepper for the fabrication of integr... View full abstract»

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  • Electron beam lithography tool for manufacture of X-ray masks

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):411 - 420
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1459 KB)

    An electron beam lithography system suitable for manufacturing X-ray masks with critical dimensions down to 0.35 µm is described. The system features a 50-kV variable shaped spot (VSS) electron column with a variable axis immersion lens (VAIL). This column is capable of maintaining 0.035-µm edge acuity of the focused spot over a 2.1-mm deflection field. These fields are stitched toge... View full abstract»

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  • X-ray mask repair

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):421 - 434
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1839 KB)

    A method for repairing X-ray lithographic masks using focused ion beam technology is described and demonstrated. The ion beam is used for mask imaging, for absorber milling for opaque repair, and for deposition of X-ray-opaque material for clear repair. Solutions to the unique problems faced in executing these tasks on the high-resolution, high-aspect-ratio patterns characteristic of X-ray masks a... View full abstract»

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  • Resist materials and processes for X-ray lithography

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):435 - 448
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1386 KB)

    A key component that is sometimes overlooked in X-ray lithography is the resist material. The lithographic properties of these materials are extremely important if one is to take advantage of the superior lithographic performance often observed in X-ray lithography. The properties of such materials may even be more important than in conventional optical lithography, since the feature sizes delinea... View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):449 - 470
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1871 KB)

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Information on books may be obtained by writing to the publisher. Journals and books are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):471 - 475
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center