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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 2 • March 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 16 of 16
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):83 - 84
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB)

    It is fitting that this issue of the IBM Journal of Research and Development, devoted to electrochemical science and technology in IBM, was planned in 1991, the 200th anniversary of the birth of Michael Faraday. Faraday was a seminal figure in what has developed into several separate disciplines in physics and chemistry, and he received numerous tributes in the respective journals of these discipl... View full abstract»

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  • In situ surface pH measurement during electrolysis using a rotating pH electrode

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):85 - 95
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1470 KB)

    An in situ technique has been developed for measuring the surface pH adjacent to a solid electrode/liquid interface during electrolysis. Measurements of the surface pH can be used to obtain insights regarding the electrodeposition of various transition metals and to obtain a better understanding of associated in situ surface chemistry effects. Many transition metals and alloys deposit with simulta... View full abstract»

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  • A rotating ring-disk stripping technique used to study electroplating of Sn-Pb from methane sulfonic acid solutions

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):97 - 106
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1162 KB)

    A rotating ring-disk stripping technique has been used to analyze Sn-Pb alloys plated from methane sulfonic acid solutions with and without a proprietary additive and to construct associated current-potential curves. The deposition of both pure Sn and pure Pb was polarized by the additive, but the polarization was much greater for Pb. For alloys plated without the additive, the potential dependenc... View full abstract»

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  • Mechanistic insights into metal-mediated electroless copper plating employing hypophosphite as a reducing agent

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):107 - 116
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3395 KB)

    Electroless copper plating using systems containing a small amount of Ni2+ or Pd2+ as a mediator and hypophosphite as a reducing agent was investigated using several electrochemical techniques. Isothermal and component-dependent polarization, rate, Emix, split-cell, and ac impedance data suggested that the systems obey mixed potential theory and function as follows... View full abstract»

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  • Electroless plating of copper at a low pH level

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):117 - 124
    Cited by:  Patents (18)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3704 KB)

    A new process for electroless copper plating at a pH level of ≤9 is described. The process uses amine borane reducing agents and ligands based on neutral tetradentate nitrogen donors. The use of a variety of buffer systems is demonstrated. Electroless bath performance over a wide range of conditions is presented. The quality of the plated copper is comparable to that obtained by currently u... View full abstract»

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  • Feature-scale simulation of resist-patterned electrodeposition

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):125 - 142
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (5091 KB)

    A numerical simulation of resist-patterned or “through-mask” electroplating has been performed to investigate shape evolution at the scale of small lithographic features. Shape evolution and step coverage have a significant influence on the shapes of such microelectronic structures as conductor lines, vias, and magnetic pole pieces. The simulation and associated analysis are based on... View full abstract»

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  • Mass transfer of an impinging jet confined between parallel plates

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):143 - 155
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4331 KB)

    An understanding of the mass transfer behavior of an impinging jet can be usefully applied to wet chemical processes such as water rinsing, photoresist development, and metal etching or plating. Theoretical and experimental methods were used to study the mass transfer characteristics of an axisymmetric impinging jet confined between two parallel plates. Such a configuration was used because of its... View full abstract»

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  • The quartz resonator: Electrochemical applications

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):157 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4273 KB)

    Since the discovery that the oscillations of resonating quartz crystals can be sustained in a liquid environment, such crystals have quickly found use as a sensitive microbalance in electrochemistry, making possible in situ measurements of mass changes at the electrochemical interface. The early contributions of the IBM Almaden Research Center to this exciting field of development are sketched. Th... View full abstract»

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  • Corrosion and protection of thin-line conductors in VLSI structures

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):173 - 190
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4754 KB)

    Thin metallic lines in VLSI circuit structures are usually encapsulated in a dielectric in order to protect them from the atmosphere and prevent corrosion. However, during processing the lines are unprotected. Some of the steps to which they are subjected during processing are quite aggressive and can result in a significant yield loss. This paper pertains to the loss which is due to corrosion dur... View full abstract»

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  • Application of X-ray spectroscopy to the study of electrochemically formed surface oxide films

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):191 - 206
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3409 KB)

    Many analytical techniques can provide information regarding the chemical state, structure, and properties of materials. This paper focuses on two; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and their application to the study of electrochemically formed oxide films. A brief review of the phenomena underlying these techniques is provided, along with a descriptio... View full abstract»

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  • Anodic dissolution of metals at high rates

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):207 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4225 KB)

    Electrochemical metal shaping and finishing processes involve anodic dissolution of metals at high rates. This paper presents a review of some fundamental aspects related to the understanding of such processes. Included are discussions of the phenomena of passive film breakdown that lead to the transpassive dissolution of metals, some of the available information on anodic reaction stoichiometry, ... View full abstract»

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  • In situ infrared spectroscopy of the electrode—electrolyte interface

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):227 - 242
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4038 KB)

    In the study of electrochemical processes, it is important to have a means for characterizing the molecular and ionic species at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Various types of optical vibrational spectroscopy are being used to do this in situ. Of these, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) has seen rapid progress and is in wide use. A review of the technique... View full abstract»

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  • Conduction mechanisms in contaminant layers on printed circuit boards

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):243 - 248
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1096 KB)

    AC impedance methods have been utilized to explore surface conduction mechanisms on printed circuit boards (PCBs) containing various types of solder flux contaminants. Residues from water-soluble, rosin-based, and no-clean fluxes were analyzed and evaluated for their potential impact on reliability. Impedance data for intentionally contaminated PCBs having several circuit line geometries were obta... View full abstract»

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  • Contact charging of organic materials: Ion vs. electron transfer

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):249 - 260
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4086 KB)

    In this paper we describe some of the recent literature on the contact charging (also known as tribocharging and contact electrification) of organic materials. Although it is a very familiar phenomenon, much remains to be understood about the mechanism of charging with organic materials. It has been proposed that the charging is due to the transfer of electrons and/or ions. In some studies, the co... View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications by IBM authors

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):261 - 278
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2040 KB)

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Information on books may be obtained by writing to the publisher. Journals and books are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 1993, Page(s):279 - 286
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (583 KB)
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Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center