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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 2 • Date March 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 9 of 9
  • Preface

    Page(s): 138
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (122 KB)  

    In keeping with renewed emphasis within IBM to accelerate delivery of solutions to the marketplace, IBM's Research Division has implemented a Services, Applications, and Solutions (SAS) strategy by which resident technologies and skills are brought to bear on customer problems through means which lie outside traditional product lines. This strategy comprises a collaboration among the Research Division, worldwide Industry Solution Units, other IBM divisions, and customers from a broad range of industries. Its aim is to develop industry-specific solutions, advanced applications, and key enabling technologies, across many industry segments, which possess replicable components and provide unique value and competitive edge to IBM's customers. View full abstract»

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  • Toward on-line, worldwide access to Vatican Library materials

    Page(s): 139 - 162
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2290 KB)  

    The Vatican Library is an extraordinary repository of rare books and manuscripts. Among its 150,000 manuscripts are early copies of works by Aristotle, Dante, Euclid, Homer, and Virgil. Yet today access to the Library is limited. Because of the time and cost required to travel to Rome, only some 2000 scholars can afford to visit the Library each year. Through the Vatican Library Project, we are exploring the practicality of providing digital library services that extend access to portions of the Library's collections to scholars worldwide, as an early example of providing digital library services that extend and complement traditional library services. A core goal of the project is to provide access via the Internet to some of the Library's most valuable manuscripts, printed books, and other sources to a scholarly community around the world. A multinational, multidisciplinary team is addressing the technical challenges raised by that goal, including • Development of a multiserver system suitable for providing information to scholars worldwide. • Capture of images of the materials with faithful color and sufficient detail to support scholarly study. Protection of the on-line materials, especially images, from misappropriation. • Development of tools to enable scholars to locate desired materials. • Development of tools to enable scholars to scrutinize images of manuscripts. • In this paper, we provide an overview of the project, a description of the system being developed to satisfy its needs, and a discussion of how the technical challenges are being addressed. View full abstract»

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  • An overview of computer-integrated surgery at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    Page(s): 163 - 183
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2031 KB)  

    This paper describes some past and current research activities at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. We begin with a brief overview of the emerging field of computer-integrated surgery, followed by a research strategy that enables a computer-oriented research laboratory such as ours to participate in this emerging field. We then present highlights of our past and current research in four key areas—orthopaedics, craniofacial surgery, minimally invasive surgery, and medical modeling—and elaborate on the relationship of this work to emerging topics in computer-integrated surgery. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated medical-image system for cancer research and treatment

    Page(s): 185 - 210
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2263 KB)  

    This paper describes a large, heterogeneous network of supercomputers, workstations, and personal computers for clinicians and researchers at the National Cancer Center in Tokyo. Intended uses of the system include a medical-image database, a patient-record database, visualization of 3D medical images, computer-assisted diagnosis, genome and protein databases, and proof-of-concept synthetic environments. An overview of the system is followed by detailed descriptions of two subsystems: the medical-image-database subsystem and the synthetic-environment subsystem. The medical-image-database subsystem integrates a large number of image-acquisition devices, such as X-ray computed tomography and ultrasound echography equipment. The image database is designed for a high image-data input rate by means of a storage hierarchy and high-speed network connections. The synthetic-environment subsystem includes two prototype applications (a neurosurgery simulator and an anatomy viewer) that explore the possibilities of synthetic-environment technology in medicine. View full abstract»

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  • Automated forms-processing software and services

    Page(s): 211 - 230
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1639 KB)  

    While document-image systems for the management of collections of documents, such as forms, offer significant productivity improvements, the entry of information from documents remains a labor-intensive and costly task for most organizations. In this paper, we describe a software system for the machine reading of forms data from their scanned images. We describe its major components: form recognition and “dropout,” intelligent character recognition (ICR), and contextual checking. Finally, we describe applications for which our automated forms reader has been successfully used. View full abstract»

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  • Primary production scheduling at steelmaking industries

    Page(s): 231 - 252
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1750 KB)  

    This paper describes primary production scheduling in the steel industry—the problem and the approaches to the solution. The scheduling problem in steel plants is known to be among the most difficult of several industrial scheduling problems. We first describe the main steelmaking processes and show how scheduling affects the effectiveness of plant operations. We characterize the problems associated with scheduling steelmaking activities to achieve business objectives of delivering quality steel on time to customers, while minimizing operating costs. We then describe several different approaches for computerized scheduling solutions. They include application of techniques in operations research, artificial intelligence, and a hybrid of these two. We conclude by describing advanced techniques for integrated scheduling of steel plants. View full abstract»

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  • A proposed mode for triple-DES encryption

    Page(s): 253 - 262
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (828 KB)  

    We propose a new mode of multiple encryption—triple-DES external feedback cipher block chaining with output feedback masking. The aim is to provide increased protection against certain attacks (dictionary attacks and matching ciphertext attacks) which exploit the short message-block size of DES. The new mode obtains this protection through the introduction of secret masking values that are exclusive-ORed with the intermediate outputs of each triple-DES encryption operation. The secret mask value is derived from a fourth encryption operation per message block, in addition to the three used in previous modes. The new mode is part of a suite of encryption modes proposed in the ANSI X9.F.1 triple-DES draft standard (X9.52). View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications by IBM authors

    Page(s): 263 - 273
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (869 KB)  

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Journals are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM Patents

    Page(s): 275 - 280
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center