By Topic

IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 1.2 • Jan. 2000

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):3 - 5
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (35 KB)

    The origins of the International Business Machines Corporation can be traced to Herman Hollerith, who founded the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896 to classify census data using card readers that sensed holes punched in the cards. After merging with two other companies, the Computing Scale Company and the International Time Recording Company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, or C-T-R, ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Random-Access Memory Accounting Machine I. System Organization of the IBM 305

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):6 - 15
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    The design features of a new automatic data processing machine for business applications, utilizing a random-access memory system, are described. Unlike the usual “batch” method of machine-processing business transactions, the technique used permits transfer of information between any two points in the system and allows multi-choice decisions according to the current status of the in... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Random-Access Memory Accounting Machine II. The magnetic-disk, random-access memory

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):16 - 19
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (313 KB)

    The design features are described of a new large-capacity memory device having random access to information stored magnetically on rotating disks. The mechanical arrangement of an array of 50 disks is shown, and details are given of the pair of magnetic recording heads, which are spaced accurately from the disk surface by air jets. The access mechanism and the timing system for positioning the hea... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Architecture of the IBM System/360

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):21 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (831 KB)

    The architecture of the newly announced IBM System/360 features four innovations: 1. An approach to storage which permits and exploits very large capacities, hierarchies of speeds, read-only storage for microprogram control, flexible storage protection, and simple program relocation. 2. An input/output system offering new degrees of concurrent operation, compatible channel operation, data rates ap... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The 801 minicomputer

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):37 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB)

    This paper provides an overview of an experimental system developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. It consists of a running hardware prototype, a control program, and an optimizing compiler. The basic concepts underlying the system are discussed, as are the performance characteristics of the prototype. In particular, three principles are examined: (1) system orientation towards the p... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The evolution of RISC technology at IBM

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):48 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (575 KB)

    This paper traces the evolution of IBM RISC architecture from its origins in the 1970s at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center to the present-day IBM RISC System/6000* computer. The acronym RISC, for Reduced Instruction-Set Computer, is used in this paper to describe the 801 and subsequent architectures. However, RISC in this context does not strictly imply a reduced number of instructions, bu... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Solid Logic Technology: Versatile, high-performance microelectronics

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):56 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1162 KB)

    A new microelectronics packaging technique, called Solid Logic Technology (SLT), utilizes silicon planar glass-encapsulated transistors and diodes, and graphic arts techniques for producing high-quality, passive components having tight tolerances. The result is a process permitting the low-cost realization of a variety of versatile, high-performance circuit modules. The salient features of SLT are... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and characteristics of n-channel insulated-gate field-effect transistors

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):70 - 82
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (696 KB)

    An n-channel insulated-gate field-effect transistor technology established at IBM Research has served as the basis for further development leading to FET memory. Designs and characteristics of experimental devices of 500 and 1000 Å gate insulator thicknesses are presented, with particular attention to the effects of source-drain spacing. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Miniaturization of electronics and its limits

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):84 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (328 KB)

    The long-continued advance of the performance of information processing technologies has been based on miniaturization of components. The history of miniaturization is presented through examples. They suggest that limits proposed by Landauer in the 1960s will be reached in two or three decades. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Reduction of electromigration in aluminum films by copper doping

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):89 - 91
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB)

    We have found that the lifetime of aluminum films subjected to high current densities at elevated temperatures can be increased by the addition of copper. Previous studies have indicated that the failure mechanism is a combination of electromigration-induced phenomena, including nucleation and growth of voids, which are gated primarily by material transport along grain boundaries. On the basis of ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Controlled collapse reflow chip joining

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):93 - 104
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (877 KB)

    Solder reflow connection of semiconductor devices to substrates has been shown to be a reliable, effective, and readily automated technique. Rigid copper spheres, which remain rigid during solder reflow, have been used successfully for some time as a major element of the contact joint. However, to expand the capability of such joints to larger devices such as multiple-transistor chips in hybrid co... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Application of rf discharges to sputtering

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):106 - 110
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (346 KB)

    The operation of rf discharges is described and the internal distribution of voltages is considered. The significance of this with respect to sputtering, particularly of insulators, is then discussed. An equivalent circuit for the discharge is presented and the influence of such parameters as pressure and magnetic field on the components of this circuit is described. Finally, energy distributions ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • LSI yield modeling and process monitoring

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):112 - 118
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (415 KB)

    This paper describes an analytical technique for quantifying and modeling the frequency of occurrence of integrated circuit failures. The method is based on the analysis of random and clustered defects on wafers with defect monitors. Results from pilot line data of photolithographic defects, insulator short circuits, and leaky pn junctions are presented to support the practicality of the approach.... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Chemical amplification resists: History and development within IBM

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):119 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1208 KB)

    The chemical amplification concept was invented at IBM Research and quickly brought into use in the production of dynamic random access memory devices in the company. It has remained as an important foundation for the design of advanced resist systems for use in short-wavelength (<300-nm) lithographic technologies. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Low-temperature Si and Si:Ge epitaxy by ultrahigh vacuum/chemical vapor deposition: Process fundamentals

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):132 - 141
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB)

    This paper is an overview of work at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center on the chemical and physical considerations underlying the development of a low-temperature chemical vapor deposition process, designated ultra high-vacuum/chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD). The origins of the rigorous vacuum and chemical purity requirements of the process are discussed. Operating in the range of 500&#... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Finite-element analysis of semiconductor devices: The FIELDAY program

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):142 - 156
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (873 KB)

    The FIELDAY program simulates semiconductor devices of arbitrary shape in one, two, or three dimensions operating under transient or steady-state conditions. A wide variety of physical effects, important in bipolar and field-effect transistors, can be modeled. The finite-element method transforms the continuum description of mobile carrier transport in a semiconductor device to a simulation model ... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • LSS: A system for production logic synthesis

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):157 - 165
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    For some time we have been exploring methods of transforming functional specifications into hardware implementations that are suitable for production. The complexity of this task and the potential value have continued to grow with the increasing complexity of processor design and the mounting pressure to shorten machine design times. This paper describes the evolution of the Logic Synthesis System... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Nanosecond Switching in Thin Magnetic Films

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):167 - 174
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB)

    A special pulse equipment including a pulse-sampling oscilloscope with an over-all response time of 0.35 nanosecond (10−9 sec) for the observation of the nanosecond flux change in thin permalloy films is described. Film switching signals as short as 1 nanosecond have been obtained and are discussed with respect to the underlying processes. Inverse switching time versus driving-fi... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A high track-density servo-access system for magnetic recording disk storage

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):175 - 185
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB)

    This paper is concerned with an investigation of the feasible track-density potential of random-access magnetic-disk storage where magnetic-head positioning is essential. Primary emphasis is given to a novel, servo-access concept (closed-looped head-positioning control which includes the record member) for track location and registration. This servo concept has been investigated as a means of maki... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Magnetic thin films in recording technology

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):186 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1273 KB)

    This paper is a review of recent progress in magnetic thin films for use in recording media and heads. Emphasis is on work that has been carried out at IBM. Topics covered include thin-film media for high-density recording, laminated soft-magnetic films for controlling domains and extending the frequency range of inductive heads, exchange-biasing of magnetoresistive sensors, and magnetic multilaye... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):206 - 226
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1441 KB)

    Two machine-learning procedures have been investigated in some detail using the game of checkers. Enough work has been done to verify the fact that a computer can be programmed so that it will learn to play a better game of checkers than can be played by the person who wrote the program. Furthermore, it can learn to do this in a remarkably short period of time (8 or 10 hours of machine-playing tim... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Ab initio computations in atoms and molecules

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):228 - 245
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1204 KB)

    The present status of ab initio computations for atomic and molecular wave functions is analyzed in this paper, with special emphasis on the work done at the IBM Research Laboratory, San Jose. The Roothaan-Hartree-Fock method has been described in detail for atomic systems. A systematic tabulation of atomic Hartree-Fock functions has been made available in an extended supplement to this paper. Tec... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Cryptography

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):246 - 250
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (435 KB)

    This paper is concerned with two aspects of cryptography in which the author has been working. One is the Data Encryption Standard (DES), developed at IBM and now in wide use for commercial cryptographic applications. This is a “private key” system; the communicants share a secret key, and the eavesdropper will succeed if he can guess this key among its quadrillions of possibilities.... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Spatial variation of currents and fields due to localized scatterers in metallic conduction

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):251 - 259
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (653 KB)

    Localized scatterers can be expected to give rise to spatial variations in the electric field and in the current distribution. The transport equation allowing for spatial variations is solved by first considering the homogeneous transport equation which omits electric fields. The homogeneous solution gives the purely diffusive motion of current carriers and involves large space charges. The electr... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):261 - 269
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (699 KB)

    It is argued that computing machines inevitably involve devices which perform logical functions that do not have a single-valued inverse. This logical irreversibility is associated with physical irreversibility and requires a minimal heat generation, per machine cycle, typically of the order of kT for each irreversible function. This dissipation serves the purpose of standardizing signals and maki... View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.

Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center