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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 4 • Date July 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):454 - 455
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (28 KB)

    When Galileo aimed his telescope at the heavens to observe and study the stars and planets, he changed the world forever. Great discoveries in science are often made with the help of great instruments. And new instruments lead to new discoveries. In our own time, we are witnessing a renaissance in telescope development, giving us a seemingly endless stream of spectacular images of all that makes u... View full abstract»

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  • Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques for microelectronics-related materials studies

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):457 - 476
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1542 KB)

    X-ray diffraction techniques using synchrotron radiation play a vital role in the understanding of structural behavior for a wide range of materials important in microelectronics. The extremely high flux of X-rays produced by synchrotron storage rings makes it possible to probe layers and interfaces in complicated stacked structures, characterize low-atomic-weight materials such as polymers, and s... View full abstract»

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  • Atomic resolution analytical microscopy

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):477 - 487
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB)

    It is possible under favorable circumstances to identify composition, bonding, and electronic structure with atomic resolution in microelectronic device structures. In current device structures, where only a few interface atoms can dominate the performance of a device, this can contribute important understanding relevant to product development. This paper is a brief overview of work in our laborat... View full abstract»

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  • Growth processes and phase transformations studied in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):489 - 501
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1527 KB)

    In situ transmission electron microscopy allows us to study growth processes and phase transitions which are important in semiconductor processing. It provides a unique view of dynamic reactions as they occur. In this paper we describe the use of in situ microscopy for the observation of reactions in silicides and the formation of semiconductor “quantum dots.” The dynamic information... View full abstract»

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  • Low-energy electron microscopy

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):503 - 516
    Cited by:  Patents (13)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2230 KB)

    Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) is a relatively new microscopy technique, capable of high-resolution (5 nm) video-rate imaging of surfaces and interfaces. This opens up the possibility of studying dynamic processes at surfaces, such as thin-film growth, strain relief, etching and adsorption, and phase transitions in real time, in situ, as they occur. The resulting video movies contain an unp... View full abstract»

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  • Hot-electron effects and oxide degradation in MOS structures studied with ballistic electron emission microscopy

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):517 - 534
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)

    The application of the STM-based technique of ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) to the study of transport properties of SiO2 gate oxide layers is reviewed. Oxide degradation observed on a local scale of nanometer dimensions ranges from the filling of electron traps with low-kinetic-energy electrons injected just above the oxide barrier, to trap generation and filling trigger... View full abstract»

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  • X-ray spectro-microscopy of complex materials and surfaces

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):535 - 551
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB)

    The detailed understanding of complex materials used in information technology requires the use of state-of-the-art experimental techniques that provide information on the electronic and magnetic properties of the materials. The increasing miniaturization of components furthermore demands the use of techniques with spatial resolution down to the nanometer range. A means to satisfy both requirement... View full abstract»

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  • Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):553 - 570
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1685 KB)

    In this paper, a review is presented of a powerful technique for studying magnetic microstructures: spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy, denoted as spin-SEM, or SEMPA. When the beam of a scanning electron microscope traverses a ferromagnetic sample, secondary electrons are emitted whose spin polarization contains information on the magnitude and direction of the magnetization of the surfac... View full abstract»

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  • Medium-energy ion scattering for analysis of microelectronic materials

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):571 - 582
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB)

    This paper reviews the application of medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the study of materials problems relevant to microelectronics fabrication and reliability. Associated physical mechanisms and techniques are described. Three examples of MEIS studies are discussed in detail: Studies of the nucleation of silicon nitride on silicon dioxide, the interfacial segregation of Cu from Al(Cu), and ... View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond imaging circuit analysis

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):583 - 603
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (15)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB)

    A newly developed optical method for noninvasively measuring the switching activity of operating CMOS integrated circuit chips is described. The method, denoted as picosecond imaging circuit analysis (PICA) can be used to characterize the gate-level performance of such chips and identify the locations and nature of their operational faults. The principles underlying PICA and examples of its use ar... View full abstract»

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  • Applying recursion to serial and parallel QR factorization leads to better performance

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):605 - 624
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (311 KB)

    We present new recursive serial and parallel algorithms for QR factorization of an m by n matrix. They improve performance. The recursion leads to an automatic variable blocking, and it also replaces a Level 2 part in a standard block algorithm with Level 3 operations. However, there are significant additional costs for creating and performing the updates, which prohibit the efficient use of the r... View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications IBM authors

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):625 - 635
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (88 KB)

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Journals are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Publication Year: 2000, Page(s):637 - 660
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (109 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center