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IBM Journal of Research and Development

Issue 4 • Date July 2000

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Preface

    Page(s): 454 - 455
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (28 KB)  

    When Galileo aimed his telescope at the heavens to observe and study the stars and planets, he changed the world forever. Great discoveries in science are often made with the help of great instruments. And new instruments lead to new discoveries. In our own time, we are witnessing a renaissance in telescope development, giving us a seemingly endless stream of spectacular images of all that makes up our universe. Huge rockets transported man to the moon and back. The inside of the human body is open to scrutiny without even the touch of a hand with the advent of computer-aided tomography (CAT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Automated sequencing machines are taking apart the human genome, laying bare the most intimate language of life, to be deciphered like an ancient language. Synchrotron X-ray data are used to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein in just a few months, and new, powerful computers may soon calculate that structure from scratch. The scanning tunneling microscope allows us not only to see and contact the world of atoms, but to move atoms around and place them where we want. The electron microscope has given us a view of the microstructure of the material world, its symmetries and its defects. The largest and most costly scientific instruments uncover the structure of the sub-atomic world, with large international teams of scientists and engineers herding bursts of particles through miles and miles of tunnel. View full abstract»

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  • Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques for microelectronics-related materials studies

    Page(s): 457 - 476
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1542 KB)  

    X-ray diffraction techniques using synchrotron radiation play a vital role in the understanding of structural behavior for a wide range of materials important in microelectronics. The extremely high flux of X-rays produced by synchrotron storage rings makes it possible to probe layers and interfaces in complicated stacked structures, characterize low-atomic-weight materials such as polymers, and study in situ phase transformations, to name only a few applications. In this paper, following an introduction to synchrotron radiation, we describe the capabilities of the IBM/MIT X-ray beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A range of techniques are introduced, and examples of their applicability to the study of microelectronics-related materials phenomena are described. View full abstract»

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  • Atomic resolution analytical microscopy

    Page(s): 477 - 487
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB)  

    It is possible under favorable circumstances to identify composition, bonding, and electronic structure with atomic resolution in microelectronic device structures. In current device structures, where only a few interface atoms can dominate the performance of a device, this can contribute important understanding relevant to product development. This paper is a brief overview of work in our laboratory using scanning transmission electron microscopy to achieve such capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Growth processes and phase transformations studied in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Page(s): 489 - 501
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1527 KB)  

    In situ transmission electron microscopy allows us to study growth processes and phase transitions which are important in semiconductor processing. It provides a unique view of dynamic reactions as they occur. In this paper we describe the use of in situ microscopy for the observation of reactions in silicides and the formation of semiconductor “quantum dots.” The dynamic information obtained from these experiments enables us to understand reaction mechanisms and to suggest improvements to growth and processing techniques. We conclude with a discussion of the use of in situ microscopy for studying reactions such as electrodeposition which occur at liquid/solid interfaces. View full abstract»

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  • Low-energy electron microscopy

    Page(s): 503 - 516
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2230 KB)  

    Low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) is a relatively new microscopy technique, capable of high-resolution (5 nm) video-rate imaging of surfaces and interfaces. This opens up the possibility of studying dynamic processes at surfaces, such as thin-film growth, strain relief, etching and adsorption, and phase transitions in real time, in situ, as they occur. The resulting video movies contain an unprecedented amount of information that is amenable to detailed, quantitative analysis. In this paper we discuss the principles of LEEM and its application to problems in science and technology. View full abstract»

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  • Hot-electron effects and oxide degradation in MOS structures studied with ballistic electron emission microscopy

    Page(s): 517 - 534
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (416 KB)  

    The application of the STM-based technique of ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) to the study of transport properties of SiO2 gate oxide layers is reviewed. Oxide degradation observed on a local scale of nanometer dimensions ranges from the filling of electron traps with low-kinetic-energy electrons injected just above the oxide barrier, to trap generation and filling triggered by electrons with kinetic energies ≳2 eV. BEEM provides means to determine the spatial distributions of the traps. Only positively charged traps are observed for thin (≲4 nm) SiO2 layers upon electrical stressing. Oxide breakdown is seldom induced by local stressing, suggesting that it occurs at extrinsic defect sites that are widely separated. BEEM also provides unique opportunities to address fundamental issues. In that regard, examples of the dynamic response of the SiO2 dielectric to a moving electron are presented, as well as the determination of the dispersion of the electron mass of the conduction-band electrons. The latter is achieved by modeling quantum interference oscillations in the BEEM current. View full abstract»

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  • X-ray spectro-microscopy of complex materials and surfaces

    Page(s): 535 - 551
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB)  

    The detailed understanding of complex materials used in information technology requires the use of state-of-the-art experimental techniques that provide information on the electronic and magnetic properties of the materials. The increasing miniaturization of components furthermore demands the use of techniques with spatial resolution down to the nanometer range. A means to satisfy both requirements is to combine the capabilities of conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy with those of electron microscopy in a new technique designated as X-ray photoemission electron microscopy. This paper reviews the principles of this new spectro-microscopy approach and presents selected applications to the study of materials of interest in information technology. View full abstract»

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  • Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    Page(s): 553 - 570
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1685 KB)  

    In this paper, a review is presented of a powerful technique for studying magnetic microstructures: spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy, denoted as spin-SEM, or SEMPA. When the beam of a scanning electron microscope traverses a ferromagnetic sample, secondary electrons are emitted whose spin polarization contains information on the magnitude and direction of the magnetization of the surface. Various illustrative examples are presented which describe the main features of the technique, such as its very high surface sensitivity, its suitability for achieving complete separation of relevant magnetic and topographic information, and its high lateral resolution. View full abstract»

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  • Medium-energy ion scattering for analysis of microelectronic materials

    Page(s): 571 - 582
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (321 KB)  

    This paper reviews the application of medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the study of materials problems relevant to microelectronics fabrication and reliability. Associated physical mechanisms and techniques are described. Three examples of MEIS studies are discussed in detail: Studies of the nucleation of silicon nitride on silicon dioxide, the interfacial segregation of Cu from Al(Cu), and the structure of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces created by various wet etching techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Picosecond imaging circuit analysis

    Page(s): 583 - 603
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (835 KB)  

    A newly developed optical method for noninvasively measuring the switching activity of operating CMOS integrated circuit chips is described. The method, denoted as picosecond imaging circuit analysis (PICA) can be used to characterize the gate-level performance of such chips and identify the locations and nature of their operational faults. The principles underlying PICA and examples of its use are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Applying recursion to serial and parallel QR factorization leads to better performance

    Page(s): 605 - 624
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (311 KB)  

    We present new recursive serial and parallel algorithms for QR factorization of an m by n matrix. They improve performance. The recursion leads to an automatic variable blocking, and it also replaces a Level 2 part in a standard block algorithm with Level 3 operations. However, there are significant additional costs for creating and performing the updates, which prohibit the efficient use of the recursion for large n. We present a quantitative analysis of these extra costs. This analysis leads us to introduce a hybrid recursive algorithm that outperforms the LAPACK algorithm DGEQRF by about 20% for large square matrices and up to almost a factor of 3 for tall thin matrices. Uniprocessor performance results are presented for two IBM RS/6000® SP nodes—a 120-MHz IBM POWER2 node and one processor of a four-way 332-MHz IBM PowerPC® 604e SMP node. The hybrid recursive algorithm reaches more than 90% of the theoretical peak performance of the POWER2 node. Compared to standard block algorithms, the recursive approach also shows a significant advantage in the automatic tuning obtained from its automatic variable blocking. A successful parallel implementation on a four-way 332-MHz IBM PPC604e SMP node based on dynamic load balancing is presented. For two, three, and four processors it shows speedups of up to 1.97, 2.99, and 3.97. View full abstract»

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  • Recent publications IBM authors

    Page(s): 625 - 635
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (88 KB)  

    The information listed here is supplied by the Institute for Scientific Information and other outside sources. Reprints of the papers may be obtained by writing directly to the first author cited. Journals are listed alphabetically by title; papers are listed sequentially for each journal. View full abstract»

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  • Recent IBM patents

    Page(s): 637 - 660
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    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

The IBM Journal of Research and Development is a peer-reviewed technical journal, published bimonthly, which features the work of authors in the science, technology and engineering of information systems.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Clifford A. Pickover
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center