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IBM Systems Journal

Issue 3.4 • Date 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 32
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 265
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (954 KB)  

    This special double issue is an opportunity for the IBM Systems Journal to celebrate the long and fruitful collaboration between the Media Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and IBM. The Media Lab is a highly innovative and leading force in the creation of new uses of computers that stretch the very meaning of computing in imaginative and unexpected ways. IBM has been a ... View full abstract»

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  • Asparagus Soup

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 266 - 268
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2715 KB)  

    Many years ago in Stowe, Vermont, Tom Watson, Jr. (former IBM chairman) and Olive Watson served lunch to Jerome Wiesner (former MIT president) and his daughter. The first course was asparagus soup, which Jerry's daughter liked so much that he later requested and received the recipe. View full abstract»

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  • Post-modern video

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 269 - 271
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2895 KB)  

    Digital video is no longer a special-purpose curiosity, but is an integral component of all emerging computer-mediated communications systems. Moving pictures, conferencing, entertainment systems, movie production, and video sequencing are some of the areas that have been influenced. Advances in digital representations of moving pictures are already responsible for important changes in our communi... View full abstract»

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  • Media Banks: Entertainment and the Internet

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 272 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9366 KB)  

    There are two emerging models for delivering high-density, synchronized audiovisual presentations: video-on-demand and the Internet. The first is based on long-lived connections and guaranteed timeliness; the second assumes short spurts of low-bandwidth data on demand. We present the design for a Media Bank that intermediates between them. It provides on-demand access to media elements that are as... View full abstract»

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  • A society of models for video and image libraries

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 292 - 312
    Cited by:  Papers (18)  |  Patents (28)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9306 KB)  

    The average person with a computer will soon have access to the world's collections of digital video and images. However, unlike text that can be alphabetized or numbers that can be ordered, image and video has no general language to aid in its organization. Tools that can "see" and "understand" the content of imagery are still in their infancy, but they are now at the point where they can provide... View full abstract»

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  • Techniques for data hiding

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 313 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (588)  |  Patents (262)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (13399 KB)  

    Data hiding, a form of steganography, embeds data into digital media for the purpose of identification, annotation, and copyright. Several constraints affect this process: the quantity of data to be hidden, the need for invariance of these data under conditions where a "host" signal is subject to distortions, e.g., lossy compression, and the degree to which the data must be immune to interception,... View full abstract»

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  • Multimedia based on object models: Some whys and hows

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 337 - 348
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6020 KB)  

    In this paper I describe some of the design issues and research questions associated with object-based video coding algorithms, as well as the new applications made possible. I propose a hardware and software strategy to cope with the computational demands (stream-based computing combined with automatic resource management) and also briefly introduce object-based audio representations that are lin... View full abstract»

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  • Computational holographic bandwidth compression

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 349 - 365
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10397 KB)  

    A novel technique to compute holographic fringe patterns for real-time display is described. Hogel-vector holographic bandwidth compression, a diffraction-specific approach, treats a fringe as discretized in space and spatial frequency. By undersampling fringe spectra, hogel-vector encoding achieves a compression ratio of 16:1 with an acceptably small loss in image resolution. Hogel-vector bandwid... View full abstract»

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  • Community and personalization

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 367 - 368
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2102 KB)  

    In a sense, information technology has come of age. Although not all of the necessary infrastructure is in place, the capacity for efficient distribution of information electronically is a fait accompli. But do we use this capacity to communicate effectively? Providing access to content is not sufficient to guarantee effective message passing. A message delivered but ignored, or a message ingested... View full abstract»

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  • Enriching communities: Harbingers of news in the future

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 369 - 380
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6776 KB)  

    Four prototypes of news presentation are described. These prototypes share the common view of news presentation as a service that changes the relationship between news providers and news consumers. FishWrap, an electronic newspaper, explores the relationship between individuals and communities in a university setting. PLUM contextualizes news from geographically defined communities. The India Jour... View full abstract»

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  • FramerD: Representing knowledge in the large

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 381 - 397
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6171 KB)  

    Content-aware media applications require rich, interconnected descriptions of media content. FramerD is an object-oriented database developed at the MIT Media Laboratory to support just such descriptions in a scalable and distributed manner. Conventional databases, even the newer object-oriented ones, focus mostly on data structures whose components are scalar or literal values, rather than refere... View full abstract»

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  • For want of a bit the user was lost: Cheap user modeling

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 398 - 416
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (24)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (12062 KB)  

    The more a computer knows about a user, the better it can serve that user. But there are different styles, and even philosophies, of how to teach our computers about us-about our habits, interests, patterns, and preferences. "Cheap" user modeling, the subject of this essay, simply means ascertaining a few bits of information about each user, processing that information quickly, and providing the r... View full abstract»

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  • Children's interests in news: On-line opportunities

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 417 - 430
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (8834 KB)  

    Children's perspectives on news are presented. The context of the discussion includes computer networks, interest research, and constructionism. Projects are categorized by their relationship to children's interests in news and other topics. Fourth- and fifth-grade children's participation in news-related aspects of the NewsMaker project are presented to demonstrate the possibilities that arise wh... View full abstract»

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  • The Computer Clubhouse: Preparing for life in a digital world

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 431 - 439
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3756 KB)  

    The gap between the technological "haves" and "have-nots" is widening, leading to dangerous economic and cultural rifts in our society. But access to technology alone is not enough to bridge this gap. This paper describes a new model of a learning community, called the computer clubhouse, that breaks away from the traditional computer lab. at the clubhouse, inner-city youth become designers and cr... View full abstract»

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  • Things to think with

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 441 - 442
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2101 KB)  

    There is an old saying that goes something like this: "Give a person a hammer, and the whole world looks like a nail." Indeed, the ways in which we see the world are deeply influenced by the tools and media at our disposal. If we are given new tools and media, not only can we accomplish new tasks, but we begin to view the world in new ways. View full abstract»

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  • Programmable Bricks: Toys to think with

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 443 - 452
    Cited by:  Papers (22)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6353 KB)  

    In this paper, we discuss the applications and implications of the Programmable Brick-a tiny, portable computer embedded inside a LEGO® brick, capable of interacting with the physical world in a large variety of ways. We describe how Programmable Bricks make possible a wide range of new design activities for children, and we discuss experiences in using Programmable Bricks in three types of appli... View full abstract»

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  • Using acoustic structure in a hand-held audio playback device

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 453 - 472
    Cited by:  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (9415 KB)  

    This paper discusses issues in navigation and presentation of voice documents, and their application to a particular hand-held audio playback device, called NewsComm. It discusses situations amenable to auditory information retrieval, techniques for deriving document structure based on acoustical cues, and techniques for interactive presentation of digital audio. NewsComm provides a portable user ... View full abstract»

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  • The interactive balloon: Sensing, actuation and behavior in a common object

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 473 - 487
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (6117 KB)  

    In the not too distant future, new materials for sensing and actuation, together with high-density, low-power electronics and embedded computation, will bring interaction and intelligence to commonplace inanimate objects in our environment. as a simple but illustrative example, we have built balloons that can interact conversationally. this paper describes this system: the piezoelectric foil that ... View full abstract»

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  • Things that blink: Computationally augmented name tags

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 488 - 495
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (38)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4422 KB)  

    The conventional name tag automatically dispenses information at a time when it is useful and relevant. The name of the person wearing the tag is visible in a face-to-face encounter. The information presented on a name tag changes according to who is wearing the name tag, but it does not depend on who is viewing the name tag. This paper presents a computationally augmented name tag-the "Thinking T... View full abstract»

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  • Design of electronic information

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 497 - 498
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2090 KB)  

    We experience both qualitative and quantitative aspects of information. The design of electronic information involves a search for a common ground between the quantitative description of information and its qualitative expression. In searching for this common ground, at issue is not only what one designs, but how one designs, what happens to the design after it is conceptualized, how users interac... View full abstract»

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  • Experiments in digital graphic design

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 499 - 513
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7999 KB)  

    Graphic design, layout, and the use of typography are among topics discussed in this essay about the collaboration between an art director at ibm and researchers at the visible language workshop of the mit media laboratory to produce printed journal cover designs. we highlight how a traditional graphic designer and computer programmers worked together to produce visual results on a computer displa... View full abstract»

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  • Navigating large bodies of text

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 514 - 525
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (8046 KB)  

    The display of information by computers does not often fulfill the promise of the computer as a visual information appliance. a design experiment is described in this paper in which a large body of text, such as the complete plays of william shakespeare, is made visible. the typography is designed to handle display at a variety of scales so that the user can move smoothly between detailed views an... View full abstract»

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  • Color as a determined communication

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 526 - 538
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7541 KB)  

    Although it is possible that one viewer's perception of color may be very different from another's, experimental evidence suggests that the relationships between colors are, in many respects, universal, and thus relatively free from individual and cultural influences. the "experience of color" can be described objectively, so that predictable visual sensations can be elicited by adjusting the rela... View full abstract»

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  • Instructible agents: Software that just keeps getting better

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 539 - 556
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (10739 KB)  

    Agent software is a topic of growing interest to users and developers in the computer industry. Already, agents and wizards help users automate tasks such as editing and searching for information. But just as we expect human assistants to learn as we work with them, we will also come to expect our computer agents to learn from us. This paper explores the idea of an instructible agent that can lear... View full abstract»

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  • Salient stills: Process and practice

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 557 - 573
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (8162 KB)  

    Unlike a photograph, which represents a discrete moment of time, a salient still reflects the aggregate of the temporal changes that occur in a moving image sequence. The salient still image may have multiresolution patches, a larger field of view, or higher overall resolution than any individual frame in the original image sequence. The salient still process is reviewed in the context of resoluti... View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Throughout its history, the IBM Systems Journal has been devoted to software, software systems, and services, focusing on concepts, architectures, and the uses of software.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John J. Ritsko
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center5