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IBM Systems Journal

Issue 4 • Date 1999

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 502 - 503
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (33 KB)  

    Over the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of computers embedded within and intrinsically part of larger devices. This has led to a metamorphosis from a world of computers that are seen as such and used by humans as distinct machines, into a world of sophisticated, computerized, networked machines that are not seen as computers nor used as such by humans. Estimates indicate that today most computers are of this type. Computers are in telephones, cars, microwave ovens, cash registers, and a multitude of other fanciful and mundane devices and systems. The resulting change in our view of computers and their use by humans is the subject of the field known as pervasive computing. View full abstract»

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  • A look at human interaction with pervasive computers

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 504 - 507
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (60 KB)  

    A collection of papers has been gathered in order to explore the pervasive computing trend with a humanistic approach. Is it possible for us to understand what the technological world will be like in the next millennium? These papers will help technologists to share in the successes of others in this field and also to understand problems researchers are having in creating ubiquitous computing environments. Our experiences are conveyed to motivate future work in the area and to help all of us envision and create the future. Because pervasive computing affects many people in any number of disciplines, we took a broad approach when picking topics for this issue. Education, communication, and social implications are among the topics discussed here. Although the means used by the authors to reach for their goals may be different, there are many similarities in their visions of the future. View full abstract»

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  • Classroom 2000: An experiment with the instrumentation of a living educational environment

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 508 - 530
    Cited by:  Papers (69)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB)  

    One potentially useful feature of future computing environments will be the ability to capture the live experiences of the occupants and to provide that record to users for later access and review. Over the last three years, a group at the Georgia Institute of Technology has designed and extensively used a particular instrumented environment: a classroom that captures the traditional lecture experience. This paper describes the history of the Classroom 2000 project and provides results of extended evaluations of the effect of automated capture on the teaching and learning experience. There are many important lessons to take away from this long-term, large-scale experiment with a living, ubiquitous computing environment. The environment should address issues of scale and extensibility, it should continuously be evaluated for effectiveness, and the ways in which the environment both improves and hinders the activity that it aims to support—in our case, education—need to be understood and acted upon. In d escribing our experiences and lessons learned, we hope to motivate other researchers to take more seriously the challenge of ubiquitous computing—the creation and exploration of the everyday use of computationally rich environments. View full abstract»

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  • Making sharing pervasive: Ubiquitous computing for shared note taking

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 531 - 550
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (17)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (597 KB)  

    As a variety of low-cost note-taking devices becomes pervasive, shared notes can help work groups better communicate ideas and information. To explore this idea further, we carried out three related case studies of how members of a large research group shared meeting notes. The group found value in combining personal notes and presentation slides with a single, unifying document, such as regular meeting minutes. The minutes provided structure when there were too many sources of notes. We used this insight in our design of NotePals, a note-sharing system with a lightweight process, an interface, and hardware that distinguish it from previous systems. We have developed note-taking applications that run on inexpensive personal digital assistants and other ink-based capture devices, such as the paper-based CrossPad™. Experience with using NotePals has shown that shared notes can add value to meeting, conference, and class records. View full abstract»

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  • Contrasting paradigms for the development of wearable computers

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 551 - 565
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (879 KB)  

    In this paper, current applications of wearable computers are reviewed and categorized according to dimensions of “time” and “reference.” The time dimension is based on whether the system uses information that is stored, information that is current, or information that can help in predicting future events. The reference dimension is concerned with the type of application, event, task, environment, person, or artifact. Each of these categories can be described in terms of its temporal features (stored, current, or predicted). It is proposed that these dimensions distinguish wearable computers from their desk-bound counterparts, and this raises the question of appropriate paradigms for wearable computers. A user-centered methodology is then presented and illustrated by paramedic and fire-fighter applications. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless networked digital devices: A new paradigm for computing and communication

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 566 - 574
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (6)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (99 KB)  

    The proliferation of mobile computing devices including laptops, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wearable computers has created a demand for wireless personal area networks (PANs). PANs allow proximal devices to share information and resources. The mobile nature of these devices places unique requirements on PANs, such as low power consumption, frequent make-and-break connections, resource discovery and utilization, and international regulations. This paper examines wireless technologies appropriate for PANs and reviews promising research in resource discovery and service utilization. View full abstract»

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  • A universal information appliance

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 575 - 601
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (60)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1278 KB)  

    The consumer's view of a universal information appliance (UIA) is a personal device, such as a PDA (personal digital assistant) or a wearable computer that can interact with any application, access any information store, or remotely operate any electronic device. The technologist's view of the UIA is a portable computer, communicating over a bi-directional wireless link to an elaborate software system through which all programs, information stores, and electronic devices can export their interfaces to the UIA. Using an exported interface, the UIA can interoperate with the exporting entity, whether a home security system, a video cassette recorder, corporate application, or an automobile navigation system. Furthermore, interfaces presented by the UIA can be tailored to the user's context, such as the user's preferences, behavior, and current surroundings. The UIA programming model supports dynamic interface style and content triggered on activity detected from the user's real-world and software context. In this paper we describe the design and first implementation of a UIA, a PDA that, through a wireless link, can interact with any program, access any database, or direct most electronic devices through a remote interface. The UIA model uses IBM's TSpaces software package as the interface delivery mechanism and resource database, and as the network communication glue. TSpaces supports communication between the UIA and any peer over a dual-mode wireless link. Using a popular application example, we present a generalized architecture in which the UIA is the mobile user's software portal for interoperating with any peer: another UIA, a common network service, a legacy application, or an electronic device. View full abstract»

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  • Information in places

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 602 - 628
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (10)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (578 KB)  

    As global positioning, wireless communication, and mobile display technologies continue to advance, our notion of place will change. Information objects—first geocoded signs and later animated special effects—will begin to populate real physical space on what we call WorldBoard channels. WorldBoard is a proposed global infrastructure to associate information with places and ultimately to provide people with enhanced information perception services. This paper explores the notion of a WorldBoard from four perspectives: historical background, technical feasibility, potential applications, and social implications. Recent developments, ranging from lower-cost Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled car navigation systems to Casio Electronics' first-of-a-kind GPS-enabled wristwatch, foreshadow increased availability of location-aware information services and products. While significant technical, application development, and social challenges remain before a complete WorldBoard infrastructure can be made broadly, uniformly, and cost-effectively available, some feasible first steps toward this important goal are recommended. Finally, a notion like WorldBoard offers an opportunity to reflect on how technological possibilities unfold. View full abstract»

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  • Intermediaries: An approach to manipulating information streams

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 629 - 641
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (30)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (570 KB)  

    Information flows all around us all the time. Whether on computer networks, on telephone lines, or within the wiring of everyday devices such as coffeemakers or gas pumps, data are constantly being transmitted from one place to another. Much of the time, such data flow directly between information producers and information consumers. Sometimes, however, intermediary processes stand in the way of a simple data flow, for instance, to monitor traffic, to bridge between incompatible communication streams, or to customize or extend the functions that are natively available on a stream. Intermediaries can turn ordinary information streams into smart streams that enhance the quality of communication. Because information flows are now everywhere, there is a new opportunity for taking advantage of intermediary computation, but general principles and approaches have not yet been developed. This paper provides an introduction to the intermediary approach, describes an implemented Web intermediary framework and applications, and proposes extending intermediaries to other information streams. View full abstract»

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  • Multistream input: An experimental study of document scrolling methods

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 642 - 651
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB)  

    Navigating through on-line documents has become an increasingly common task in human-computer interaction. This paper investigates alternative methods to improve user performance for browsing World Wide Web and other documents. In a task that involved both scrolling and pointing, we compared three input methods against the status quo. The results showed that a mouse with a finger wheel did not improve user's performance; two other methods, namely a mouse with an isometric rate-control joystick operated by the same hand and a two-handed system that put a mouse in the dominant hand and a joystick in the other, both significantly improved users' performance. A human factors analysis of each of the three input methods is presented. View full abstract»

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  • At what cost pervasive? A social computing view of mobile computing systems

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 652 - 676
    Cited by:  Papers (12)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB)  

    With the advent of pervasive systems, computers are becoming a larger part of our social lives than ever before. Depending on the design of these systems, they may either promote or inhibit social relationships. We consider four kinds of social relationships: a relationship with the system, system-mediated collaborative relationships, relationships with a community, and interpersonal relationships among co-located persons. In laboratory studies, the design of pervasive computers is shown to affect responses to social partners. We propose a model of how pervasive systems can influence human behavior, social attributions, and interaction outcomes. We also discuss some implications for system design. View full abstract»

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  • Turning pervasive computing into mediated spaces

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 677 - 692
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB)  

    With pervasive computing, we envision a future in which computation becomes part of the environment. The computer forms (workstation, personal computer, personal digital assistant, game player) through which we now relate to computation will occupy only a small niche in this new computational world. Our relationship to pervasive computing will differ radically from our current relationship with computers. When computation becomes part of the environment, most human-computer interaction will be implicit, and it will have to take account of physical space. Physical space rarely matters in current human-computer interaction; but as computational devices become part of furniture, walls, and clothing, physical space becomes a necessary consideration. First, more than one person can occupy a space. Second, individuals within the space are doing things other than interacting with the computer: coming and going, and perhaps most strikingly, interacting with each other—not just with the computer. Finally, phy sical space provides a sense of place: individuals associate places with events and recurrent activities. The emerging relationship between people and pervasive computation is sometimes idealized as a “smart space”: the seamless integration of people, computation, and physical reality. This paper focuses on a particular kind of smart space, the “mediated space,” in which the space understands and participates in multiperson interaction. Mediated spaces will expand human capability by providing information management within a context associated with that space. The context will be created by recording interaction within the space and by importing information from the outside. Individuals will interact with the space explicitly in order to retrieve and analyze the information it contains, and implicitly by adding to the context through their speech and gesture. Achieving the vision of mediated spaces will require progress in both be- hind-the-scenes technology (how devices coordinate their act ivities) and at-the-interface technology (how the space presents itself to people, and how the space deals with multiperson interaction). This paper explores the research challenges in both of these areas, examining the behind-the-scenes requirements of device or manifestation description and context maintenance, as well as the interface problems of metaphor and understanding natural human-to-human spoken interaction. View full abstract»

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  • The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 693 - 696
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (63 KB)  

    Ubiquitous computing began in the Electronics and Imaging Laboratory of the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. This essay tells the inside story of its evolution from “computer walls” to “calm computing.” View full abstract»

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  • Contents of Volume 38, 1999

    Publication Year: 1999 , Page(s): 697 - 698
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (31 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

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Throughout its history, the IBM Systems Journal has been devoted to software, software systems, and services, focusing on concepts, architectures, and the uses of software.

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