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IBM Systems Journal

Issue 3 • Date 2001

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Displaying Results 1 - 13 of 13
  • Preface

    Page(s): 612 - 613
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (34 KB)  

    Today most businesses and many individuals depend on the integrity of computer systems and networks. However, transactions and data can be vulnerable to assaults from both casual and malicious sources. From denial-of-service attacks to identity theft, pranksters and predators can interfere with our lives. Security measures are essential and can take many forms, from biometrics and smart cards for user identification to defenses encoded in software and hardware components. View full abstract»

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  • Enhancing security and privacy in biometrics-based authentication systems

    Page(s): 614 - 634
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3787 KB)  

    Because biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. It is important that such biometrics-based authentication systems be designed to withstand attacks when employed in security-critical applications, especially in unattended remote applications such as e-commerce. In this paper we outline the inherent strengths of biometrics-based authentication, identify the weak links in systems employing biometrics-based authentication, and present new solutions for eliminating some of these weak links. Although, for illustration purposes, fingerprint authentication is used throughout, our analysis extends to other biometrics-based methods. View full abstract»

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  • Securing e-business applications using smart cards

    Page(s): 635 - 647
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB)  

    As the Internet is used increasingly as a platform for business transactions, security becomes a primary issue for Internet applications. Some applications are too sensitive for software-only security mechanisms. Higher levels of protection can be achieved with smart-card-based authentication schemes and transaction protocols. In this paper, we provide examples of typical banking applications implemented with smart cards using symmetrical (DES) and asymmetrical (RSA) cryptography. We present a pure Java™ architecture for such applications, which is intended for use on standard Web application servers and client devices enabled for Web browsing and the Java language. It employs applets on the client side to access smart cards via the OpenCard Framework. The applets communicate with authentication servlets or application servlets on the server side and act as a mediator between the smart card and the application logic on the server. View full abstract»

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  • The Internet public key infrastructure

    Page(s): 648 - 665
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB)  

    Long before the advent of electronic systems, different methods of information scrambling were used. Early attempts at data security in electronic computers employed some of the same transformations. Modern secret key cryptography brought much greater security, but eventually proved vulnerable to brute-force attacks. Public key cryptography has now emerged as the core technology for modern computing security systems. By associating a public key with a private key, many of the key distribution problems of earlier systems are avoided. The Internet public key infrastructure provides the secure digital certification required to establish a network of trust for public commerce. This paper explores the details of the infrastructure. View full abstract»

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  • Separation of duties for access control enforcement in workflow environments

    Page(s): 666 - 682
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2806 KB)  

    Separation of duty, as a security principle, has as its primary objective the prevention of fraud and errors. This objective is achieved by disseminating the tasks and associated privileges for a specific business process among multiple users. This principle is demonstrated in the traditional example of separation of duty found in the requirement of two signatures on a check. Previous work on separation of duty requirements often explored implementations based on role-based access control (RBAC) principles. These implementations are concerned with constraining the associations between RBAC components, namely users, roles, and permissions. Enforcement of the separation of duty requirements, although an integrity requirement, thus relies on an access control service that is sensitive to the separation of duty requirements. A distinction between separation of duty requirements that can be enforced in administrative environments, namely static separation of duty, and requirements that can only be enforced in a run-time environment, namely dynamic separation of duty, is required. It is argued that RBAC does not support the complex work processes often associated with separation of duty requirements, particularly with dynamic separation of duty. The workflow environment, being primarily concerned with the facilitation of complex work processes, provides a context in which the specification of separation of duty requirements can be studied. This paper presents the “conflicting entities“ administration paradigm for the specification of static and dynamic separation of duty requirements in the workflow environment. View full abstract»

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  • Practical server privacy with secure coprocessors

    Page(s): 683 - 695
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (193 KB)  

    What does it take to implement a server that provides access to records in a large database, in a way that ensures that this access is completely private—even to the operator of this server? In this paper, we examine the question: Using current commercially available technology, is it practical to build such a server, for real databases of realistic size, that offers reasonable performance—scaling well, parallelizing well, working with the current client infrastructure, and enabling server operators of otherwise unknown credibility to prove their service has these privacy properties? We consider this problem in the light of commercially available secure coprocessors—whose internal memory is still much, much smaller than the typical database size—and construct an algorithm that both provides asymptotically optimal performance and also promises reasonable performance in real implementations. Preliminary prototypes support this analysis, but leave many areas for further work. View full abstract»

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  • Security on z/OS: Comprehensive, current, and flexible

    Page(s): 696 - 720
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3661 KB)  

    In this paper, we summarize and explain the security functions available to a typical enterprise computing installation using the IBM z/OS™ operating system and Security Server. The discussion is at a high level, aimed at enterprise decision makers and application architects. The intent is to explain the comprehensive security componentry within z/OS and to show how these techniques and functions are exploited by modern distributed and Internet applications. Both z/OS and the IBM ⓔ® server zSeries™ product family have a rich heritage and significant presence in the evolving computing marketplace. Consequently, this discussion includes some computer security history and projections of the relevant future. View full abstract»

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  • An architecture for the Internet Key Exchange Protocol

    Page(s): 721 - 746
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)  

    In this paper we present the design, rationale, and implementation of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol. This protocol is used to create and maintain Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) associations and secure tunnels in the IP layer. Secure tunnels are used to construct virtual private networks (VPNs) over the Internet. The implementation is done in the application layer. The design includes four components: (1) an IKE protocol engine to execute the IKE protocol, (2) a tunnel manager to create and manage secure tunnels—it generates requests to the IKE protocol engine to establish security associations, (3) VPN policy administration tools to manage VPN policies that guide the actions of the IKE protocol engine and the tunnel manager, and (4) a certificate proxy server to acquire and verify public key certificates that are used for authentication of messages and identities in the IKE protocol. The implementation was done on the Advanced Interactive Executive® (AIX®) operating system at IBM Research and has been transferred to IBM's AIX, Application System/400®, and System/390® products. View full abstract»

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  • A method for designing secure solutions

    Page(s): 747 - 768
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (349 KB)  

    The task of developing information technology (IT) solutions that consistently and effectively apply security principles has many challenges, including: the complexity of integrating the specified security functions within the several underlying component architectures found in computing systems, the difficulty in developing a comprehensive set of baseline requirements for security, and a lack of widely accepted security design methods. With the formalization of security evaluation criteria into an international standard known as Common Criteria, one of the barriers to a common approach for developing extensible IT security architectures has been lowered; however, more work remains. This paper describes a systematic approach for defining, modeling, and documenting security functions within a structured design process in order to facilitate greater trust in the operation of resulting IT solutions. View full abstract»

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  • Ethical hacking

    Page(s): 769 - 780
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1329 KB)  

    The explosive growth of the Internet has brought many good things: electronic commerce, easy access to vast stores of reference material, collaborative computing, e-mail, and new avenues for advertising and information distribution, to name a few. As with most technological advances, there is also a dark side: criminal hackers. Governments, companies, and private citizens around the world are anxious to be a part of this revolution, but they are afraid that some hacker will break into their Web server and replace their logo with pornography, read their e-mail, steal their credit card number from an on-line shopping site, or implant software that will secretly transmit their organization's secrets to the open Internet. With these concerns and others, the ethical hacker can help. This paper describes ethical hackers: their skills, their attitudes, and how they go about helping their customers find and plug up security holes. The ethical hacking process is explained, along with many of the problems that the Global Security Analysis Lab has seen during its early years of ethical hacking for IBM clients. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of production database workloads and the TPC benchmarks

    Page(s): 781 - 802
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4791 KB)  

    There has been very little empirical analysis of any real production database workloads. Although the Transaction Processing Performance Council benchmarks C (TPC-C™) and D (TPC-D™) have become the standard benchmarks for on-line transaction processing and decision support systems, respectively, there has not been any major effort to systematically analyze their workload characteristics, especially in relation to those of real production database workloads. In this paper, we examine the characteristics of the production database workloads of ten of the world's largest corporations, and we also compare them to TPC-C and TPC-D. We find that the production workloads exhibit a wide range of behavior. In general, the two TPC benchmarks complement one another in reflecting the characteristics of the production workloads, but some aspects of real workloads are still not represented by either of the benchmarks. Specifically, our analysis suggests that the TPC benchmarks tend to exercise the following aspects of the system differently than the production workloads: concurrency control mechanism, workload-adaptive techniques, scheduling and resource allocation policies, and I/O optimizations for temporary and index files. We also re-examine Amdahl's rule of thumb for a typical data processing system and discover that both the TPC benchmarks and the production workloads generate on the order of 0.5 to 1.0 bit of logical I/O per instruction, surprisingly close to the much earlier figure. View full abstract»

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  • Books

    Page(s): 803 - 805
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (48 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Referees

    Page(s): 806 - 808
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

Throughout its history, the IBM Systems Journal has been devoted to software, software systems, and services, focusing on concepts, architectures, and the uses of software.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John J. Ritsko
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center5