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IBM Systems Journal

Issue 2 • Date 2003

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Displaying Results 1 - 14 of 14
  • Preface

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 203 - 204
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (38 KB)  

    The history of storage systems from their creation 50 years ago to the present abounds with dramatic technological advances, changes in user requirements, and emerging engineering challenges. In this issue of the IBM Systems Journal, one overview paper and 11 additional papers trace the evolution of storage systems, discuss the major issues facing the storage industry today, and describe a range of IBM-developed solutions for dealing with these issues. Wethank our guest editors, Robert Morris and Brian Truskowski, for their efforts in soliciting and acquiring the contributed papers, and in shaping the issue to reflect their vision and experience in storage systems. View full abstract»

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  • The evolution of storage systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 205 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB)  

    Storage systems are built by taking the basic capability of a storage device, such as the hard disk drive, and adding layers of hardware and software to obtain a highly reliable, high-performance, and easily managed system. We explain in this paper how storage systems have evolved over five decades to meet changing customer needs. First, we briefly trace the development of the control unit, RAID (redundant array of independent disks) technologies, copy services, and basic storage management technologies. Then, we describe how the emergence of low-cost local area data networking has allowed the development of network-attached storage (NAS) and storage area network (SAN) technologies, and we explain how block virtualization and SAN file systems are necessary to fully reap the benefits of these technologies. We also discuss how the recent trend in storage systems toward managing complexity, ease-of-use, and lowering the total cost of ownership has led to the development of autonomic storage. We conclude with our assessment of the current state-of-the-art by presenting a set of challenges driving research and development efforts in storage systems. View full abstract»

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  • Internet Protocol storage area networks

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 218 - 231
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (45)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (179 KB)  

    The sheer scale of the storage needs of most organizations makes block storage management an important system administration problem. Application servers, databases, and file systems rely on an efficient underlying block storage system. The storage area network paradigm is fast emerging as a desirable block storage solution, due to its performance, resource-sharing, and capacity-scaling benefits. This paper shows that the ubiquitous Internet Protocol (IP) network is technically well-suited to host a storage area network. The paper presents the storage protocol, management, and security building blocks that are necessary for making IP storage a reality. The paper then discusses performance issues that must be addressed in order to make IP storage area networks competitive with other storage area network technologies. View full abstract»

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  • The software architecture of a SAN storage control system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 232 - 249
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)  

    We describe an architecture of an enterprise-level storage control system that addresses the issues of storage management for storage area network (SAN)-attached block devices in a heterogeneous open systems environment. The storage control system, also referred to as the “storage virtualization engine,” is built on a cluster of Linux®-based servers, which provides redundancy, modularity, and scalability. We discuss the software architecture of the storage control system and describe its major components: the cluster operating environment, the distributed I/O facilities, the buffer management component, and the hierarchical object pools for managing memory resources. We also describe some preliminary results that indicate the system will achieve its goals of improving the utilization of storage resources, providing a platform for advanced storage functions, using off-the-shelf hardware components and a standard operating system, and facilitating upgrades to new generations of hardware, different hardware platforms, and new storage functions. View full abstract»

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  • IBM Storage Tank—A heterogeneous scalable SAN file system

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 250 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (29)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB)  

    As the amount of data being stored in the open systems environment continues to grow, new paradigms for the attachment and management of data and the underlying storage of the data are emerging. One of the emerging technologies in this area is the storage area network (SAN). Using a SAN to connect large amounts of storage to large numbers of computers gives us the potential for new approaches to accessing, sharing, and managing our data and storage. However, existing operating systems and file systems are not built to exploit these new capabilities. IBM Storage Tank™ is a SAN-based distributed file system and storage management solution that enables many of the promises of SANs, including shared heterogeneous file access, centralized management, and enterprise-wide scalability. In addition, Storage Tank borrows policy-based storage and data management concepts from mainframe computers and makes them available in the open systems environment. This paper explores the goals of the Storage Tank project, the architecture used to achieve these goals, and the current and future plans for the technology. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced functions for storage subsystems: Supporting continuous availability

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 268 - 279
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (13)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (129 KB)  

    Storage subsystems must support advanced copy functions. In particular, these functions are needed to enable the subsystem to support disaster recovery. Continuous remote copy functions ensure that all data written to a primary control unit are also written to a remote secondary control unit that, it is assumed, will not be impacted by a disaster. There are many variants of continuous remote copy, and it can be implemented in many ways and at various levels, including the application, the file system, and the disk storage subsystem. Although we mention other levels, our focus is on the storage subsystem. In this paper, we describe the variants of continuous remote copy and their implementation, emphasizing Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy (PPRC) supported by the IBM TotalStorage™ Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS). View full abstract»

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  • z/OS support of the IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 280 - 301
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB)  

    The IBM TotalStorage™ Enterprise Storage Server® provides unique capabilities for eServer™ zSeries™ and S/390® environments. We describe two such capabilities, Parallel Access Volume and I/O Request Priority, and discuss the algorithms and mechanisms used to implement and manage them. We show how the new functions deliver significant value to customers, particularly in the areas of self-optimizing management of resources tied to customer goals and reduced customer configuration planning. View full abstract»

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  • Two decades of policy-based storage management for the IBM mainframe computer

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 302 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (8)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (227 KB)  

    Today, storage management vendors see the need and business opportunity for an enterprise-wide policy-based storage management solution for their customers. In the middle 1980s, IBM introduced the Data Facility Storage Management Subsystem (DFSMS) as a policy-based storage management solution for large mainframe computer systems. As an integral part of the operating systems OS/390® and z/OS™, DFSMS continues to be enhanced. This paper provides an overview of DFSMS and describes a few of its recent enhancements. View full abstract»

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  • Beyond backup toward storage management

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 322 - 337
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (47)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (187 KB)  

    The IBM Tivoli Storage Manager, a client/server product providing backup, archive, and space management functions in heterogeneous distributed environments, performs extensive storage management after client data have reached the server. Beyond minimizing the amount of data that a client needs to send on successive backup operations, Tivoli Storage Manager optimizes data placement for disaster recovery, for restore operations, and for fault tolerant access. It also adapts to changes in device technology. The original design points of the product in research have been expanded to provide a comprehensive set of functions that not only facilitate backup but also support content managers and deep storage applications. The design points and functions are described in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Technological impact of magnetic hard disk drives on storage systems

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 338 - 346
    Cited by:  Papers (22)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (443 KB)  

    Magnetic hard disk drives have undergone vast technological improvements since their introduction as storage devices over 45 years ago, and these improvements have had a marked influence on how disk drives are applied and what they can do. Areal density increases have exceeded the traditional semiconductor development trajectory and have yielded higher-capacity, higher-performance, and smaller-form-factor disk drives, enabling desktop and mobile computers to store multi-gigabytes of data easily. Server systems containing large numbers of drives have achieved unparalleled reliability, performance, and storage capacity. All of these characteristics have been achieved at rapidly declining disk costs. This paper relates advances in disk drives to corresponding trends in storage systems and projects where these trends may lead in the future. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics of I/O traffic in personal computer and server workloads

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 347 - 372
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (411 KB)  

    Understanding the characteristics of I/O traffic is increasingly important as the performance gap between the processor and disk-based storage continues to widen. Moreover, recent advances in technology, coupled with market demands, have led to new and exciting developments in storage systems, particularly network storage, storage utilities, and intelligent self-optimizing storage. In this paper, we empirically examine the physical I/O traffic of a wide range of server and personal computer (PC) workloads, focusing on how these workloads will be affected by the recent developments in storage systems. As part of our analysis, we compare our results with historical data and re-examine some rules of thumb (e.g., one bit of I/O per second for each instruction per second of processing power) that have been widely used for designing computer systems. We find that the I/O traffic is bursty and appears to exhibit self-similar characteristics. Our analysis also indicates that there is little cross-correlation between traffic volumes of server workloads, which suggests that aggregating these workloads will likely help to smooth out the traffic and enable more efficient utilization of resources. We discover that there is significant potential for harnessing “free” system resources to perform background tasks such as optimization of disk block layout. In general, we observe that the characteristics of the I/O traffic are relatively insensitive to the extent of upstream caching, and thus our results still apply, on a qualitative level, when the upstream cache is increased in size. View full abstract»

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  • Technical note—The IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server: Testing for general availability and beyond

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 373 - 382
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (118 KB)  

    The IBM TotalStorage™ Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS) is a powerful and versatile storage subsystem that can respond well to the explosion in demand for on-line data storage. ESS provides unique features in the areas of connectivity, capacity and performance scalability, data integrity, reliability, availability, and serviceability. This technical note discusses the stages of ESS hardware and software testing. Focus is then given to the collaboration, tools, and techniques needed for testing ESS software support provided specifically for the System/390® platform. View full abstract»

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  • IBM TotalStorage Enterprise Storage Server: A designer's view

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 383 - 396
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (163 KB)  

    In this paper, we describe the background, objectives, and major decisions associated with the design of IBM TotalStorage™ Enterprise Storage Server® (ESS), IBM's high-end disk storage system. We first present a brief history of disk storage development over the past three decades and then describe ESS architecture and basic functions. Next we discuss the goals associated with the design of ESS and the methods used to achieve these goals. We then explore some design decisions that significantly affected ESS architecture and performance, and we conclude with some comments about possible future enhancements. View full abstract»

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  • Books

    Publication Year: 2003 , Page(s): 397 - 399
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (47 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE

Aims & Scope

Throughout its history, the IBM Systems Journal has been devoted to software, software systems, and services, focusing on concepts, architectures, and the uses of software.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
John J. Ritsko
IBM T. J. Watson Research Center5