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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 2 • Date Feb. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C1 - 249
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement publication information

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): C2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • An Adaptive Resonator-Based Method for Power Measurements According to the IEEE Trial-Use Standard 1459–2000

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 250 - 258
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an accurate and computationally efficient implementation of the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 for power measurements. The algorithm has two stages. In the first algorithm stage, the voltage and current signals are processed in parallel, and their spectrums are estimated independently of each other. Signal harmonics are estimated in a wide range of frequency using an efficient algorithm with reduced complexity. The algorithm is based on a recently introduced common structure for recursive discrete transforms and consists of digital resonators embedded in a common negative feedback loop. In the second algorithm stage, the unknown power components and other power quality indices are calculated according to definitions in the IEEE Standard 1459-2000. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, the results of computer simulations and laboratory testing are presented. The laboratory results show accurate input power component estimates for a nonlinear load with rapid input current amplitude changes. In addition, a simple LabView implementation, based on the point-by-point processing feature, demonstrates the technique's modest computation requirements and confirms that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real-time applications. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling the Series Impedance of a Quad Cable for Common-Mode DSL Applications

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 259 - 265
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    New digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies are being developed to meet the ever-increasing bandwidth demand of the user. One very promising approach injects ??common-mode?? signals that superimpose a signal on two regular differential pairs. This technique requires new reliable multiconductor models for the telephony cables. Therefore, good approximations of the series impedance of the line are indispensable. In this paper, a model for this series impedance is theoretically derived and validated with measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Coverage-Mapping Method Based on a Hardware Model for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 266 - 282
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1988 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe a method for relating the precision in phase shift measurements to the navigation areas in which that precision is reached so that a coverage map is built, setting a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold level that depends on that phase precision. The method brings a novel approach to linking different areas in robotics and is applied to a mobile-robot (MR) local positioning system (LPS) in an intelligent space, where distances are computed from differential phase shift measurements with intensity modulation and direct detection (IMDD) infrared signals. A global model including the parameters of all the parts involved, e.g., optoelectronics, wireless channel, and instrumentation hardware, is developed. Furthermore, based on the model, an analytical expression deduced for the phase shift measurement is used to find the necessary SNR for a desired precision. A complete set of results, applying the coverage cells to a real building covering a path followed by an MR, is shown. The position of the MR can be known, with an accuracy value below 5 cm and tested in a basic rectangular locating cell with dimensions 3.0 m ?? 2.5 m. View full abstract»

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  • Mathematical Modeling of Intensity-Modulated Bent-Tip Optical Fiber Displacement Sensors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 283 - 291
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intensity-modulated optical fiber displacement sensors have a potential to be used in a number of applications, including those in industry, military, aerospace, and medicine. Compared with other types of optical fiber sensors, intensity-modulated sensors offer distinctive advantages in that they are usually less complex, inexpensive, and less sensitive to thermal-induced strain. They are able to perform accurate contactless sensing while being of a small size and having a wide dynamic range. A common form of the intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor performs its measurement by making use of a pair of straight parallel optical fibers integrated with a moving reflector modulating the reflected optical signal intensity. Although such an optical modulation configuration exhibits good sensing ability, improvement on its performance could still be made to widen the extent of its application areas. This leads to the development of more effective intensity modulation mechanisms utilizing bent-tip optical fibers and a reflector that can either laterally slide or longitudinally move with reference to the central axis of the fibers. This paper describes such alternative sensing structures and demonstrates the derivations of mathematical models proposed for analyzing their sensing characteristics. Based on experimental studies, the models are verified and validated for the analysis of sensitivity and linearity. View full abstract»

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  • Probe Characterization for Electromagnetic Near-Field Studies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 292 - 300
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (975 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Probes used for contactless electromagnetic field capture or injection are characterized. Depending on the probe structure, they interact preferentially with the electric or magnetic field. The optimal size of the probes for broad-frequency-band measurements is investigated. However, it is shown particularly for the magnetic field probe that considerations about the size and the structures presented in this paper are not sufficient for a good discrimination between electric and magnetic fields. Then, the space resolution of near-field measurements is discussed, with application to the field capture of a microstrip line under operation. View full abstract»

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  • A Note on Optimality of Analytical Leakage Compensation at Boundary Frequencies

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 301 - 308
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The interpolated fast Fourier transform (IFFT) was one of the first methods for the highly accurate estimation of sine wave parameters, and its first successful descendant was analytical leakage compensation [which is commonly called analytical solution (AS)]. The AS estimate of frequency is a whole class of solutions whose variance depends on a free parameter K. Thus, to extract the minimum variance solution from a theoretically infinite set, we have to find the optimal value K opt. This paper clarifies the mathematical background of AS and proposes two new solutions for K opt, which reduce the variance of AS estimates of low and high frequencies close to an integer. All inferences are justified by simulations, which confirm the validity of theoretical considerations. View full abstract»

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  • An Enhanced Diagnostic Scheme for Bearing Condition Monitoring

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 309 - 321
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1119 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rolling-element bearings are widely used in various mechanical and electrical facilities; accordingly, a reliable real-time bearing condition-monitoring system is very useful in industries to detect bearing defects at both incipient and advanced levels to prevent machinery performance degradation and malfunctions. The objective of this paper is to develop an enhanced diagnostic (ED) scheme for bearing fault diagnostics. This scheme consists of modules of classification and prediction. A neurofuzzy (NF) classifier is proposed to effectively integrate the strengths of several signal-processing techniques (or resulting representative features) for a more positive assessment of bearing health conditions. A multistep NF predictor is employed to forecast the future states of the bearing health condition to further enhance the diagnostic reliability. The effectiveness of this ED scheme is verified by experimental tests that correspond to different bearing conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency Estimation of Three-Phase Power System Using Weighted-Least-Square Algorithm and Adaptive FIR Filtering

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 322 - 329
    Cited by:  Papers (29)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (426 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new technique for estimation of the instantaneous frequency based on simultaneous sampling of three-phase voltage signals is presented. The structure consists of two decoupled modules: the first is for adaptive filtering of input signals, and the second is for frequency estimation. A suitable and robust algorithm for frequency estimation is obtained. This technique provides better performance, compared with the technique based on a single-phase signal in relation to waveforms with noise. The technique is particularly important when asymmetric sags generate zero voltage in one of the three phases. In addition, it allows the measurement of the instantaneous frequency value of real signals for single- or three-phase systems. To demonstrate the performance of the developed algorithm, computer-simulated data records and calibrator-generated signals are processed. The proposed algorithm has been put to test with distorted three-phase voltage signals. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Monitoring and Self-Assessing Atomic Clocks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 330 - 334
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (433 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From digital communications to satellite navigation, remotely synchronized clocks play a role of primary importance. The failure of these clocks will lead to not only service interruptions, but also, in some cases involving satellite navigation, more dire consequences with potential loss of life. Consequently, ensuring the integrity of remote clocks is now an issue of considerable import. In this paper, we demonstrate that an atomic clock can autonomously assess its own frequency stability and integrity by comparing the phase of its output signal to a delayed version of itself in what is essentially an interferometric technique. Using a high-quality crystal oscillator, we demonstrate that fractional frequency jumps of 10-11 are easily observed and that a cesium atomic clock's short-term Allan deviation can be measured without reference to another standard in a fully autonomous manner. View full abstract»

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  • An Adaptive Sampling Algorithm for Effective Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks With Energy-Hungry Sensors

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 335 - 344
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy conservation techniques for wireless sensor networks generally assume that data acquisition and processing have energy consumption that is significantly lower than that of communication. Unfortunately, this assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications, where sensors may consume even more energy than the radio. In this context, effective energy management should include policies for an efficient utilization of the sensors, which become one of the main components that affect the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an adaptive sampling algorithm that estimates online the optimal sampling frequencies for sensors. This approach, which requires the design of adaptive measurement systems, minimizes the energy consumption of the sensors and, incidentally, that of the radio while maintaining a very high accuracy of collected data. As a case study, we considered a sensor for snow-monitoring applications. Simulation experiments have shown that the suggested adaptive algorithm can reduce the number of acquired samples up to 79% with respect to a traditional fixed-rate approach. We have also found that it can perform similar to a fixed-rate scheme where the sampling frequency is known in advance. View full abstract»

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  • Application of Complementary Signals in Built-In Self Testers for Mixed-Signal Embedded Electronic Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 345 - 352
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1011 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper concerns the implementation of shape-designed complementary signals (CSs), which were matched to the frequency characteristic of the circuit under test, in built-in self testers (BISTs), dedicated to mixed-signal embedded electronic systems for testing their analog sections. The essence of the proposed method and solution of CS BIST is low-cost realization on the base of hardware and software resources of microcontrollers that were used in contemporary embedded systems. This paper presents a description and a theoretical basis of known bipolar CSs and unipolar CSs proposed by the authors, results of investigations of metrological properties of CSs, and a solution of CS BIST and its experimental verification on the examples of testing second- and fourth-order Butterworth filters. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Integrating Rogowski Coil for High-Impulse Current Measurement

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 353 - 360
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (371 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the operating principle, the performance under impulse condition, and the design of a self-integrating Rogowski coil for measuring high-impulse currents. Oscillatory and overdamped unidirectional impulse currents are generated up to 10 kA and measured by different methods, namely, two commercial impulse current transformers, a resistive shunt, and the newly designed self-integrating Rogowski coil. For the resistive method, the voltage drop across the shunt affects the total voltage measured across the test object and causes distortion in the case of simultaneous measurement by an impulse current transformer having a small aperture. The Rogowski coil theory under impulse current conditions is presented. The concept of transmission lines is used, and the line parameters are optimized to achieve a self-integrating mode and avoid spurious effects of reflections and stray capacitances. The output voltage linearity of the designed self-integrating Rogowski coil is checked using different linear and nonlinear loads and coil termination resistances. It is found that at a termination resistance of 1 ??, satisfactory impulse current waveforms are measured by taking the commercial impulse current transformer as a reference signal. Results reveal that the measurement errors for the current peak and front and tail times are ??2%, ??6%, and ?? 12%, respectively. Overdamped impulse currents are generated by different generator capacitances, where comparisons between the measured and calculated current waveform parameters have shown good agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Evaluation of Feedback Modalities for Five Teleoperation Tasks

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 361 - 371
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (666 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A distributed telerobotic system is proposed based on a master-arm station that is interconnected by a computer network to a slave-arm station. The distributed telerobotic system is evaluated using a set of teleoperated experiments: 1) peg-in-hole insertion; 2) assembly of a small water pump; 3) operating drawers; 4) pouring of water; and 5) wire wrapping. Direct teleoperation is evaluated using the following schemes: 1) stereo vision; 2) vision and force feedback (VFF); and 3) vision with active compliance (VAC). Space indexing and scaling tools are also used. Operator hand is logically mapped to a remote tool both in position and force. The operator feels the forces that were exerted on the tool as they were exerted on the hand. Extensive experimental analysis showed that mapping of operator hand motion and force feedback (FF) to a convenient tool point reduces the operator mental load and task time due to highly coordinated motion. Stereo vision may solely be used at the cost of large peak forces and extended task time. VFF has nearly equal task time compared to VAC but with a noticeable increase in contact forces. For a large majority of cases, the contact-based tasks that were done using VAC resulted in the least task times and the least contact forces. VAC is superior to VFF, which is better than V. In other words, there is an enormous gain in stability if one removes the bilateral FF channel in teleoperation and relies on a slave-arm active compliance. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitivity Comparison of Mx and Frequency-Modulated Bell–Bloom Cs Magnetometers in a Microfabricated Cell

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 372 - 378
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We compare the sensitivity performance of two optically pumped atomic magnetometers based on the Mx and frequency-modulated bell-bloom configurations. The Cs magnetometers are implemented using a millimeter-scale microfabricated vapor cell. It is found that the Bell-Bloom magnetometer yields sensitivities similar to those of the Mx magnetometer when operated under equally optimized conditions. The Bell-Bloom approach offers several attractive features over the Mx approach for chip-scale magnetometer instrumentation. View full abstract»

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  • An Error-Minimizing Approach to Regularization in Indirect Measurements

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 379 - 386
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (375 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Indirect measurements often amount to the estimation of the parameters of a mathematical model that describes the object under investigation, and this process may numerically be ill conditioned. Various regularization techniques are used to solve the problem. This paper shows that popular regularization methods can be depicted as special cases of a generalized approach based on a penalty term in the minimized criterion function and how different kinds of a priori knowledge can be engaged into each of them. A new function, which depends on the estimate bias and variance, is proposed to find a regularization parameter that minimizes the error of estimation, as well as a novel approach for nonlinear estimation that results in the iterative minimization (IM) method. The superiority of IM with respect to the conventional Marquardt procedure is demonstrated. Based on analysis, it also follows that the regularization technique can be used even in the case of numerically well-conditioned indirect measurements, decreasing the total error of estimation. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Domain Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurement System Employing a Switched Continuous-Wave Hardware Gating Technique

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 387 - 395
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A time-domain spherical near-field antenna measurement system capable of gating out erroneous signal components, which arise due to multipath propagation in nonideal anechoic chambers, is presented. The developed hardware (HW) gating technique evaluates a switched sinusoidal signal, which is synthesized by an application-specific pulse generator and acquired by either a commercial real-time digitizing oscilloscope or an application-specific equivalent-time sampling receiver developed for this particular purpose. The low-cost measurement system has been optimized for acquisition speed, dynamic range, and resolution. Its operating frequency range covers 1.5-8 GHz, and it is applicable to antennas exhibiting a typical 3-dB bandwidth in excess of 400 MHz. Test measurements of an omnidirectional and a directional antenna, respectively, have been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the novel HW gating technique. It is shown that the HW gating technique can significantly improve the absolute average deviation of the erroneous 3-D far-field pattern. View full abstract»

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  • A New Precision Digital Phase Meter and Its Simple Calibration Method

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 396 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A digital phase meter (DPM) for power frequencies with a very low measurement uncertainty of 1 ??rad was developed at Japan Electric Meters Inspection Corporation (JEMIC) to establish a power and energy calibration system. We also developed a phase meter calibrator (PMC) for calibrating the DPM. Since the DPM and PMC are synchronized with a single clock, the DPM can be calibrated by a very simple measurement method, which no longer requires extra standards. The DPM has been employed as an instrument for the primary standard of power and energy in Japan to achieve precise phase angle measurement. Since the error in the power measurement at power factor 0 is equal to the error in the phase angle measurement, we verified the performance of the DPM by calibrating a standard power meter using the power calibrators at JEMIC and Physikalische-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and comparing the test results at power factor 0. According to the measurement, the phase angle difference between JEMIC and PTB is within 7 ??rad. View full abstract»

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  • Joint-Angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes—A Survey

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 404 - 414
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an analysis of rigid-body joint-angle measurement based on microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) biaxial accelerometers and uniaxial gyroscopes. In comparison to conventional magnetic and optical joint angular sensors, this new inertial sensing principle has the advantages of flexible installation and true contactless sensing. This paper focuses on the comparison of four different inertial-sensor combination methods that are reported in reference papers and utilizes the theory of rigid-body kinematics to explain and analyze their advantages and weaknesses. Experiments have also been conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the analysis. All experiments in this paper took place on a custom-built rigid-body robot arm model that can be manipulated by hand. Sensor calibration and accelerometer alignment issues are also described, and their details are discussed. The experiment results presented in this paper show significant differences with reference to the achieved angular accuracy for various situations when using the four different sensor combination methods. In some cases, the angular error based on one method is more than 0.04 rad, while that from another method is within ??0.005 rad. The noise levels of angular readings from different methods are also experimentally compared and analyzed. The conclusion drawn serves to guide readers toward a suitable method for their particular application. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of the Digital Near-Field Beamforming for Underwater 3-D Sonar Imaging System

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 415 - 424
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel approximation for the delays of digital near-field beamforming based on a planar array. An optimized algorithm for the underwater 3-D sonar imaging system based on the novel approximation will also be described. The algorithm is applied to both an evenly spaced planar array and an unevenly spaced planar array. A data path for the optimized algorithm will be illustrated. Comparisons of the memory and the computational requirements between the optimized algorithm and the direct method (DM) beamforming will be presented. Comparisons of the proposed approximation and the Fresnel approximation will also be demonstrated. This paper illustrates that the proposed approximation enlarges the validity region of the system's view scene as compared with the Fresnel approximation. The optimized algorithm has the advantage of reducing the memory requirements for parameter storage comparing with DM beamforming. View full abstract»

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  • Multiphysics Modeling and Analysis of the Photoinductive Imaging Effect for Crack Detection

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 425 - 432
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Numerical multiphysics modeling of the photoinductive imaging (PI) effect was performed with a 2-D transient to characterize corner cracks at the edge of a specimen with a bolt hole. We present how the finite-element method (FEM) can be utilized to model the PI effect and observe the influence of critical factors on the coil probe impedance for a rectangular crack in the Ti-6Al-4V specimen. As anticipated, the proposed model can show that the PI method has a higher spatial resolution in the defect in 2-D models compared to the conventional eddy current testing method. The FEM simulation results for 0.25-, 0.50-, and 0.75-mm rectangular notches are shown and discussed. The effects of coil current frequency, laser-point temperature, and lift-off distance on the PI signal are also examined and analyzed. We demonstrate that the PI effect is a novel sensing method for characterizing the geometric shape of cracks and that the enhanced output signals of the coil probe can also be obtained given an appropriate quantity of factors. View full abstract»

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  • A Practical Implementation of IEEE 1588-2008 Transparent Clock for Distributed Measurement and Control Systems

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 433 - 439
    Cited by:  Papers (20)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper addresses issues with time synchronization using the IEEE 1588-2008 for distributed measurement and control systems. A practical implementation of the transparent clock is presented with the overall system architecture and detailed operation of each building block. To verify the submicrosecond accuracy using the implemented devices, an experimental setup that was analogous to a practical distributed system has been built. Measured results from the experiment show that the time error is limited below 30 ns for nodes that were connected by three switches. It is remarkable that the results are observed in spite of large packet queuing delays that were introduced by a traffic generator. The discussion on sources of time error that was outlined here provides technical considerations to designing IEEE 1588 systems. View full abstract»

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  • A Decentralized Observer for Ship Power System Applications: Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 440 - 449
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In the last few years, the growing complexity of the electrical power networks, mainly due to the increased use of electronic converters together with the requirements of a higher level of reliability and security, pushed the development of new techniques for the state estimation of the power systems. In this paper, the authors focus their attention on the implementation and experimental validation of a decentralized observer for the state estimation in an electric ship, whose power network is characterized by fast dynamics and by the presence of many electronic devices. The proposed solution implements a decentralized information filter (DIF). View full abstract»

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  • Assessment of Electromagnetic Emissions From Synchronous Generators and Its Metrological Characterization

    Publication Year: 2010 , Page(s): 450 - 457
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1507 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A specific class of electrical machine, i.e., synchronous generators, with a broad application for energy production is considered. The electromagnetic emissions are evaluated on the results of several measurement campaigns, accompanied by their metrological characterization; signal-to-noise ratio, uncertainty, reproducibility, and repeatability are evaluated in different operating conditions, measuring positions, and generators under test. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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