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Control Systems Technology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Jan. 2010

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - C4
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  • IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • A Robust Controller Interpolation Design Technique

    Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Switching or blending among controllers is termed controller interpolation. This paper investigates a robust controller interpolation technique and applies it to an experimental test bed. Although an interpolated controller is composed of linear time-invariant (LTI) controllers stabilizing the LTI plant, closed-loop performance and stability are not guaranteed. Thus, it is of interest to design the interpolated controller to guarantee closed-loop stability and a performance level for all interpolation signals describing controller switching sequences and combinations. The performance metric that is under investigation in this paper is the H ?? norm. A suboptimal robust interpolated-controller design algorithm is framed in terms of bilinear matrix inequalities. The motivating example demonstrates the efficacy of the robust interpolated-controller design. View full abstract»

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  • Real-Time Discrete Neural Block Control Using Sliding Modes for Electric Induction Motors

    Page(s): 11 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with real-time adaptive tracking for discrete-time induction motors in the presence of bounded disturbances. A high-order neural-network structure is used to identify the plant model, and based on this model, a discrete-time control law is derived, which combines discrete-time block-control and sliding-mode techniques. This paper also includes the respective stability analysis for the whole system with a strategy to avoid adaptive weight zero-crossing. The scheme is implemented in real time using a three-phase induction motor. View full abstract»

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  • System Identification and Contour Tracking of a Plane-Type 3-DOF (X,Y,\theta z) Precision Positioning Table

    Page(s): 22 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an adaptive backstepping control (ABC) method for a plane-type 3-DOF (X,Yz) precision positioning table is proposed. First, according to the dynamics of a mechanical mass-spring system, we establish mathematical equations that contain linear viscous frictions and varied elasticities with cross-coupling effects due to mechanical bending. In system identification, the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) method is employed to find the optimized parameters, and the dynamic responses of numerical simulations and experimental results are compared. On the basis of the state-space model, the ABC is proposed to track trajectories and impose on the dynamic performance, robustness of parameter variations, and trajectory-tracking errors. The comparisons between numerical simulations and experimental results illustrate the validity of the proposed ABC method for practical applications in contour tracking and also show the performances in reducing the cross-coupling effects. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal System Design of SISO-Servopneumatic Positioning Drives

    Page(s): 35 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Servopneumatic actuators are very attractive for automated handling tasks or robot operations. They have many advantages such as high speed, high robustness in rough manufacturing environment or high power-to-weight ratio. The considered actuator system is a standard configuration in pneumatics consisting of a double acting pneumatic cylinder controlled by a proportional directional control valve. For the set-up a detailed mathematical model is derived. In order to guarantee an accurate tracking behaviour, a model-based nonlinear controller is presented. Model based approaches for the control design have several advantages. Tuning of the controller can be reached in a systematic way even in the case of a large variety of different configurations. But not only the control design itself can be treated. The model offers the possibility to optimize the size of components for demanded automation tasks. In most cases, this is solved based on steady state assumptions. In this contribution, a method for a design procedure for the pneumatic actuator system based on the dynamic equation is presented. With the representation of the system, an optimization procedure for the components is introduced. The optimization criteria consist of the minimization of the air consumption and investment costs. View full abstract»

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  • Vector-Field-Orientation Feedback Control Method for a Differentially Driven Vehicle

    Page(s): 45 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel vector-field-orientation (VFO) feedback control method and its application to a differentially driven wheeled vehicle. It describes the control concept and the control design methodology originating from simple geometrical interpretations connected with the vehicle model structure. The novelty of the VFO method allows one to treat two considered control tasks - trajectory tracking and point stabilization - in a unified manner. Control systems with VFO controllers reveal several practically desirable features like fast and nonoscillatory error convergence, simple interpretation of control input effect, and, as a consequence, particular simplicity of the controller parametric synthesis. The theoretical considerations included in this paper are validated by simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Scheduling-and-Control Codesign for a Collection of Networked Control Systems With Uncertain Delays

    Page(s): 66 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous stabilization of a collection of continuous-time linear time-invariant (LTI) plants whose feedback-control loops are closed via a shared digital communication network. Because of the limitation of communication capacity, only a limited number of controller-plant connections can be accommodated at any time instant. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully determine a scheduling policy so as to achieve a simultaneous stabilization for all these control loops. A sufficient condition on the existence of such a scheduling policy is presented for a collection of networked LTI systems with sampled-data controllers and uncertain network-induced delays. The proof for the schedulability condition is in a constructive way, which can also serve as a systematic method to design a scheduling policy. Finally, a scheduling-and-feedback-control codesign procedure is proposed for the simultaneous stabilization of the collection of networked LTI systems, and the effectiveness of the proposed codesign procedure is demonstrated with simulation results. View full abstract»

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  • A Reset State Estimator Using an Accelerometer for Enhanced Motion Control With Sensor Quantization

    Page(s): 79 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1124 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Sensor quantization is a key factor that deteriorates the tracking performance of positioning systems with low-resolution optical encoders. This paper presents a method to improve the performance of such systems by merging an accelerometer of low cost. First, to reject the external disturbance, friction force and system perturbations, we design a disturbance observer (DOB) based on acceleration signals. Second, a reset kinematic state estimator (RKSE) is designed using acceleration signals to make the state estimate immune to both system perturbations and input disturbances. Third, a state feedback controller is designed based on the internal model principle (IMP) for accurate sinusoidal reference tracking. Simulations and experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method for tracking position reference commands and its robustness to system uncertainties. View full abstract»

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  • An Extended Kalman Filter for Real-Time Estimation and Control of a Rigid-Link Flexible-Joint Manipulator

    Page(s): 91 - 103
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1051 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Maximizing the tracking performance of an industrial manipulator requires an accurate expression of manipulator dynamics and efficient model parameterization. These objectives are difficult to achieve in manipulators with flexible joints since link positions typically are not measured. We present in this paper an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer to estimate manipulator states and couple these estimates to an adaptive rigid-link flexible-joint (RLFJ) controller. In a computer simulation, the EKF-RLFJ controller demonstrated superior tracking performance compared to a traditional adaptive controller. Experimental results for the Mitsubishi PA10-6CE showed improvements in tracking performance using the EKF-RLFJ controller with a 5 kg end-effector payload. Even greater improvements in tracking performance may be achieved in manipulators with significant joint flexibility. View full abstract»

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  • A Two-Phase Heuristic for the Production Scheduling of Heavy Plates in Steel Industry

    Page(s): 104 - 117
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the production scheduling of heavy plates is considered. Different from general hot rolling mill, the reheating furnace scheduling shares the same importance with the hot rolling scheduling due to the special characters of heavy plates such as the large differences in weight and dimension. One major characteristic of the reheating furnace is that it can simultaneously process multiple slabs. When the furnace is full, a slab can be drawn in only if the head slab in the furnace has been drawn out. Therefore, the practical heating time of a slab is variable and besides the weight and dimension, is also dependent on not only the slab heating sequence but also the furnace capacity. Since there is no buffer between the reheating furnace and the hot rolling line, a finished slab will reside in the furnace until the hot rolling line is available. To solve this problem, a two-phase heuristic is proposed. In the first phase, only the hot rolling scheduling problem is considered and a scatter search is developed for it. In the second phase, a decision tree-based heuristic is constructed to obtain the corresponding reheating furnace schedule. The experimental results on real production data show that the two-phase heuristic outperforms the current manual scheduling system. View full abstract»

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  • Cut Scheduling Optimization in Plate Mill Finishing Area Through Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Page(s): 118 - 127
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The recent development of steel technologies for plate production introduced new control and optimization issues that modern automation systems need to take into account. In this paper, the integration in an automation system of mixed-integer linear programming, which now relies on extremely efficient algorithms, and the use of new sensors for automatic detection of defects for the optimization of production and quality are presented here. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Homography-Based Visual Servo Tracking Control via a Quaternion Formulation

    Page(s): 128 - 135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (752 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, an adaptive homography-based visual servo tracking controller is developed for the camera-in-hand problem using a quaternion formulation to represent rotation tracking error. The desired trajectory in the tracking problem is encoded by a sequence of images (e.g., a video sequence), and Lyapunov methods are employed to facilitate the control design and the stability analysis. An adaptive estimation law is designed to compensate for the lack of unknown depth information. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the visual servo tracking controller. View full abstract»

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  • Feedback Control of Oxygen Uptake During Robot-Assisted Gait

    Page(s): 136 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (319 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Body-weight-supported robot-assisted devices can be used to promote gait rehabilitation and as exercise tools for neurologically impaired persons such as stroke and spinal-cord-injured patients. Here, we propose a novel feedback-control structure for real-time control of oxygen uptake during robot-assisted gait, in which we use the following methods. 1) A feedback-control structure is proposed, consisting of a dynamic controller operating on target and actual levels of oxygen uptake in order to set a target work rate. Target work rate is achieved by an inner volitional feedback loop which relies on the subject's exercise input. 2) The dynamic oxygen-uptake controller is based on an empirically derived model of the oxygen-uptake dynamics and is synthesized by pole placement. 3) The resulting control system is tested during the robot-assisted treadmill ambulation of five able-bodied subjects. A single linear controller was designed based on identification data from tests with one subject and used for closed-loop control tests with all five subjects. In all cases, the actual oxygen-uptake response closely followed the ideal response as specified by the feedback design parameters. The control of oxygen uptake during body-weight-supported robot-assisted ambulation is feasible in the able-bodied population; the robustness of the system is demonstrated within the class of subjects tested. Further testing is required to validate the approach with neurologically impaired subjects. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Compensation Control of Flexible Macro–Micro Manipulator Systems

    Page(s): 143 - 151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Macro-micro architecture, which consists of macro and micro manipulators, is used here to eliminate errors at the tip of a flexible manipulator. The macro uses long arms and has such advantages as larger work volume and lower energy consumption but suffers from large deformations and vibrations. The micro is a smaller rigid manipulator and is attached on the end of the macro to isolate the system endpoint from the undesirable flexibility of the macro. Using perturbation theories, a new kinematical method is introduced, first, by redefining the micro's motion as a means of compensating for the errors at the endpoint of the macro. Then, an excellent practical control scheme is proposed to realize the endpoint control with the feedback of joint angles and vibrations. A PD controller is applied to the micro, which augmented the compensation quantities. To damp out vibrations, a nonlinear control law is proposed for the macro, taking the interacting dynamics of the micro to the macro into account. The compensation and control algorithms work very well on a macro-micro setup, and numerous experimental results prove the applicability of the proposed schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Passive Actuators' Fault-Tolerant Control for Affine Nonlinear Systems

    Page(s): 152 - 163
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this brief, the problem of passive fault-tolerant control (FTC) for nonlinear affine systems with actuator faults is considered. Two types of faults, additive and loss-of-effectiveness faults, are treated. In each case, a Lyapunov-based feedback controller is proposed, which ensures the local uniform asymptotic (exponential) stability of the faulty system, if the safe nominal system is locally uniformly asymptotically (exponentially) stable. The effectiveness of the FT controllers is shown on the autonomous helicopter numerical example. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Fuzzy Control of an Active Magnetic Bearing Subject to Voltage Saturation

    Page(s): 164 - 169
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Based on a recently proposed model for the active-magnetic-bearing (AMB) switching mode of operation, this paper presents a robust Takagi-Sugeno-model-based fuzzy-control strategy to stabilize the AMB with fast response speed subject to control-voltage saturation and parameter uncertainties. The sufficient conditions for the existence of such a controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Numerical simulations against the proposed AMB model and a high-fidelity AMB model are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Identification of Multichannel Cardiovascular Dynamics Using Dual Laguerre Basis Functions for Noninvasive Cardiovascular Monitoring

    Page(s): 170 - 176
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (554 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a novel method to identify the cardiovascular (CV) system using two distinct peripheral blood pressure (BP) signals. The method can characterize the distinct arterial path dynamics that shape each of the BP signals and recover the common central-flow signal fed to them. A Laguerre series data-compression technique is used to obtain a compact representation of the CV system, whose coefficients are identified using the multichannel blind system identification. A Laguerre model deconvolution algorithm is developed to stably recover the central-flow signal. Persistent excitation, model identifiability, and asymptotic variance are analyzed to quantify the method's validity and reliability, without using any direct measurement of central-flow input signal. Experimental results based on 7000 data segments obtained from nine swine subjects show that, for all the swine subjects under diverse physiologic conditions, the CV dynamics can be identified very reliably and the waveform of the central flow can be recovered stably from peripheral BP signals. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative Tuning of Internal Model Controllers With Application to Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    Page(s): 177 - 184
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (341 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new tuning method for internal model controllers (IMCs) is presented. The parameters of an IMC can be structurally assigned to two groups: 1) parameters of the internal model and 2) parameters of the controller. The method described in this brief suggests a sequential tuning of the two parameter groups. For both groups, the parameter values are found by minimizing a predefined cost function. The optimization is run with a gradient-based minimization procedure where, analogously to the well-known iterative feedback tuning (IFT) scheme, the gradients are computed from signals obtained from closed-loop experiments. Thus, for the calculation of the gradient, the unknown plant is utilized, whereas other ??local?? tuning methods suggest the replacement of the real plant by its model to calculate the gradient. The main advantages of the suggested algorithm are its inherent operation in the closed control loop and the fact that, for the tuning of the internal model, no information about the disturbance model is required. The method can be used either for an initial tuning of the controller or for autotuning during operation. View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized Feedback Structures of a Vapor Compression Cycle System

    Page(s): 185 - 193
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In vapor compression cycle systems, it is desirable to effectively control the thermodynamic cycle by controlling the thermodynamic states of the refrigerant. By controlling the thermodynamic states with an inner loop, supervisory algorithms can manage critical functions and objectives such as maintaining superheat and maximizing the coefficient of performance. In practice, it is generally preferred to tune multiple single-input-single-output (SISO) control inner loops rather than a single multiple-input-multiple-output control inner loop. This paper presents a process by which a simplified feedback control structure, amenable to a decoupled SISO control loop design, may be identified. In particular, the many possible candidate input-output (I/O) pairs for decentralized control are sorted via a decoupling metric, called the relative gain array number. From a reduced set of promising candidate I/O pairs, engineering insight is applied to arrive at the most effective pairings successfully verified on an experimental air-conditioning-and-refrigeration test stand. View full abstract»

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  • LuGre-Model-Based Friction Compensation

    Page(s): 194 - 200
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (580 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A tracking problem for a mechanical system is considered. We start with a feedback controller that is designed without attention to disturbances, which are assumed to be adequately described by a dynamic LuGre friction model. We are interested in deriving a superimposed observer-based compensator to annihilate or reduce the influence of such a disturbance. We exploit a recently suggested approach for observer design for LuGre-friction-model-based compensation. In order to apply this technique, it is necessary to know the Lyapunov function for the unperturbed system, as well as the parameters of the dynamic friction model, and to verify that a certain structural property satisfied. The case when the system is passive with respect to the matching disturbance related to the given Lyapunov function is illustrated in this brief with a DC-motor example. The main contribution is some new insights into the numerical real-time implementation of a compensator for disturbances describable by one of various LuGre-type models. The other contribution, which is built upon the main one, is experimental verification of the suggested model-based observer design procedure. View full abstract»

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  • Fault Detection for a Class of Uncertain State-Feedback Control Systems

    Page(s): 201 - 212
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief studies the problem of fault detection for a class of uncertain state-feedback tracking control systems with constant reference inputs and bounded disturbances. The considered systems are modeled via multiple modes, namely, fault-free case and faulty cases. Actuator stuck faults, including outage cases, are considered. With the aid of the finite-frequency positive-realness approach, a new linear-matrix-inequality-based fault detection method for control systems is obtained and applied to fault detection for flight control systems. An F-18 aircraft model is included in the simulation to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Feed-Forward Control of Open Channel Flow Using Differential Flatness

    Page(s): 213 - 221
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief derives a method for open-loop control of open channel flow, based on the Hayami model, a parabolic partial differential equation resulting from a simplification of the Saint-Venant equations. The open-loop control is represented as infinite series using differential flatness, for which convergence is assessed. A comparison is made with a similar problem available in the literature for thermal systems. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the approach by applying the open-loop controller to irrigation canals modeled by the full Saint-Venant equations. View full abstract»

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  • Robust Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Run-of-Mine Ore Milling Circuit

    Page(s): 222 - 229
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This brief investigates the feasibility of applying a robust nonlinear model predictive controller to a run-of-mine ore milling circuit, and the conditions under which such a controller might be worthwhile implementing. The run-of-mine ore milling circuit model used consists of nonlinear modules for the individual components of the milling circuit, allowing for arbitrary milling circuit configurations to be modeled. The model is cast into a robust nonlinear model predictive control framework, and a practically motivated simulation of the mill model being controlled by an robust nonlinear model predictive control (RNMPC) controller is presented. Issues related to implementing such a controller are investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Consensus Tracking Under Directed Interaction Topologies: Algorithms and Experiments

    Page(s): 230 - 237
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Consensus tracking problems with, respectively, bounded control effort and directed switching interaction topologies are considered when a time-varying consensus reference state is available to only a subgroup of a team and the team members have only local interaction. A consensus tracking algorithm explicitly accounting for bounded control effort is proposed and analyzed under a directed fixed interaction topology. Furthermore, convergence analysis for a consensus tracking algorithm is provided when the time-varying consensus reference state is available to a dynamically changing subgroup of the team under directed switching inter-vehicle interaction topologies. Experimental results of a formation control application are demonstrated on a multi-robot platform to validate one of the proposed consensus tracking algorithms. View full abstract»

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