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Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on

Issue 9 • Date December 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications

    Page(s): c1
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  • Editorial board

    Page(s): c2
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  • Guest editorial: optical wireless communications

    Page(s): 1521 - 1525
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  • Analysis of wireless optical communications feasibility in presence of clouds using markov chains

    Page(s): 1526 - 1534
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (687 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communications is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond possible in Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, attributes of atmospheric turbulence (scintillation) and obscurants such as clouds impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of optical links. To design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions, a good understanding of the channel behavior is necessary. In most prior works, Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) algorithm has been used to analyze the channel behavior. This task is quite numerically intensive. The focus of this paper is on investigating the possibility of simplifying this task by a direct extraction of state transition matrices associated with standard Markov modeling from the MCRT computer simulations programs. We show that by tracing a photon's trajectory in space via a Markov chain model, the angular distribution can be calculated by simple matrix multiplications. We also demonstrate that the new approach produces results that are close to those obtained by MCRT and other known methods. Furthermore, considering the fact that angular, spatial, and temporal distributions of energy are inter-related, mixing time of Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) for different types of aerosols is calculated based on eigen-analysis of the state transition matrix and possibility of communications in scattering media is investigated. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet scattering channels for communication

    Page(s): 1535 - 1544
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    A stochastic non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication channel model is developed using a Monte Carlo simulation method based on photon tracing. The expected channel impulse response is obtained by computing photon arrival probabilities and associated propagation delay at the receiver. This method captures the multiple scattering effects of UV signal propagation in the atmosphere, and relaxes the assumptions of single scattering theory. The proposed model has a clear advantage in reliable prediction of NLOS path loss, as validated by outdoor experiments at small to medium elevation angles. A Gamma function is shown to agree well with the predicted impulse response, and this provides a simple means to determine the channel bandwidth. The developed model is employed to study the characteristics of NLOS UV scattering channels, including path loss and channel bandwidth, for a variety of scattering conditions, source wavelength, transmitter and receiver optical pointing geometries, and range. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of space time block coding techniques for indoor optical wireless systems

    Page(s): 1545 - 1552
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    Indoor optical wireless systems provide an attractive alternative for realizing next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs). In this paper, the performance of diffuse optical wireless systems, employing space time block coding (STBC) techniques, is numerically investigated, accurately taking into account, the indoor channel impulse response and the characteristics of ambient light and thermal noises at the receiver. Discrete multitone modulation (DMT) is used to mitigate the effect of intersymbol interference due to the channel's impulse response. The performance of STBC systems, employing two transmit elements, is compared against single input/ single output (SISO) and maximum ratio combining (MRC) systems operating with the same total optical transmitter power. It is shown that STBC techniques can be used to increase the capacity of diffuse optical wireless systems, improve their coverage and decrease the required optical power at the transmitter. These results demonstrate the usefulness of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques in the realization of optical WLANs. View full abstract»

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  • Channel capacity and non-uniform signalling for free-space optical intensity channels

    Page(s): 1553 - 1563
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    This work considers the design of capacity-approaching, non-uniform optical intensity signalling in the presence of average and peak amplitude constraints. Although it is known that the capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete with a finite number of mass points, finding it requires complex non-linear optimization at every SNR. In this work, a simple expression for a capacity-approaching distribution is derived via source entropy maximization. The resulting mutual information using the derived discrete non-uniform input distribution is negligibly far away from the channel capacity. The computation of this distribution is substantially less complex than previous optimization approaches and can be easily computed at different SNRs. A practical algorithm for non-uniform optical intensity signalling is presented using multi-level coding followed by a mapper and multi-stage decoding at the receiver. The proposed signalling is simulated on free-space optical channels and outage capacity is analyzed. A significant gain in both rate and probability of outage is achieved compared to uniform signalling, especially in the case of channels corrupted by fog. View full abstract»

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  • Optical signal detection in the turbulent atmosphere using p-i-n photodiodes

    Page(s): 1564 - 1571
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    Performance of signal detection for intensity modulated direct detection optical communications systems through the turbulent atmosphere is studied considering statistics of photoelectron count in p-i-n photodiodes. The effect of atmospheric turbulence is modeled as a lognormal process. In this system, the photoelectron count is a conditional Poisson process, where the mean count is lognormal. A normal approximation is derived for this conditional Poisson process, which results in a simple calculation for the probability of miss. The probabilities of miss for quantum-limited detection and detection in the presence of thermal electronic noise are simulated and compared with calculations using the normal approximation. Simulation results match the analytical results. For the thermal noise case, the probability of miss is compared with the probability of false alarm to determine appropriate signal length and detection threshold settings for a required performance. Applying results in this paper, a system designer can determine appropriate signal length and detection threshold settings. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of generalized optical orthogonal codes in optical wireless local area networks

    Page(s): 1572 - 1581
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    In this paper we propose and analyze the application of generalized optical orthogonal codes (GOOC) in the optical wireless local area networks (OWLAN). A system deploying GOOC can support more users and achieve better BER performance. We evaluate the system performance of GOOC noting practical constraints of OWLAN applications. We consider average and peak power limitations of free space infrared sources, arising from eye safety and device non-linearity restriction. We include the impact of various noises including background-light induced noise in system evaluation. Proper system design requires appropriate selection of GOOC code parameters. We analyze the influence of code parameters on key system variables such as BER, required bandwidth and power consumption. Using the results, we provide guidelines for proper selection of key GOOC code parameters for OWLAN applications. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links

    Page(s): 1582 - 1590
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    In this paper we analyze the feasibility of performing Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), in Earth-satellite up and downlinks and in intersatellite links, with two quantum cryptography protocols: BB84 and SARG04, and with two implementation options: with and without decoy states. As real measurements in these scenarios are not possible yet, the objective is to obtain results as realistic as possible to support the design of future satellite missions performing QKD. Therefore, we use realistic values for the optical hardware and take into account usual atmospheric conditions. In the same line, we assume specific types of attacks, namely the photon number splitting and the intercept-resend with unambiguous discrimination attacks, which could likely be the main threat to the first satellite-based QKD applications. A lower bound on the key generation rate of SARG04 with two decoy states is presented. The optimum signal- and decoy-states mean photon numbers for each protocol and each distance are also computed. The resulting values for the signal-state are larger than those often employed. We show that it may be possible to establish QKD with LEO (Low Earth Orbit) and, under certain circumstances, with MEO (Medium Earth Orbit) satellites, but not with GEO (Geostationary) ones. Furthermore, we obtain that the optimum signal-state mean photon number for SARG04 with two decoy states is almost independent of the link distance, which greatly facilitates its use in a real scenario. View full abstract»

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  • Improving bit-error-rate performance of the free-space optical communications system with channel estimation based on radiative transfer theory

    Page(s): 1591 - 1598
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    In order to improve the performance of terrestrial free-space optical communication systems in adverse visibility conditions, we present a method for estimation of the atmospheric channel impulse response function which governs the optical intensity propagation. This method reduces run-time computational demands and system complexity in comparison to our previously proposed dual-wavelength channel estimation technique. We consider propagation of optical wavelengths in fog, where the droplet diameters are close to the wavelength and thus scattering and absorption effects are significant. A method for rapid calculation of a channel response function based on estimating the effective optical depth of the channel and curve-fitting is described. The channel response estimate can then be used to design a receiver-side equalizer (minimum mean-squared error linear equalizer) to correct the signal distortion due to propagation through the dispersive channel. The channel estimates are based on parametric curve-fitting functions which have been developed using the modified-vector radiative transfer theory to model the channel response. The optimal fit parameters are found using particle-swarm optimization to minimize the simulated bit-error rate of the received signal. View full abstract»

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  • OWLS: a ten-year history in optical wireless links for intra-satellite communications

    Page(s): 1599 - 1611
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    The application of Optical Wireless Links to intra- Spacecraft communications (OWLS) is presented here. This work summarizes ten years of developments, ranging from basic optoelectronic parts and front-end electronics, to different inorbit demonstrations. Several wireless applications were carried out in representative environments at ground level, and on in-flight experiments. A completely wireless satellite will be launched at the beginning of 2010. The benefits of replacing standard data wires and connectors with wireless systems are: mass reduction, flexibility, and simplification of the Assembly, Integration and Tests phases (AIT). However, the Aerospace and Defense fields need high reliability solutions. The use of COTS (Commercial-Off-The- Shelf) parts in these fields require extensive analyses in order to attain full product assurance. The current commercial optical wireless technology needs a deep transformation in order to be fully applicable in the aforementioned fields. Finally, major breakthroughs for the implementation of optical wireless links in Space will not be possible until dedicated circuits such as mixed analog/digital ASICs are developed. Once these products become available, it will also be possible to extend optical wireless links to other applications, such as Unmanned Air and Underwater Vehicles (UAV and UUV). The steps taken by INTA to introduce Optical Wireless Links in the Space environment are presented in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-transceiver optical wireless spherical structures for MANETs

    Page(s): 1612 - 1622
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (977 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to its high bandwidth spectrum, Free-Space-Optical (FSO) communication has the potential to bridge the capacity gap between backbone fiber links and mobile ad-hoc links, especially in the last-mile. Though FSO can solve the wireless capacity problem, it brings new challenges such as frequent disruption of wireless communication links (intermittent connectivity) and the line-of-sight (LOS) requirements. In this paper, we study a multi-transceiver spherical FSO structure as a basic building block for enabling optical spectrum in mobile ad-hoc networking. We outline optimal designs of such multi-transceiver subsystems such that coverage is maximized and crosstalk among neighboring transceivers is minimized. We propose a low-level packaging architecture capable of handling hundreds of transceivers on a single structure. We also present MANET transport performance over such multi-element mobile FSO structures in comparison to legacy RF-based MANETs. View full abstract»

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  • On the SIR of a cellular infrared optical wireless system for an aircraft

    Page(s): 1623 - 1638
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    In this paper, first, path loss models are developed for infrared optical wireless transmission inside an aircraft cabin. Second, a cellular network in the aircraft is considered and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) maps are determined via simulation. For this purpose, a Monte Carlo ray-tracing (MCRT) simulation is performed in a geometric computer-aided design (CAD) cabin model with defined position, azimuth (AZ), elevation (EL) and field of view (FOV) properties of transmitters and receivers. Mathematical models are developed for line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) path losses along particular paths, including estimation of the path loss exponent and the shadowing component. The shadowing is modeled according to a log-normal distribution with zero mean and standard deviation sigma. The validity of this model is confirmed in the paper. It is shown that irradiance distribution under LOS conditions experiences an attenuation with a path loss exponent of 1.92 and a shadowing standard deviation of 0.81 dB. In NLOS conditions, however, the path loss exponent varies, depending on the nature of the NLOS cases considered. The presented NLOS scenarios yield path loss exponent values of 2.26 and 1.28, and shadowing standard deviation values of 1.27 dB and 0.7 dB, respectively. Finally, the cabin is divided into cells and SIR maps are presented for different frequency reuse factors. It is shown that at the edges of the circular cells with diameter of 2.8 m, a SIR of -5.5 dB is achieved in a horizontal cross section of the cabin for frequency reuse of 1, and -2 dB and 3 dB for frequency reuse factors of 2 and 3, respectively. This means that in an aircraft cabin, for reuse factors less than three, viable communication at the cell edges is not feasible without additional interference avoidance or interference mitigation techniques. View full abstract»

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  • 1.28 terabit/s (32x40 Gbit/s) wdm transmission system for free space optical communications

    Page(s): 1639 - 1645
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    We review a novel free space optical (FSO) system that represents a significant breakthrough in the area of FSO communications. The system encompasses a pair of novel terminals: these allow direct and transparent optical connection to common single mode fibers and include a dedicated electronic control unit that effectively tracks the signal beam wandering due to atmospheric turbulence and mechanical vibrations. Further improvement in the signal power stabilization is achieved by means of saturated EDFAs. These solutions allow to realize a new FSO system, which is tested in a double-pass FSO link between two buildings in Pisa, Italy. When the terminals are fed by common WDM signals they allow enough power budget and margins to support a record high capacity transmission (32times40 Gbit/s), with a enormous improvement of stability (six hours with no error burst). During day-long transmission, the system behavior has been deeply characterized to correlate any increase of bit error ratio (BER) to the FSO control parameters. View full abstract»

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  • Design and implementation of optical wireless communications with optically powered smart dust motes

    Page(s): 1646 - 1653
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    Complete electronic and micro-mechanical systems can now be fabricated on the scale of hundreds of microns. Implementing radio frequency wireless communications with such 'smart dust' is challenging, due to the power required and the small size of any antennas that can be implemented. Optical wireless communications, using a modulated retro-reflector at the smart dust has the advantages of low-power consumption and highly directive channels that allow long communications ranges. In this paper we report the design and implementation of a communications system that uses a base station to communicate with, and power, smart dust motes, over ranges of 10s of metres. A base station that uses holographic beamsteering is described, and dust motes that use silicon ICs to provide communications, power and modulation control. Results indicate the dust mote will operate at a range of over 30m from the base station. View full abstract»

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  • High data rate multiple input multiple output (MIMO) optical wireless communications using white led lighting

    Page(s): 1654 - 1662
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    Solid-state lighting is a rapidly growing area of research and applications, due to the reliability and predicted high efficiency of these devices. The white LED sources that are typically used for general illumination can also be used for data transmission, and Visible Light Communications (VLC) is a rapidly growing area of research. One of the key challenges is the limited modulation bandwidth of sources, typically several MHz. However, as a room or coverage space would typically be illuminated by an array of LEDs there is the potential for parallel data transmission, and using optical MIMO techniques is potentially attractive for achieving high data rates. In this paper we investigate non-imaging and imaging MIMO approaches: a non-imaging optical MIMO system does not perform properly at all receiver positions due to symmetry, but an imaging based system can operate under all foreseeable circumstances. Simulations show such systems can operate at several hundred Mbit/s, and up to Gbit/s in many circumstances. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive mobile line strip multibeam MC-CDMA optical wireless system employing imaging detection in a real indoor environment

    Page(s): 1663 - 1675
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    Three methods (transmit power adaptation, imaging reception, and multicarrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA)) are introduced to the optical wireless (OW) system and a significant improvement is achieved in the presence of very directive noise, multipath propagation, mobility, and shadowing typical in a real indoor environment. In the absence of shadowing, replacing a single non-imaging receiver by an imaging receiver with maximal ratio combining (MRC) improves the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) by 20 dB in a conventional diffuse system (CDS) operating at 30 Mbit/s at a transmitter-receiver separation of 6 m in agreement with previous results in the field. Further SNR improvement of 24 dB is achieved when a line strip multi-beam system (LSMS) replaces the CDS when both systems employ an imaging MRC receiver. Furthermore, our new adaptive LSMS (ALSMS) system coupled with the imaging MRC receiver offers an SNR improvement of 23 dB over the imaging MRC LSMS illustrating the gain achieved through adaptation. The results also show that combining transmit power adaptation with spotdiffusing (i.e. ALSMS) coupled with an imaging receiver based on select best (SB) increases the bandwidth from 46.5 MHz (nonimaging CDS) to 7.53 GHz thus enabling the OW system to achieve higher data rates and provide multi-user capabilities in our case by employing a MC-CDMA scheme. In a 10 user MC-CDMA OW system, a bit error rate (BER) improvement from 4.9 times 10-1 to 2.1 times 10-5 is achieved when the imaging MRC ALSMS system replaces the imaging CDS in a shadowed environment. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless optical CDMA LAN: digital implementation analysis

    Page(s): 1676 - 1686
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    In this paper we present and investigate a digital design and implementational details of a wireless optical CDMA (OCDMA) system based on generalized optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). A detailed digital implementation analysis and transmitter/receiver architectures in the context of the above design are fully studied. We analyze various subsystems for a wireless OCDMA system including detector and receiver structure, acquisition, and tracking blocks as well as evaluating their performance in a typical wireless OCDMA communication system. By analyzing two main parts of the system, namely, chip-level detector and OCDMA receiver blocks we evaluate the performance of the overall system. Analytical and simulation results are presented to depict system performance. Results on the design and implementation of such systems in this paper indicate the viability and the importance of OOC based wireless OCDMA technology to satisfy certain applications need in a wider communication system worldwide. Finally we describe an experimental prototype where we highlight the main aspects of the implementation of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Weather effects on hybrid FSO/RF communication link

    Page(s): 1687 - 1697
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    Free space optics (FSO) or optical wireless systems provide high data rate solution for bandwidth hungry communication applications. Carrier class availability is a necessity for wide scale acceptability which is extremely difficult to achieve in the case of optical wireless links. FSO links are highly weather-dependent and different weather effects reduce the link availability. Employing a hybrid network consisting of an FSO link and a back up link in the GHz frequency range renders high availability besides providing comparable data rates. In this paper effects of fog, rain and snow on FSO/GHz hybrid network are studied so that GHz frequencies with best complementary behaviour can be selected as a back up link. As a prime conclusion of the article, it is suggested that free space optical links can be supplemented with 40 GHz RF links to achieve near carrier class availability. View full abstract»

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  • Soft-switching hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length raptor codes: design and implementation

    Page(s): 1698 - 1708
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    Free-space optical (FSO) links offer gigabit per second data rates and low system complexity, but suffer from atmospheric loss due to fog and scintillation. Radio-frequency (RF) links have lower data rates, but are relatively insensitive to weather. Hybrid FSO/RF links combine the advantages of both links. Currently, selection or "hard-switching" is performed between FSO or RF links depending on feedback from the receiver. This technique is inefficient since only one medium is used at a time. In this paper, we develop a "soft-switching" scheme for hybrid FSO/RF links using short-length Raptor codes. Raptor encoded packets are sent simultaneously on both links and the code adapts to the conditions on either link with very limited feedback. A set of short-length Raptor codes (k = 16 to 1024) are presented which are amenable to highspeed implementation. A practical Raptor encoder and decoder are implemented in an FPGA and shown to support a 714 Mbps data rate with a 97 mW power consumption and 26360 gate circuit scale. The performance of the switching algorithms is simulated in a realistic channel model based on climate data. For a 1 Gbps FSO link combined with a 96 Mbps WiMAX RF link, an average rate of over 472 Mbps is achieved using the implemented Raptor code while hard-switching techniques achieved 112 Mbps on average. View full abstract»

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  • Outage analysis of the hybrid free-space optical and radio-frequency channel

    Page(s): 1709 - 1719
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    We study the hybrid free-space optical (FSO) and radio-frequency (RF) channel from an information theoretic perspective. Since both links operate at vastly different carrier frequencies, we model the hybrid channel as a pair of parallel channels. Moreover, since the FSO channel signals at a higher rate than the RF channel, we incorporate this key feature in the parallel channel model. Both channels experience fading due to scintillation, which is slow compared to typical signalling rates. Under this framework, we study the fundamental limits of the hybrid channel. In particular, we analyse the outage probability in the large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, and obtain the outage diversity or SNR exponent of the hybrid system. First we consider the case when only the receiver has perfect channel state information (CSIR case), and obtain the exponents for general scintillation distributions. These exponents relate key system design parameters to the asymptotic outage performance and illustrate the benefits of using hybrid systems with respect to independent FSO or RF links. We next consider the case when perfect CSI is known at both the receiver and transmitter, and derive the optimal power allocation strategy that minimises the outage probability subject to peak and average power constraints. The optimal solution involves non-convex optimisation, which is intractable in practical systems. We therefore propose a suboptimal algorithm that achieves significant power savings (on the order of tens of dBs) over uniform power allocation. We show that the suboptimal algorithm has the same diversity as the optimal power allocation strategy. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Communications Society 2009 Board of Governors

    Page(s): c3
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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): c4
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Aims & Scope

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications focuses on all telecommunications, including telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Muriel Médard
MIT