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Nanotechnology, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date Nov. 2009

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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 661
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  • Technology Assessment of a Novel High-Yield Lithographic Technique for Sub-15-nm Direct Nanotransfer Printing of Nanogap Electrodes

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 662 - 670
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have demonstrated direct nanoscale transfer printing (nTP) of PdAu lines from a hard mold onto a hard substrate at room temperature without employing any flexible buffer layers or organic adhesion promoters or release agent layers. PdAu was evaporated onto the mold surface, and a Ti layer was deposited on top of the PdAu layer. By pressing the mold against a Si/SiO2 substrate, the PdAu/Ti sandwich structure was directly transferred onto the SiO2 surface. The molds used in these experiments were GaAs/AlGaAs sandwich structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy that we cleaved and selectively etched afterwards in order to generate 3-D grating structures with nanometer resolution on their edges. We fabricated positive multiline molds with different aspect ratios, linewidths between 15 and 100 nm, and spacings between lines ranging from 5 to 70 nm. We also fabricated negative single-line molds with a positive supporting structure comprising a single 16-nm-wide groove feature. The experiments revealed that direct hard-on-hard transfer of nanoscale structures from a mold onto a substrate can be used to fabricate PdAu gaps with widths down to 9 nm. We also performed electronic measurements on transfer patterns and demonstrated that transferred structures can be used as electrodes, which are electrically isolated by these gaps. Since isolation characteristics of gaps improved with decreasing gap length, we partitioned longer gap segments into multiple shorter ones by focused ion beam lithography and conventional optical lithography in combination with wet chemical or plasma etching of the mold or the substrate, respectively. In this paper, we give a detailed description of all technological aspects of the developed direct nTP technique, including mold preparation, patterning efficiency, short reduction techniques, and yield. View full abstract»

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  • Optimal Configuration of Hydrogen-Embrittlement-Fabricated Nanogaps for Surface-Conduction Electron-Emitter Display

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 671 - 677
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Application of nanogaps for electron sources is fascinating in surface-conduction electron-emitter display. In contrast to rather complicated fabrication processes of the focused ion beam technique for the extremely narrow fissure, nanogaps fabricated by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have thus been proposed as novel surface-conduction electron emitters due to their low turn-on voltage, high emission current, high focus capability, and high emission efficiency. In this paper, we theoretically investigate effects of the separation width and the tilted angle of the nanogaps fabricated by HE method on the field emission efficiency using a 3-D finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell simulation technique. The structure with a large tilted angle may result in a high emitted current, but the collected current on the anode is suppressed due to the strong local field around the tip. A small structure prevents the emitted electrons from spreading out, and thus, no current could be collected by the anode. Also, the structure with a wide (or a narrow) separation of gap weakens (or enhances) the field around the tip and reduces the collected electrons. For better emission efficiency and focus capability, the separation width and the tilted angle of the examined structure could vary from 57 to 117 nm and 30deg to 60deg, respectively. View full abstract»

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  • Glucose Detection With a Commercial MOSFET Using a ZnO Nanowires Extended Gate

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 678 - 683
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ZnO nanowires were grown on Ag wire with a diameter of ~250 mum and used in an electrochemical sensor. The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, and the Ag wire was connected directly to the gate of a MOSFET. Upon exposure to glucose (1- 100 muM), the electrochemical response from the GOD induced a stable measurable voltage change on the gate leading to a strong modulation of the current through the MOSFET. For a sensor with uniform ZnO nanowires functionalized with GOD, a fast response time of less than 100 ms was demonstrated. The effect of the uniformity of the ZnO nanowires on the sensing property was also investigated. The extended-gate arrangement facilitated glucose detection in small sample volumes, and made it possible to demonstrate the present sensor concept using a standard low-threshold MOSFET. The extended-gate MOSFET sensor approach demonstrates the possibility and potential of the use of nanostructures coupled to standard electronic components for biosensing applications. View full abstract»

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  • Biological Force Measurement in a Protein-Based Nanoactuator

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 684 - 691
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (675 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The mechanical force exerted by a nanoactuator due to pH actuation is discussed from a statistical mechanics and free energy of conformational change viewpoint. We use molecular dynamics to show that the nanoactuator, based on the coiled-coil leucine zipper portion of a yeast transcriptional activator protein, can generate mechanical forces of the order of 20-40 pN upon pH modulation. The forces are generated due to the electrostatic repulsions at low pH between His-tag handles and other charged residues engineered into the protein sequence. The biological force output of the nanoactuator is comparable to that generated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-based molecular motors such as myosin and kinesin even though the nanoactuator is smaller in size to these molecular motors. The force calculation technique can readily be applied to other biomolecular systems and has implications in the area of bionanotechnology and in particular to study and characterize the properties of novel protein and DNA-based nanodevices. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of Channel Backscattering Characteristics in Nanoscale Uniaxial-Strained PMOSFETs

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 692 - 696
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper examines channel backscattering characteristics for nanoscale strained and unstrained p-channel MOSFETs (PMOSFETs) using the experimentally extracted backscattering coefficients by our modified self-consistent temperature-dependent extraction method. Through comparing the gate voltage and temperature dependence, we demonstrate that channel backscattering can be reduced by the uniaxial strain for PFETs. Besides, we show that the strain-reduced conductivity effective mass may raise the thermal velocity, mean-free path, and effective mobility. Contrary to previous studies, our results indicate that the ballistic efficiency can be enhanced for compressive-strained PFETs. In addition, the backscattering effect on the electrostatic potential is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Transient Temperature Response of Pulsed-Laser-Induced Heating for Nanoshell-Based Hyperthermia Treatment

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 697 - 706
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper aims to address the transient phenomenon in pulsed-laser-induced heating for nanoshell-based hyperthermia. Within the framework of dual phase lag model, the transient temperature with the relaxation behavior involved was compared with that based on Fourier's law. The temporal variation of temperature is investigated under the irradiation of pulsed laser, as well as continuous-wave (CW) laser. A semianalytical solution of 1-D nonhomogenous dual phase lag equation in spherical coordinates is presented. The results show that the transient temperature with relaxation behavior considered is generally higher than that predicted by a classical diffusion model. The magnitude of difference depends on pulsewidth, duty cycle, and repetition rate. The maximal transient temperature is as high as 350 times the steady-state temperature in a CW case. The biological effect caused by the overheating in a short period needs to be studied further. View full abstract»

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  • Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 707 - 712
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe coated by thin ZnS and stabilized by trioctylphosphine oxide and dispersed in octane solvent are integrated into AAO pores with an average pore diameter of ~30-100 nm by dip-coating process. The particles assemble selectively at the bottom of pores. Also, the multiple stacks of particles are obtained selectively inside the pores by sequentially repeating dip coating and removing the surfactants (oleic acid) from the particle layer. The nanoparticles integrated into nanometer-scale AAO templates produce the nanostructures for potential applications such as high-density patterned magnetic media, patterned nanoparticle layers for memory device, seeds for nanowire growth, and so on. View full abstract»

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  • Possibility of Transport Through a Single Acceptor in a Gate-All-Around Silicon Nanowire PMOSFET

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 713 - 717
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Temperature-dependent electrical transport measurements of cylindrical shaped gate-all-around silicon nanowire p-channel MOSFET were performed. At 4.2 K, they show current oscillations, which can be analyzed by single hole tunneling originated from nanowire quantum dots. In addition to this single hole tunneling, one device exhibited strong current peaks, surviving even at room temperature. The separations between these current peaks corresponded to the energy of 25 and 26 meV. These values were consistent with the sum of the bound-state energy spacing and the charging energy of a single boron atom. The radius calculated from the obtained single-atom charging energy was also comparable to the light-hole Bohr radius. View full abstract»

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  • Electrothermal Characterization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) Interconnect Arrays

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 718 - 728
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (528 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrothermal characterization of a metallic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) interconnect array is performed in this paper. The array is biased by a high voltage or under the impact of an electrostatic discharge pulse current. Using both time-dependent and -independent finite-difference methods, 1-D longitudinal heat conduction equation of SWCNT in the array is first solved, with CNT length-dependent temperature distribution, breakdown voltage, power handling capability, as well as transient thermal response captured and compared. Two modified equivalent electrothermal circuit models of a single SWCNT and an SWCNT array are proposed to accurately characterize hybrid effects of the biasing voltage, CNT length, and maximum rise in temperature. Their electrothermal circuit models are further implemented for investigating self-heating impact on signal integrities of SWCNT interconnect arrays, in particular, time-delay-induced crosstalk and noise. It is theoretically demonstrated that self-heating effect should be considered carefully in the design of local SWCNT interconnects when a high biasing signal voltage is applied. View full abstract»

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  • Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube/Montmorillonite Hybrid Nanocomposites

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 729 - 736
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (479 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ternary polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube/montmorillonite (PP/MWNT/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding of a ball-milled MWNT and MMT mixture in a Haake mixer at a screw rotation rate of 200 r/min. The electrical conducting behavior of such hybrid composites was examined. The results showed that the conducting behaviors of PP/MWNT/MMT nanocomposites were strongly dependent on the MWNT and MMT contents. The percolation concentration of such hybrid nanocomposites was 1.0 wt% MWNT. Furthermore, percolating PP/1.0 wt% MWNT/MMT nanocomposites exhibited a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect. The PTC transition temperature can be regulated over a broader temperature range by varying the MMT contents. Hybridization of nanofillers provides a facile methodology to fabricate conducting polymer nanocomposites with tunable PTC transition temperatures. View full abstract»

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  • Process Optimization and Downscaling of a Single-Electron Single Dot Memory

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 737 - 748
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the process optimization of a single-electron nanoflash electron memory. Self-aligned single dot memory structures have been fabricated using a wet anisotropic oxidation of a silicon nanowire. One of the main issue was to clarify the process conditions for the dot formation. Based on the process modeling, the influence of various parameters (oxidation temperature, nanowire shape) has been investigated. The necessity of a sharp compromise between these different parameters to ensure the presence of the memory dot has been established. In order to propose an aggressive memory cell, the downscaling of the device has been carefully studied. Scaling rules show that the size of the original device could be reduced by a factor of 2. This point has been previously confirmed by the realization of single-electron memory devices. View full abstract»

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  • Junction Field Effect Transistors for Nanoelectronics

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 749 - 757
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    The gate leakage currents of MOSFETs increase exponentially with downward scaling, while the gate currents of enhancement-mode JFETs for complementary logic decrease with scaling. In principle, a crossover point could exist below which the JFET may be the preferred device for some large-scale ICs. This paper first examines the crossover point with a simple scaling analysis that suggests it lies in the neighborhood of a 25 nm gate length, depending on the supply voltages and the gate insulator used for the MOSFET. Other JFET electrical properties compare favorably with those of MOSFETs and exhibit similar scaling behaviors. Numerical simulations of a simple 25 nm gate length JFET show electrical properties better than the conservative scaling analysis and comparable to reported 25 nm MOSFETs, with, for example, a gate current density of 12 A/cm2 at 0.7 V and a drain current on-to-off ratio of 3.5times103. A self-aligned polycrystalline silicon gate and some straightforward performance enhancements proposed for the 25 nm device may allow it essentially to stand in for the geometrically similar 25 nm MOSFET in some circumstances. Additional device engineering outlined in this paper should further allow the silicon JFET to scale down to 10 nm gate lengths, where source-drain tunneling becomes important. Ten-nanometer-scale JFETs share many of the fabrication challenges of corresponding MOSFETs, and many of the well-developed concepts for MOSFETs, such as double gates and strain engineering, should be easily adapted to JFETs. These devices also lend themselves to a subsequent transition to III-V semiconductors-for heterostructures, performance increases, and scaling below 10 nm-without the oxide interface problems MOSFETs would face. Overall, JFETs appear to be of interest for the next one to two silicon technology nodes, and perhaps beyond. View full abstract»

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  • 2009 Index IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology Vol. 8

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 758 - 777
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  • Leading the field since 1884 [advertisement]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 778
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  • IEEE copyright form

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 779 - 780
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  • IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology information for authors

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C3
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  • Blank page [back cover]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Fabrizio Lombardi
Dept. of ECE
Northeastern Univ.