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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing publication information

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): C2
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3593 - 3594
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  • Foreword to the Special Issue on the 2008 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS'08)

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3595 - 3597
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  • GRS-S Awards Presented at IGARSS 2008

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3598 - 3606
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  • List of reviewers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3607
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  • Estimation of Soil Moisture and Faraday Rotation From Bare Surfaces Using Compact Polarimetry

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3608 - 3615
    Cited by:  Papers (14)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1095 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The potential of compact polarimetry (CP) mode at longer wavelengths in a space environment for surface parameter estimation is investigated. CP consists of transmitting a single polarization while receiving two polarizations. At longer wavelengths, one of the main challenges associated with CP from space is Faraday rotation (FR) estimation and correction. In this paper, an estimation procedure for FR is presented, which relies on the scattering properties of bare surfaces. The selection of the bare surfaces is based on a new parameter, the conformity coefficient computed from CP measurements. This parameter is shown to be FR invariant. Once estimated, the FR can be corrected over the whole image. A simple approximation to sigmaHH o and sigmaVV o based on CP measurements over bare soil surfaces is presented, from which soil moisture can be estimated using the 1995 Dubois algorithm. The results obtained using CP are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained from the standard Dubois algorithm using fully polarimetric data. This implies that, for soil moisture, CP can be used instead of HH and VV dual-polarized measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Soil Moisture Retrieval Using GNSS-R Techniques: Experimental Results Over a Bare Soil Field

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3616 - 3624
    Cited by:  Papers (26)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new technique to retrieve soil moisture using global navigation satellite signals reflected over the soil surface using the measurement of the power fluctuations of the signal created by the interference between the direct GPS signal and the one reflected over the soil surface. As a function of the elevation angle, power fluctuations at vertical polarization pass through a notch, which is related to the soil moisture content, while horizontal polarization exhibits a very weak dependence. Experimental results of the measurements obtained over a bare soil field are presented and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • A Compact Framework to Efficiently Represent the Reflectance of Sand Samples

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3625 - 3629
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (558 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The authors have recently proposed a model, based on Monte Carlo methods, to simulate light interaction with sand. In this paper, principal component analysis and regression techniques are applied to yield a compact analytical representation of the spectral reflectance signatures produced by the model. This analytical formulation compares well with the original model and is appropriate for applications demanding interactive rates. Examples are provided comparing the original model to the proposed formulation for three hypothetical sand samples. The effect of water content on reflectance is demonstrated for these samples. Additionally, examples are provided comparing the original and proposed models for three sand samples from the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center spectral database. View full abstract»

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  • Magnitude- and Shape-Related Feature Integration in Hyperspectral Mixture Analysis to Monitor Weeds in Citrus Orchards

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3630 - 3642
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditionally, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) fails to fully account for highly similar ground components or endmembers. The high similarity between weed and crop spectra hampers the implementation of SMA for steering weed control management practices. To address this problem, this paper presents an alternative SMA technique, referred to as Integrated Spectral Unmixing (InSU). InSU combines both magnitude (i.e., reflectance) and shape (i.e., derivative reflectance) related features in an automated waveband selection protocol. Analysis was performed on different simulated mixed pixel spectra sets compiled from in situ-measured weed canopy, Citrus canopy, and soil spectra. Compared to traditional linear SMA, InSU significantly improved weed cover fraction estimations. An average decrease in fraction abundance error (Deltaf) of 0.09 was demonstrated for a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 500 : 1, while for a SNR of 50 : 1, the decrease was 0.06. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring Snow Characteristics With Ground-Based Multifrequency Microwave Radiometry

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3643 - 3655
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Long-term microwave and infrared radiometric measurements of snowpack were carried out with ground-based sensors in winter 2006-2007 and 2007-2008, together with conventional measurements of snow-cover profiles. The first experiment focused on the behavior of snow emission during the destructive and constructive metamorphisms. The second involved a correlation analysis of the small fluctuations related to diurnal solar cycle in order to obtain the time delay of microwave brightness temperatures Tb with respect to the snow surface temperature. From this analysis, it was possible to estimate an effective (weighed average) temperature and the thickness of the layer that mostly contributed to microwave emission at 19 and 37 GHz. The ratio of the brightness temperature to the effective temperature can be assumed to be an equivalent emissivity of the snowpack. Data collected in both years have been compared with simulations carried out using the advanced Institute of Applied Physics (IFAC) Radiative Advanced Dry Snow Emission (IRIDE) model driven by data collected on ground. The model is based on the advanced integral equation method to represent soil, coupled to a layer of dry snow whose electromagnetic properties are described by the dense medium radiative transfer theory with quasi-crystalline approximation applied to a medium (air) filled with sticky particles. Simulations performed by using ground data as inputs to the model have been found to be well in agreement with experimental data. Moreover, the comparison of model simulations with experimental data allowed one to understand some peculiar characteristics of microwave emission from the snowpack related to its physical conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Effectiveness of 2-D and 2.5-D FDTD Ground-Penetrating Radar Modeling for Bridge-Deck Deterioration Evaluated by 3-D FDTD

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3656 - 3663
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1021 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computational modeling effectively analyzes the wave propagation and associated interaction within heterogeneous reinforced concrete bridge decks, providing valuable information for sensor selection and placement. It provides a good basis for the implementation of the inverse problem in defect detection and the reconstruction of subsurface properties, which is beneficial for defect diagnosis. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of lower order models in the evaluation of bridge-deck subsurfaces modeled as layered media. The two lower order models considered are a 2-D model and a 2.5-D model that uses the 2-D geometry with a compressed coordinate system to capture wave behavior outside the cross-sectional plane. Both the 2- and 2.5-D models are compared to the results obtained from a full 3-D model. A filter that maps the 3-D excitation signal appropriately for 2- and 2.5-D simulations is presented. The 2.5-D model differs from the 2-D model in that it is capable of capturing 3-D wave behavior interacting with a 2-D geometry. The 2.5-D matches results from the corresponding 3-D model when there is no variation in the third dimension. Computational models for air-launched ground-penetrating radar with 1-GHz central frequency and bandwidth for the detection of bridge-deck delamination are implemented in 2-, 2.5-, and 3-D using FDTD simulations. In all cases, the defect is identifiable in the results. Thus, it is found that in layered media (such as bridge decks) 2- and 2.5-D models are good approximations for modeling bridge-deck deterioration, each with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Subsurface Imaging Using Direct Finite-Difference Frequency-Domain-Based Inversion

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3664 - 3670
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a new algorithm for electromagnetic inverse scattering problems in inhomogeneous media using finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) forward modeling, referred to as the FDFD-based inversion method. The key issue of this method is to build a linear expression for the inverse problem from an FDFD forward model by using Born approximation to neglect mutual coupling between scattered pixels and to then solve for the inverse coefficient matrix. An important advantage of this matrix-based method is that there is no need to specify a Green's function. As such, this inverse scattering algorithm is easily implemented and is robust to the heterogeneity in the background. We test the algorithm with a microwave subsurface object detection application using cross-well radar. The new method is compared with conventional inversion using Green's function-based Born approximation. Numerical experiments are presented for a 2-D borehole geometry for buried object detection in uniform soil and in multilayered soil backgrounds. View full abstract»

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  • Tomographic Imaging of Rock Conditions Ahead of Mining Using the Shearer as a Seismic Source—A Feasibility Study

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3671 - 3678
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (726 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Roof falls due to poor rock conditions in a coal longwall panel may threaten miner's life and cause significant interruption to mine production. There has been a requirement for technologies that are capable of imaging the rock conditions in longwall coal mining, ahead of the working face and without any interruption to production. A feasibility study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of seismic signals generated by the continuous coal cutter (shearer) and recorded by geophone arrays deployed ahead of the working face, for the purpose of seismic tomographic imaging of roof strata condition before mining. Two experiments were conducted at a coal mine using two arrays of geophones. The experiments have demonstrated that the longwall shearer generates strong and low-frequency ( ~ 40 Hz) seismic energy that can be adequately detected by geophones deployed in shallow boreholes along the roadways as far as 300 m from the face. Using noise filtering and signal cross correlation techniques, the seismic arrival times associated with the shearer cutting can be reliably determined. It has proved the concept that velocity variations ahead of the face can be mapped out using tomographic techniques while mining is in progress. View full abstract»

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  • Phased Array Radar Polarimetry for Weather Sensing: A Theoretical Formulation for Bias Corrections

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3679 - 3689
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (307 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It is becoming widely accepted that radar polarimetry provides accurate and informative weather measurements, while phased-array technology can shorten data updating time. In this paper, a theory of phased array radar (PAR) polarimetry is developed to establish the relation between electric fields at the antenna of the PAR and the fields in a resolution volume filled with hydrometeors. It is shown that polarimetric measurements with an electronically steered beam can cause measurement biases that are comparable to or even larger than the intrinsic polarimetric characteristics of hydrometeors. However, these biases are correctable if the transmitted electric fields are known. A correction to the measured scattering matrix that removes biases in meteorological variables is derived. The challenges and opportunities for weather sensing with a polarimetric PAR are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Radar Volume Backscatter From Spatially Extended Geophysical Targets in a “Slice” Approach

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3690 - 3696
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an assessment of the radar backscatter from a spatially extended geophysical target (SEGT) based on a semiempirical (SE) model. An SEGT is any geophysical object that is at least semitransparent to radar illumination (clouds, rain, snowfall in the atmosphere, thick snow cover of the ground). The existing SE model does not take into account the statistical properties of the SEGT's media. To improve the SE model, a so-called ldquoslicerdquo approach is applied. In this approach, the particles located close to the wavefront of the radar illumination are assumed to produce backscatter that is mainly coherent. This method allows the contribution of the microphysical parameters of the scattering media to the volume component of the radar cross section to be described more comprehensively than the SE model based on the incoherent approach. It is shown that the slice concept results in the original SE model in the particular case when the particle number fluctuation within the slices pertains to the Poisson law. View full abstract»

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  • Satellite Retrievals of Arctic and Equatorial Rain and Snowfall Rates Using Millimeter Wavelengths

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3697 - 3707
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new global precipitation retrieval algorithm for the millimeter-wave Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit is presented that also retrieves Arctic precipitation rates over surface snow and ice. This algorithm improves upon its predecessor by excluding some surface-sensitive channels and by reducing the number of principal components (PCs) used to represent those that remain. The training sets were also modified to better represent cold regions. The algorithm still incorporates conversion of brightness temperatures to nadir, spatial filtering to better detect pixels scattering near 54 GHz, PC filtering of surface effects, and use of separate neural networks trained with the fifth-generation National Center for Atmospheric Research/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) for land and sea, where warm and cold ocean are now treated differently. The validity of the snowfall detections is supported by nearly coincident CloudSat radar observations, and the physics of the model is largely validated by the reasonable agreement in annual precipitation obtained for 231 globally distributed rain gauges, including many at latitudes where snowfall dominates. Observed annual global precipitation statistics are also presented to permit comparisons with other algorithms and sensors. View full abstract»

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  • Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With Fine Spatial Resolution Using Three-Dimensional Tomographic Inversion of Microwave Brightness Temperatures Measured by a Network of Scanning Compact Radiometers

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3708 - 3721
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantitative precipitation forecasting is currently limited by the paucity of observations on sufficiently fine temporal and spatial scales. Three-dimensional water vapor fields can be retrieved with improved spatial coverage from measurements obtained using a network of scanning microwave radiometers. To investigate this potential, an observation system simulation experiment was performed in which synthetic examples of retrievals using a network of radiometers were compared with results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a grid scale of 500 m. These comparisons show that the 3-D water vapor field can be retrieved with an accuracy of better than 15%-20%. A ground-based demonstration network of three compact microwave radiometers was deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma. Results using these network measurements demonstrated the first retrieval of the 3-D water vapor field in the troposphere at fine spatial and temporal resolutions. View full abstract»

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  • A Time-Varying Radiometric Bias Correction for the TRMM Microwave Imager

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3722 - 3730
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent intersatellite radiometric comparisons of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager (TMI) with polar orbiting satellite radiometer data and modeled clear-sky radiances have uncovered a time-variable radiometric bias in the TMI brightness temperatures. The bias is consistent with a source that generally cools during orbit night and warms during sunlight exposure. The likely primary source has been identified as a slightly emissive parabolic antenna reflector. This paper presents an empirical brightness temperature correction to TMI based on the position around each orbit and the Sun elevation above the orbit plane. The results of radiometric intercomparisons with WindSat and special sensor microwave imager are presented, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the recommended correction approach based on four years of data. View full abstract»

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  • A High-Resolution Full-Earth Disk Model for Evaluating Synthetic Aperture Passive Microwave Observations From GEO

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3731 - 3741
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1773 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A proposed instrument for deployment on next-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) platforms is the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR). A high-resolution full-Earth disk model has been developed to aid in the design of the instrument and to characterize sensor performance. A number of ancillary geophysical data fields are used as inputs into a radiative-transfer model that also accounts for the propagation and viewing geometries from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The model produces high-resolution (10 km times 10 km) simulated full-Earth disk microwave images from GEO. The model is used as a tool to examine several critical aspects of GeoSTAR performance and design. Differential image processing is assessed as a means of mitigating the effects of the Gibbs phenomenon; its performance is found to be excellent, even with nonideal a priori information. The spatial resolution and precision of images generated at 50 GHz are evaluated. The magnitude of the highest spatial-frequency components sampled by GeoSTAR is found to be well above its minimum detectable signal. However, the differential image processing removes most of the high-frequency content, which is due to static high-contrast boundaries in the scene. Most of the residual high-frequency content lies at or below the instrument noise floor. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Radiometer Radio-Frequency Interference Detection Algorithms: A Comparative Study

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3742 - 3754
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1414 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two algorithms used in microwave radiometry for radio-frequency interference (RFI) detection and mitigation are the pulse detection algorithm and the kurtosis detection algorithm. The relative performance of the algorithms is compared both analytically and empirically. Their probabilities of false alarm under RFI-free conditions and of detection when RFI is present are examined. The downlink data rate required to implement each algorithm in a spaceborne application is also considered. The kurtosis algorithm is compared to a pulse detection algorithm operating under optimal RFI detection conditions. The performance of both algorithms is also analyzed as a function of varying characteristics of the RFI. The RFI detection probabilities of both algorithms under varying subsampling conditions are compared and validated using data obtained from a field campaign. Implementation details, resource usage, and postprocessing requirements are also addressed for both algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • A Simplified Calculation of the Kurtosis for RFI Detection

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3755 - 3760
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Microwave radiometers detecting geophysical parameters are susceptible to radio-frequency interference (RFI) from anthropogenic sources. The kurtosis statistic can be a powerful means of identifying some types of low-power RFI, as thermal noise has a distinct kurtosis value of three, while thermal noise contaminated even with low-power nonthermal RFI often has other values of kurtosis. This paper presents a method for calculating the kurtosis and brightness that significantly reduces the radiometer data download requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Generalized Frequency-Domain SAR Processing

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3761 - 3773
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The range-Doppler algorithm and the chirp-scaling algorithm (CSA) process synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data with approximations to ideal SAR processing. These approximations are invalid for data from systems with wide beamwidths, large bandwidths, and/or low center frequencies. While simple and efficient, these frequency-domain methods are thus limited by the SAR parameters. This paper explores these limits and proposes a generalized chirp-scaling approach for extending the utility of frequency-domain processing. We demonstrate how different order approximations of the SAR signal in the 2-D frequency domain affect image focusing for varying SAR parameters. From these results, a guideline is set forth, which suggests the required order of approximation terms for proper focusing. A proposed generalized frequency-domain processing approach is derived. This method is an efficient arbitrary-order CSA that processes the data using the appropriate number of approximation terms. The new method is demonstrated using simulated data. View full abstract»

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  • Joint Regularization of Phase and Amplitude of InSAR Data: Application to 3-D Reconstruction

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3774 - 3785
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images suffer from a strong noise, and their regularization is often a prerequisite for successful use of their information. Independently of the unwrapping problem, interferometric phase denoising is a difficult task due to shadows and discontinuities. In this paper, we propose to jointly filter phase and amplitude data in a Markovian framework. The regularization term is expressed by the minimization of the total variation and may combine different information (phase, amplitude, optical data). First, a fast and approximate optimization algorithm for vectorial data is briefly presented. Then, two applications are described. The first one is a direct application of this algorithm for 3-D reconstruction in urban areas with very high resolution images. The second one is an adaptation of this framework to the fusion of SAR and optical data. Results on aerial SAR images are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic Target Recognition by Means of Polarimetric ISAR Images and Neural Networks

    Publication Year: 2009 , Page(s): 3786 - 3794
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (798 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images are often used for classifying and recognizing targets. Moreover, the use of fully polarimetric ISAR (Pol-ISAR) images enhances classification capabilities. In this paper, the authors propose a novel automatic target recognition (ATR) technique based on the use of fully Pol-ISAR images and neural networks (NNs). In order to reduce the amount of data processed by the classifier, the brightest scattering centers are first extracted by means of the Pol-CLEAN technique, and then, their scattering matrices are decomposed using Cameron's decomposition. A classifier based on the use of multilayer perceptron NN that makes use of the features extracted from the Pol-ISAR images is then implemented. A proof-of-concept test is performed on real data acquired during a controlled experiment in an anechoic chamber. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

 

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING (TGRS) is a monthly publication that focuses on the theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Antonio J. Plaza
University of Extremadura