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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 21 of 21
  • Experimental study of the voltage coefficient of precise compressed-gas capacitors

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 64 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    A study of the voltage coefficient of precise compressed-gas capacitors is described. A series of measuring methods based on the formula for calculating the voltage coefficient is presented: measuring the variations of capacitance when the capacitor is tilted in various directions to a specific angle; measuring the variations in capacitance when the capacitor is tilted in a specific direction to various angles; and measuring the variations in the coordinates of the electrodes when these electrodes are subjected to various mechanical forces, etc. These methods were used to test a 350 kV, 50 pF capacitor, and its voltage coefficient was found to be less than one part in a million from 0 kV up to 350 kV View full abstract»

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  • Leak detection for transport pipelines based on autoregressive modeling

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 68 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    A leak detection method based on autoregressive modeling is proposed. It requires only four pressure measurements, two at each end of the pipeline. A leak above 0.5% can be reliably and quickly detected by analyzing the time sequences of the pressure gradient at the inlet and outlet of the pipeline. It can be easily implemented because the computational expenditure is small. Its effectiveness has been verified by tests on a 10-mm-diameter, 120-m-long experimental water pipeline View full abstract»

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  • Precision average-sensing AC/DC converters

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 71 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (248 KB)  

    Various configurations of average-sensing AC/DC converters for precision AC voltage measurements are described. Due to the unique electrical configurations in which the influence of the inaccuracy of ratio resistors is suppressed, these converters have high accuracy (better than 0.01%) and resolution (0.0001%) at medium frequencies. Their frequency range is from 10 Hz to 1 MHz, with a settling time less than 1 s View full abstract»

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  • Built-in self-test structure for mixed-mode circuits

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 25 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (23)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)  

    A built-in self-test (BIST) structure is presented which provides controllability and observability to analog circuits under test with significantly reduced hardware overhead compared to previously reported methods. The test structure is equally applicable to digital circuits, and lends itself to automated insertion into circuits under test View full abstract»

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  • Experiment on fault location in large-scale analog circuits

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 30 - 34
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    An experiment has been designed to identify faulty subnetworks under a nodal decomposition strategy. It is based on checking the voltage consistency of internal analyzable nodes in analyzable subnetworks. The concept of a minimal subnetwork is used to derive a minimal decomposition algorithm which can be combined with three basic voltage-testing conditions. The approach is applicable to both linear and nonlinear large networks. In the experiment, automatic testing equipment (ATE) is used to diagnose an active low-pass filter. The diagnosis procedure can be quickly completed, and the results have proved its effectiveness View full abstract»

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  • A digitally programmable multitone generator for coherent signal detection measurement systems

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 73 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    A digitally programmable multitone generator is presented. The various output signals can be of any shape but periodic, and show absolutely stable phase relations. The proposed generator is useful in modern measurement systems such as in homodyne vector network analyzers or in other coherent measurement systems. It might be realized as a two-chip integrated circuit, one chip for logic and one read-only memory View full abstract»

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  • Comparison between the Kittel and Polder resonances in polycrystalline ferrites

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 56 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (420 KB)  

    Kittel and Polder resonance parameters in polycrystalline ferrite spheres have been determined simultaneously using the perturbation theory. Measurements were made with the same sample in order to establish a proper comparison between the Kittel and Polder parameters. The meaning of the shift of the ferromagnetic resonance field and the different parameters used to characterize the resonance losses in polycrystalline ferrites are discussed. Discrepancies between the Kittel and Polder parameters are explained by studying the dependence of the linewidth and the ferromagnetic resonance field on the applied field. There is good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions View full abstract»

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  • A cyclic charge-balancing A/D converter with capacitor mismatch error compensation

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 35 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (292 KB)  

    An algorithm is proposed for improving the speed of a charge-balancing analog-to-digital converter implemented by a switched-capacitor technique. The number of charge transfer operations required for a conversion is reduced. For example, the conversion rate in 16-b conversion is improved more than 128 times as compared to a conventional charge-balancing analog-to-digital converter. A compensation algorithm for the capacitor mismatch error is also proposed. The results of prototype experiments indicate that the maximum integral nonlinearity error is reduced to less than 0.04 LSB in 6-b conversion View full abstract»

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  • A method for measurement of multiple light spot positions on one position-sensitive detector (PSD)

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 14 - 18
    Cited by:  Papers (14)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (452 KB)  

    The measurement method described relies on using light sources, each of which is modulated at different frequencies and then demodulated in the sensor signal-processing circuit using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) scheme. The position of each light spot can be determined even if there are other beams irradiating the PSD at the same time. In a very simple experiment, the light beams from two LEDs were projected onto one PSD, with one LED modulated at 10 kHz and the other at 5 kHz. The PSD was calibrated by scanning the light beams across the PSD in equidistant grid lines over a 4-mm×7.2-mm area. It was found that the resolution, linearity, and accuracy of the measurement are not affected even if multiple light beams are continuously present. The number of light beams which can be used simultaneously is limited only by the bandwidth of the PSD and the sampling time of the sample/hold devices used in the DC restoration circuit View full abstract»

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  • The influence of the stability of the capacitance of compressed-gas capacitors by the contraction of the electric field

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 62 - 64
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (236 KB)  

    The phenomenon of voltage-induced capacitance fluctuations in some compressed-gas, high-voltage capacitors has been observed. The experimental results show that the contraction of the electric field at the part of the insulating housing near the lower end of the high-voltage electrode is probably the main cause of the phenomenon. For measurement requiring high stability, the working voltage must be decreased properly View full abstract»

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  • Error analysis with deconvolution algorithms

    Publication Year: 1993
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  

    Iterative deconvolution algorithms can be used to obtain an estimate of a signal that has been distorted by an impulse response function and corrupted by additive noise. The decision to continue iterating is usually based on some minimum error or convergence rate criterion being satisfied. However, in some classes of systems, there are pitfalls with respect to the error calculation that must be understood. One of these pitfalls is examined View full abstract»

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  • Open-ended rectangular waveguide for nondestructive thickness measurement and variation detection of lossy dielectric slabs backed by a conducting plate

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (28)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB)  

    Solutions for fields inside a slab of a generally lossy dielectric medium backed by a conducting plate, placed outside a waveguide-fed rectangular aperture, are used for the microwave nondestructive thickness measurement of such dielectric slabs. Upon construction of the waveguide terminating admittance expression from its variational form, an inverse problem is solved to extract the slab thickness form the conductance and susceptance in a recursive manner. A comparison between the experimental and theoretical results showed that the significance of higher order modes is minimal; hence, the dominant mode assumption is, in general, valid for describing the aperture field distribution. The validity of this assumption has led to the construction of a simple integral solution which is fast converging for generally lossy dielectric slabs, and may easily be implemented for real-time applications. Good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and experimental results. Multiple thicknesses of two different dielectric samples were estimated in this way View full abstract»

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  • On frequency-domain identification of linear systems

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 2 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (432 KB)  

    The maximum-likelihood estimation of the parameters of linear systems and the properties of the estimator (Estimator for Linear Systems, ELiS) have been described by R. Pintelson and J. Schoukens (see ibid., vol. 39, no.4, p.565-573, Aug. 1990). The mathematics used in the development of the method and the proofs is rather involved, although several statements can be understood in heuristic terms. The present author discusses the complex-domain description of the method, which results in much simpler expressions. The method is compared to other formulations, giving more insight into the properties of the estimate. It turns out that robustness is at least partly due to the least-squares formulation. Derivations are avoided where possible, and intuitive explanations are given instead View full abstract»

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  • A method to measure the aperture field and experimentally determine the near-field phase center of a horn antenna

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 51 - 53
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (272 KB)  

    A method whereby the aperture field distribution of a horn antenna can be measured is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of the scattered field of a small conducting sphere in the aperture. The position of the phase center of the aperture field is calculated using the measured phase distribution of the field in the aperture via a simple type of convolution. In principle, the method is suited to determine the field distribution of other types of apertures illuminated by an electromagnetic field View full abstract»

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  • Capacitance-voltage measurements on Schottky diodes with poor ohmic contacts

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 39 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (408 KB)  

    The frequency-dependent admittance of Al-GaAs Schottky diodes with nonideal ohmic contacts is tested, using a simple three-component small-signal equivalent circuit model. Both the ohmic and the rectifying contacts of this diode are produced during one process step. This simplifies the formation procedure and saves testing time and costs. However, the nonalloyed ohmic contacts lead to a high series resistance, minority carrier injection, and deep level influence. All of these effects give a frequency-dependent diode admittance. Frequency-dependent admittance analysis in a certain frequency range using the three-component equivalent circuit model leads to the space-charge capacitance of the diode reflecting only the free majority carriers. The method is highly suitable for the automatic routine control of semiconductor material properties, diode, or gate capacitances View full abstract»

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  • A discussion of two ways of treating measurements of optical fiber loss

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 54 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (216 KB)  

    The loss measurement errors that arise from cutting optical fibers in fiber links and in pigtailed optical devices are analyzed in detail. Two methods of treating loss measurement data are compared: averaging Pi/Po measurement and using just the maximum Pi/Po measurement. Based on a large number of cutting experiments, a block diagram of cutting power distribution was constructed, and the measurement errors for both techniques were calculated. The results show that the measurement error of the maximum value taken at the input and output ends is less than the measurement error of the average value View full abstract»

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  • International comparison GT-RF 75-A 14: attenuation (6,10,20,40 dB) at 300 MHz in 75 Ω coaxial line

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 60 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (232 KB)  

    This is the first comparison between national standard devices in which attenuation values up to 40 dB at a frequency of 300 MHz in the 75 Ω coaxial line have been compared. Five national laboratories of metrology, from the UK, Finland, Canada, The Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany (pilot laboratory), participated. The transfer standards were two fixed attenuators with an attenuation of 6 and 20 dB, and two switchable attenuators with 10 and 40 dB steps. The maximum difference between any two results for the more stable fixed attenuators is 0.009 dB at an attenuation of 6 dB and 0.016 dB at 20 dB attenuation. For three of the five participants, the deviation between mean values was not larger than 0.0004 dB for an attenuation of 6 dB and not larger than 0.0013 dB for one of 20 dB View full abstract»

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  • A four-transistor four-quadrant analog multiplier using MOS transistors operating in the saturation region

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 75 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB)  

    A four-quadrant analog multiplier using only four MOS transistors is presented. It is based on the square-law characteristic of a MOS transistor operating in the saturation region. Experimental results, obtained with a test circuit built with discrete devices and showing a linearity as high at 0.25% and bandwidths up to 28 and 40 MHz for both inputs, are presented View full abstract»

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  • A revisited three-cornered hat method for estimating frequency standard instability

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 7 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)  

    The three-cornered hat method used for evaluating the individual noise contributions of three frequency standards in a stability measurement is reexamined. The hypothesis of uncorrelation of the standards is not assumed a priori, as it is considered a cause of negative estimated variances. The introduction of covariances of measured data, together with the proposal of a suitable optimization criterion, allows one to estimate the complete covariance matrix of the three standards, ensuring its positive definiteness View full abstract»

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  • Best linear unbiased estimation of the Fourier coefficients of periodic signals

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 49 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (268 KB)  

    Fourier coefficients of periodic signals are usually estimated by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Since DFT is equivalent to ordinary least squares, it might be expected to be best linear unbiased only if the errors in the observations are not covariant. Fortunately, for covariant errors, the DFT achieves this optimum property asymptotically View full abstract»

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  • A circuit for lead resistance compensation and complex balancing of the strain-gauge bridge

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 44 - 48
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (316 KB)  

    In some specific applications, the strain-gauge bridge branches are separated and remote. Lead resistances between bridge branches and the measuring instrument introduce significant measurement error. The well-known error compensating circuits do not suit all applications, or they cannot be added to the already existing instrumentation without modification of its internal circuits. A circuit for lead resistance compensation and complex balancing of the 1/4 and 1/2, AC or DC excited bridges is described. It is possible to add this circuit in front of the instrumentation already in use with no modification of the instrumentation itself View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Papers are sought that address innovative solutions to the development and use of electrical and electronic instruments and equipment to measure, monitor and/or record physical phenomena for the purpose of advancing measurement science, methods, functionality and applications.

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