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Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 1 • Date Feb 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 11 of 11
  • Avoiding engineering changes through focused manufacturing knowledge

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 54 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)  

    An exploratory analysis of how product-development engineers can avoid many manufacturability-related engineering changes (ECs) if they develop focused manufacturing knowledge is described. An engineer would develop focused manufacturing knowledge by working in an existing area of manufacturing most related to that engineer's development task. The occurrence of ECs that are avoidable with focused manufacturing knowledge does not justify that all product development engineers gain this knowledge. However, engineers who design components with a significant history of manufacturability problems should develop this knowledge to achieve the benefits of EC avoidance. It is concluded that organizations should manage the development of focused manufacturing knowledge View full abstract»

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  • Strengthening the competitiveness of US microelectronics

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 3 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    It is argued that US competitiveness problems have not been due to a lack of research; rather, they stem from difficulties in sustaining competitiveness when commercialization is dominated by product- and process improvements. Partial shifting of R&D investment by the private sector from innovative new products to improvement of manufacturing processes will help correct these deficiencies, but it may not be sufficient to regain competitiveness in areas where US industry has fallen behind foreign competition. In order for the United States to catch up with Japan in all areas of microelectronics, it is recommended that industry-wide, catch-up consortia be established or continued in the six areas where the United States is rapidly becoming noncompetitive. In addition, it is recommended that the United States establish programs managed by consortia for microelectronics research integration, application, simulation and modeling View full abstract»

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  • The management of innovation: strategy, structure, and organizational climate

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 14 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    Some of the factors that differentiate innovative and less innovative companies are investigated. The companies that have won the Canada Awards for Business Excellence Program for invention and innovation in the past six years are compared to similar groups of companies. The study focuses on the differences in managerial strategy, organizational structure, and organizational climate. The results show that the innovative companies use, or have, more of the following than the less innovative ones: calculated risk taking, management commitment to entrepreneurial activities and innovation, integration and intermingling of talents in teams and task forces, group and collective orientation, and a reward system that reinforces entrepreneurial behavior View full abstract»

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  • How low can we go?: validation and verification of a decision support system for safe shipboard manning

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 41 - 53
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    The development of a robust and adequate shipboard-manning decision support system, including its validation and verification with two sets of shipboard data, is discussed. It is argued that the need for such a system has arisen since maritime shipping has undergone dramatic changes in recent years. Substantial increases in operating costs in the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s caused shipping operators to focus on adopting more efficient operating practices and reducing shipboard crew sizes. Manning levels on most modern vessels have decreased-from crews of 30-40 in the 1960s and 1970s to crews of 20-30 in the United States and down to 9-14 in Western Europe, Scandinavia, and Japan View full abstract»

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  • A Dempster-Shafer-based approach to compromise decision making with multiattributes applied to product selection

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 60 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)  

    The Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is applied to a multiattribute decision-making problem whereby the decision maker (DM) must compromise with available alternatives, none of which exactly satisfies his ideal. The decision mechanism is constrained by the uncertainty inherent in the determination of the relative importance of each attribute element and the classification of existing alternatives. The classification of alternatives is addressed through expert evaluation of the degree to which each element is contained in each available alternative. The relative importance of each attribute element is determined through pairwise comparisons of the elements by the DM and implementation of a ratio-scale quantification method. The belief and plausibility that an alternative will satisfy the DM's ideal are then calculated and combined to rank order the available alternatives. Application to the problem of selecting computer software is given View full abstract»

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  • Software-engineering management: a comparison of methods in Switzerland and the United States

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 22 - 29
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    It is argued that despite the increasing interdependence of global economies, there is little cooperative product development done by related international divisions of multinational industrial corporations. The two main obstacles to joint international development are the failure of management to recognize the extent to which sociocultural aspects affect their own decision-making processes and those of their international counterparts and a failure by most managers to deal with them. A case study is presented of a large Swiss electronic-equipment manufacturer with a US subsidiary in the same field. Qualitative and descriptive data from interviews with managers and engineers are reported and related to the sociocultural backdrop in which they make their decisions. Recommendations and areas of further study are also presented View full abstract»

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  • The engineering-management synthesis: evidence from graduate programs in telecommunications

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 30 - 40
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    The engineering-management synthesis is examined using data for master-level programs anchored on a particular technological infrastructure. Content analysis of objectives and course descriptions of 24 master-level programs in telecommunications and a three-dimensional classification schema led to the identification of six salient configurations of the engineering-management synthesis. These configurations differ in terms of their relative emphasis between engineering and management disciplines and their breakdown into nine constituent elements. It is shown that the four syntheses best suited to address downstream activities include those configured to manage telecommunication facilities as critical corporate resources, strategy and policy issues relevant to end-user applications of telecommunication technologies, operations of communication departments of large-user organizations, and projects dealing with the integration of telecommunications technologies View full abstract»

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  • Government support of manufacturing innovations: two country-level case studies

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 79 - 91
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    It is generally recognized that some measure of state support for innovation is necessary in order to preserve a position of international competitiveness. During the 1980s, governments of the most advanced industrial economies introduced a range of programs designed to facilitate the introduction of advanced manufacturing technologies. The theoretical underpinnings of these policies from the literature on the transfer of technology are reviewed and the pattern of policy evolution that has occurred as policymakers have become more aware of the determinants of the diffusion process are outlined. The principal features of typical government programs in Europe are illustrated with case studies from the United Kingdom and (West) Germany. It is argued that the need for continuing government support for small- and medium-size enterprises and for firms in more traditional sectors is growing View full abstract»

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  • New evidence on the economic effects and diffusion of FMS

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 76 - 78
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    It is argued that flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are a very important recent development in industrial automation. Based on a three-year study of over 200 firms in Japan, the United States, and Western Europe, a summary of new data concerning the economic effects of flexible manufacturing systems and their rate of diffusion is presented. The following three conclusions are suggested: the potential economic advantages of FMS seem often to have been achieved, the average estimated rate of return from an investment in FMS appears to have been substantially lower in the United States than in Japan, and, relative to other important industrial innovations of this century, the rate of diffusion of FMS has been slow View full abstract»

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  • Interorganizational transfer of knowledge: an analysis of patent citations of a defense firm

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 91 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB)  

    It is argued that although technology is considered to be a strategic asset for an organization, interplay in technology among organizations is necessary. Technology may be considered a bank which organizations both contribute to and draw from. Such interactions among organizations in technology follow different patterns. Some preliminary results from a study that aims at addressing this issue are presented. Using patent-citation data, it is shown that the benefits to participating firms change with industry type, organization class, and country of origin View full abstract»

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  • Timing of monitoring and control of CPM projects

    Publication Year: 1993 , Page(s): 68 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    The timing of monitoring and control of critical path method (CPM) projects is discussed. After describing the necessity for monitoring and controlling activity performance in a project and discussing issues related to monitoring and control of CPM projects, a simulation study is used to compare five different mechanisms for timing the updates of project schedules. Comparison is done with respect to the amount of overrun time, policies incurred, and the amount of crashing effort they require. The policies compared are the following: no monitoring and control, monitoring and control at equal intervals, end-loaded (which advocates a less intensive review in the early stages and more frequent review toward completion of the project), front-loaded (which assumes more frequent review at the beginning and less review toward completion), and completely random monitoring. The results indicate that although there were no significant differences among the policies in the amount of crashing effort spent, the end-loaded mechanism performs best in preventing time overruns View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

Management of technical functions such as research, development, and engineering in industry, government, university, and other settings. Emphasis is on studies carried on within an organization to help in decision making or policy formation for RD&E. 

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Rajiv Sabherwal
Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas