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Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 11 • Date Nov. 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): C1 - 4306
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  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information

    Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial

    Page(s): 4307 - 4310
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  • Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic Module Equipped With a Heat-Recovery System

    Page(s): 4311 - 4318
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a multiphysics model of a hybrid solar panel equipped with a solar concentrator and a cooling interface with heat-recovery capability. It is shown how the temperature profile along the cells can be predicted as a function of the cooling strategy. From this information, the I-V electrical characteristic of the whole module can be derived. An original compact electrothermal macromodel of the photovoltaic module is employed which allows one to properly incorporate the effect of temperature gradients along the cells. By exploiting this macromodel, accurate and efficient electrothermal simulations of the solar system can be carried out with a conventional electrical simulator, like Spice. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical PV Array Reconfiguration Strategy for Energy Extraction Improvement in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Page(s): 4319 - 4331
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper applies a dynamical electrical array reconfiguration (EAR) strategy on the photovoltaic (PV) generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration, in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different. The EAR strategy is carried out by inserting a controllable switching matrix between the PV generator and the central inverter, which allows the electrical reconnection of the available PV modules. As a result, the PV system exhibits a self-capacity for real-time adaptation to the PV generator external operating conditions and improves the energy extraction of the system. Experimental results are provided to validate the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Organic Architecture for Small- to Large-Scale Photovoltaic Power Stations

    Page(s): 4332 - 4343
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (820 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Increased widespread deployment of power generation from photovoltaics is consistent with binding agreements to reduce carbon emissions and increase the penetration of electricity from renewables and political aspirations to increase security of energy supply. However, in order for these generation facilities to compete in increasingly open power markets, they must be low cost and provide high-quality and high-quantity outputs. The organic architecture suggested in this paper proposes a solution that provides these advantages, using modular-power-electronic and energy-storage components, to facilitate scalable plants, from kilowatt to megawatt size. Specifically, the inclusion of power-conversion building blocks (PCBBs), grid-interactive power units (GPUs), and power-system control units allow efficient transfer of power from the point of energy conversion to the point of common coupling. A specific example of a 24-kW plant illustrates that, through optimum switching of PCBBs, the GPU can transfer 95.46% of the daily available energy to the transmission grid. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Control of PV Charger System With SEPIC Converter

    Page(s): 4344 - 4353
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1283 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The photovoltaic (PV) stand-alone system requires a battery charger for energy storage. This paper presents the modeling and controller design of the PV charger system implemented with the single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). The designed SEPIC employs the peak-current-mode control with the current command generated from the input PV voltage regulating loop, where the voltage command is determined by both the PV module maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control loop and the battery charging loop. The control objective is to balance the power flow from the PV module to the battery and the load such that the PV power is utilized effectively and the battery is charged with three charging stages. This paper gives a detailed modeling of the SEPIC with the PV module input and peak-current-mode control first. Accordingly, the PV voltage controller, as well as the adaptive MPPT controller, is designed. An 80-W prototype system is built. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is proved with some simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of a Photovoltaic System DC Connected to the Utility With a Power Factor Corrector

    Page(s): 4354 - 4362
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1356 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a photovoltaic (PV) system parallel connected to an electric power grid with a power factor corrector (PFC) for supplying the DC loads. The operation principles and design considerations for the presented PV system are analyzed and discussed. The balanced distribution of the power flows between the utility and the PV panels is achieved automatically by regulating the output DC voltage of the PFC. Experimental results are shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed topology, which can effectively transfer the tracked maximum power from the PV system to the DC load, while the unity power factor is obtained at the utility side. View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy Switching Technique Applied to PWM Boost Converter Operating in Mixed Conduction Mode for PV Systems

    Page(s): 4363 - 4373
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1892 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the variation of the maximum power point (MPP) of photovoltaic (PV) generators with solar radiation and temperature, boost DC-DC converters placed between PV modules and inverters in grid-connected PV systems have to be controlled in a variable operating-point condition. In addition, inductor current dynamics changes suddenly when moving from continuous to discontinuous conduction mode. The previous difficulties make the design of reliable and fast control laws for the input voltage of boost converters complicated. The aim of this paper is to propose a control algorithm based on cascaded-loop control. The input voltage is controlled by the outer loop. The inductor current is controlled by an inner loop strategy which is able to perform in mixed conduction mode, owing to the fuzzy switching technique. Simulation and experimental results for a 10-kW boost converter show that the proposed strategy achieves an accurate and robust performance at every operating point, even if the inductor value varies in a wide range; thus, fast MPP tracking techniques can be implemented. An additional advantage is that constant switching frequency is achieved. View full abstract»

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  • Experimental Performance of MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Sources Subject to Inhomogeneous Insolation

    Page(s): 4374 - 4380
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (545 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Photovoltaic (PV) power system performance depends on local irradiance conditions. PV systems are sometimes subject to partial shading, which may produce a nonideal characteristic curve, presenting true and local power maxima in the P -I curve. Traditional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms can converge to local maximum, which is not the true MPP. In order to solve the problem, this paper investigates the effects of nonuniform solar irradiance distribution on a PV source. An MPPT algorithm that is able to optimize the source instantaneous operating power under nonuniform irradiance is proposed. The ability of the algorithm and its increased performance with respect to traditional algorithms are evaluated by means of experimental tests performed on a real PV power system. View full abstract»

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  • Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Multistring PCS With PV Current Variation Reduction Control

    Page(s): 4381 - 4388
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (670 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) multistring power conditioning system with PV input current reduction control is proposed. An improved maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method for the multistring converter is suggested. The suggested MPPT algorithm tracks the maximum power point even though measurement errors exist. To reduce the PV current variation introduced by the inverter, a PV current variation reduction control is suggested. This PV current variation reduction control reduces the PV current variation without additional components. The low current variation reduces the filter size and improves the MPPT efficiency. All algorithms and controllers are implemented on a single-chip microcontroller. Experimental results obtained on a 3-kW prototype show high performance such as a MPPT efficiency of 99.7%, an almost unity power factor, a power efficiency of 96.7%, and a total harmonic distortion of 2.0%. View full abstract»

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  • Power Injection System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems Based on Two Collaborative Voltage Source Inverters

    Page(s): 4389 - 4398
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new topology for the power injection system that is based on the parallel association of two voltage source inverters. One operates using a quasi-square voltage waveform strategy, and the other operates with a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM)-based strategy. The aims of this topology are to inject the power from the photovoltaic generation system using the quasi-square inverter and to control the current quality using the PWM inverter. The proposal optimizes the system design, permitting the reduction of system losses and an increase of the energy injected into the grid. View full abstract»

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  • Control of a Single-Phase Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Page(s): 4399 - 4406
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single-phase cascaded H-bridge converter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) application. The multilevel topology consists of several H-bridge cells connected in series, each one connected to a string of PV modules. The adopted control scheme permits the independent control of each dc-link voltage, enabling, in this way, the tracking of the maximum power point for each string of PV panels. Additionally, low-ripple sinusoidal-current waveforms are generated with almost unity power factor. The topology offers other advantages such as the operation at lower switching frequency or lower current ripple compared to standard two-level topologies. Simulation and experimental results are presented for different operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamental-Frequency-Modulated Six-Level Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter for Three-Phase Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System

    Page(s): 4407 - 4415
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1415 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a fundamental-frequency-modulated diode-clamped multilevel inverter (DCMLI) scheme for a three-phase stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The system consists of five series-connected PV modules, a six-level DCMLI generating fundamental-modulation staircase three-phase output voltages, and a three-phase induction motor as the load. In order to validate the proposed concept, simulation studies and experimental measurements using a small-scale laboratory prototype are also presented. The results show the feasibility of the fundamental frequency switching application in three-phase stand-alone PV power systems. View full abstract»

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  • A New Multilevel Conversion Structure for Grid-Connected PV Applications

    Page(s): 4416 - 4426
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A novel scheme for three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) generation systems is presented in this paper. The scheme is based on two insulated strings of PV panels, each one feeding the dc bus of a standard two-level three-phase voltage-source inverter (VSI). The inverters are connected to the grid by a three-phase transformer having open-end windings on the inverter side. The resulting conversion structure performs as a multilevel power active filter (equivalent to a three-level inverter), doubling the power capability of a single VSI with given voltage and current ratings. The multilevel voltage waveforms are generated by an improved space-vector-modulation algorithm, suitable for the implementation in industrial digital signal processors. An original control method has been introduced to regulate the dc-link voltages of each VSI, according to the voltage reference given by a single maximum power point tracking controller. The proposed regulation system has been verified by numerical simulations and experimental tests with reference to different operating conditions. View full abstract»

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  • A New Topology With High Efficiency Throughout All Load Range for Photovoltaic PCS

    Page(s): 4427 - 4435
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a new topology is proposed that can significantly reduce the converter rated power and increase the efficiency of total photovoltaic (PV) system. Since the output voltage of PV module has very wide operating range, in general, the DC/DC converter is used to produce constant high-DC-link voltage for DC/AC inverter. According to the analysis of the proposed topology, only 20% of total PV system power is processed by the DC/DC power conversion stage. The DC/DC power conversion stage used in proposed topology has flat efficiency curve throughout all load range and very high efficiency characteristics. In the proposed topology, because the converter efficiency curve is almost flat throughout all load range, the total system efficiency at light load is dramatically improved. The proposed topology is implemented for 250-kW power conditioning system. This system has only three DC/DC power conversion stage with 24-kW rated power. It is only one-third of total system power. The experimental results show that the proposed topology has good performance. View full abstract»

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  • A Single-Phase Voltage-Controlled Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System With Power Quality Conditioner Functionality

    Page(s): 4436 - 4444
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1871 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV system that provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution. View full abstract»

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  • Wavelet-Based Islanding Detection in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Page(s): 4445 - 4455
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (684 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed power generation systems (DPGSs) based on inverters require reliable islanding detection algorithms (passive or active) in order to determine the electrical grid status and operate the grid-connected inverter properly. These methods are based on the analysis of the DPGS voltage, current, and power in time or frequency domain. This paper proposes a time-frequency detection algorithm based on monitoring the DPGS output power considering the influence of the pulsewidth modulation, the output LCL filter, and the employed current controller. Wavelet analysis is applied to obtain time localization of the islanding condition. Simulation and experimental results show the performance of the proposed detection algorithm in comparison with existing methods. View full abstract»

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  • Descriptive and Inferential Statistics for Supervising and Monitoring the Operation of PV Plants

    Page(s): 4456 - 4464
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (938 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the problem of supervising and monitoring a photovoltaic (PV) plant. First, an offline descriptive and inferential statistical procedure for evaluating the goodness of system performance is presented. Then, an online inferential algorithm for real-time monitoring and fault detection is introduced. The two methodologies utilize the energy output of inverters as input data and are valid for both Gaussian and non-normal distribution of data. The procedures have been tested on a real PV installation, and results are reported for the case of a grid-connected PV plant in Italy for which one PV module over 132 resulted in being badly connected. View full abstract»

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  • Design Strategy to Optimize the Reliability of Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Page(s): 4465 - 4472
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a strategy, based on the design-of-experiments technique, aimed at optimizing the reliability in inverters for photovoltaic systems. The process involves designing the inverter several times, each time with different specifications, and calculating the reliability for each design. The specifications are established in a systematic manner, in such a way that the parameters with the highest impact are easily identified. The optimization procedure follows a standard reliability estimation methodology and involves modifying the stress factors in a judicious manner. The strategy is exemplified with an integrated boost inverter and a desired mean time between failures of 12 years. View full abstract»

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  • A Technique for Improving P&O MPPT Performances of Double-Stage Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Page(s): 4473 - 4482
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In double-stage grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters, the dynamic interactions among the DC/DC and DC/AC stages and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller may reduce the system performances. In this paper, the detrimental effects, particularly in terms of system efficiency and MPPT performances, of the oscillations of the PV array voltage, taking place at the second harmonic of the grid frequency are evidenced. The use of a proper compensation network acting on the error signal between a reference signal provided by the MPPT controller and a signal that is proportional to the PV array voltage is proposed. The guidelines for the proper joint design of the compensation network (which is able to cancel out the PV voltage oscillations) and of the main MPPT parameters are provided in this paper. Simulation results and experimental measurements confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Parameter Design of a Two-Current-Loop Controller Used in a Grid-Connected Inverter System With LCL Filter

    Page(s): 4483 - 4491
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (810 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    LCL filters offer a better choice of attenuating switching frequency harmonics. However, in a grid-connected system, an LCL filter may cause resonance which is a disaster for the system's stability. In order to solve the problem, a two-current-loop control strategy, which includes grid-current outer loop and filter-capacitor-current inner loop, is adopted here. The implementation of this strategy is easy, but the tuning procedure is complex since the outer and inner controllers cannot cooperate well if the parameters of the controllers are not suitable. There is no literature which mentions a method to help give out accurate parameters of the controller. The difficulty of designing the controller is that only two feedbacks cannot provide complete information of a three-order LCL filter. A specific method is proposed in this paper to design the controller. The advantage of this method is to provide a way to maximize the utilization of the two feedbacks to get good system performance through parameter determination. The practicability of the method is tested by using bode diagram, and the antidistortion ability of the system is analyzed. Finally, experimental results verify the availability and correctness of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Control Design Guidelines for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters With Damped Resonant Harmonic Compensators

    Page(s): 4492 - 4501
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (753 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The injection of low-harmonic current to the electrical grid is nowadays regulated by international standards. In order to accomplish these standards, selective harmonic compensation is carried out in grid-connected photovoltaic inverters by means of resonant harmonic compensators. This paper gives a systematic design procedure for selecting the gains and parameters of these harmonic compensators. Other factors considered in the design process include frequency deviation, grid synchronization, and transient response. Both a design example meeting the requirements of grid interconnection and selected experimental results from a digital-signal-processor-based laboratory prototype are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Indoor Power Harvesting Using Photovoltaic Cells for Low-Power Applications

    Page(s): 4502 - 4509
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Utilization of low-power indoor devices such as remote sensors, supervisory and alarm systems, distributed controls, and data transfer system is on steady rise. Due to remote and distributed nature of these systems, it is attractive to avoid using electrical wiring to supply power to them. Primary batteries have been used for this application for many years, but they require regular maintenance at usually hard to access places. This paper provides a complete analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) harvesting system for indoor low-power applications. The characteristics of a target load, PV cell, and power conditioning circuit are discussed. Different choices of energy storage are also explained. Implementation and test results of the system are presented, which highlights the practical issues and limitations of the system. View full abstract»

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  • Voltage Support Provided by a Droop-Controlled Multifunctional Inverter

    Page(s): 4510 - 4519
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a single-phase multifunctional inverter for photovoltaic (PV) systems application. The converter provides active power to local loads and injects reactive power into the grid providing voltage support at fundamental frequency. The proposed topology is controlled by means of the droop-control technique. Hence, it allows the obtaining of voltage-sag-compensation capability, endowing voltage ride-through to the system. A model and analysis of the whole system is given to properly choose the control parameters. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed control using a 5-kVA PV converter. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics encompasses the applications of electronics, controls and communications, instrumentation and computational intelligence for the enhancement of industrial and manufacturing systems and processes.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Carlo Cecati
DISIM - Univ. degli Studi dell'Aquila
67100 Aquila, Italy
c.cecati@ieee.org
Phone: +39 0862 434 450
Fax: +39 0862 1960 411