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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 3 • Date August 2009

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 113
  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics - Table of contents

    Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE Consumer Electronics Society

    Page(s): c2
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  • 2009 iEEE Consumer Electronics Society Administrative Committee

    Page(s): i
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  • 2009 IEEE Consumer Electronics Society Officers and Committee Chairs

    Page(s): ii
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  • Message from the Editor

    Page(s): iii
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  • Red-eye detection and correction using inpainting in digital photographs

    Page(s): 1006 - 1014
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2123 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When we take pictures with flash, red-eye effect often appears in photographs. Flash light passing through pupil is reflected on the blood vessels, and arrives at a camera lens. This phenomenon makes red-eyes in photographs. Several algorithms have been proposed for removal of red-eyes in digital photographs. This paper proposes a red-eye removal algorithm using inpainting and eye-metric information, which is largely composed of two parts: red-eye detection and red-eye correction. For red-eye detection, face regions are detected first. Next, red-eye regions are segmented in the face regions using multi-cues such as redness, shape, and color information. By region growing, we select regions, which are to be completed with iris texture by an exemplar-based inpainting method. Then, for red-eye correction, pupils are painted with the appropriate radii calculated from the iris size and size ratio. Experimental results with a large number of test photographs with red-eye effect show that the proposed algorithm is effective and the corrected eyes look more natural than those processed by the conventional algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • High fidelity color reproduction of plasma displays under ambient lighting

    Page(s): 1015 - 1020
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1100 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a method of color reproduction that considers the observer's viewing conditions and characteristics of a PDP display. In general, ambient lighting requires compensation to provide the same visual perception when the temporal and spatial conditions change. In a conventional method, the image contrast and saturation are enhanced by controlling the voltage gain in each channel to consider the phenomenon of human adaptation. Yet, this method encounters difficulties in reproducing the perceived stimulus under a variety of viewing conditions. Accordingly, this study characterizes a PDP display based on the white point when considering the average picture level of the PDP display as the maximum luminance value of a PDP display varies according to the average picture level. Next, to consider the viewing conditions, information on the ambient lighting is obtained using a sensor. The flare, the reflected ambient lighting, is also eliminated on the surface of the PDP display. Finally, the color values are calculated using a modified chromatic adaptation model. In experiments, images reproduced using the proposed method were visually superior to those reproduced using a conventional method. View full abstract»

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  • CCFL backlight solution for low-cost liquid crystal televisions without image artifacts

    Page(s): 1021 - 1027
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (842 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, a single-phase CCFL (cold cathode fluorescent lamp) driving method has been adopted to provide a low cost implementation. However, whereas dual-phase driving compensates the coupling effect on the pixel electrodes, single-phase high voltage driving signals are coupled to pixel electrodes through parasitic capacitance between the lamps and panel electrodes. As a result, image artifacts appear on the display screen. This paper describes the analysis results of this phenomenon. Furthermore, the proposed automatic delay compensation scheme eliminates the artifacts caused by the coupling effect, regardless of how much delay is generated by the lamp driving circuit. View full abstract»

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  • Optical image stabilizer for digital photographing apparatus

    Page(s): 1028 - 1031
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2019 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The image stabilizer provides a clear image by compensating vibration caused by hand shaking. Recently this image stabilizer has become a popular function in most cameras and camcorders. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism for image stabilizer and achieve lower price and better performance than other products. View full abstract»

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  • Traveling vibrotactile wave - a new vibrotactile rendering method for mobile devices

    Page(s): 1032 - 1038
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1187 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of a vibration motor is recently receiving attention for haptic interaction with mobile devices. An important aspect of haptic interaction using the vibration motor in mobile devices is to compute and to generate vibrotactile information in response to user's input. Although a vibration motor with low power consumption can be easily inserted into mobile devices, the vibration motor can hardly generate sufficient vibrotactile sensation if we do not consider vibrotactile rendering. This paper presents a vibrotactile rendering method which makes a traveling vibration along the surface of a mobile device. By controlling the vibrations generated by two motors, we can specify the location where the overlapping of two waves occurs and furthermore, can generate the sensation of flowing vibration by continuously changing the overlapping point by adjusting the timing of motor actuation. A ball rolling game is constructed as a test bed for the proposed vibration rendering method. We conduct experiments to evaluate if the proposed vibrotactile rendering method can haptically display not only collision but also the ball's rolling. The experimental results clearly show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed vibrotactile rendering method. View full abstract»

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  • Iterative approach for multiuser carrier frequency offset estimation in interleaved OFDMA uplink

    Page(s): 1039 - 1044
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (393 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the issue of carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation in interleaved orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) uplink systems is investigated. The problem of peaks ambiguity in MUSIC estimator proposed by Cao and Yao is analyzed firstly, and then a searching solution is presented. Furthermore, a new iterative algorithm based on this MUSIC estimator is proposed. The proposed approach iteratively searches for the correct CFO vector by minimizing the objective function using a first-order Taylor series approximation of the CFO vector. It can conquer the effect of ambiguous peaks effectively, performs better than Cao and Yao's approach in relatively low SNR region and large CFO, and at the same time has much lower computational complexity. Simulations illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Design of a high-throughput IDPC decoder for DVB-S2 using local memory banks

    Page(s): 1045 - 1050
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (550 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel LDPC (Low-Density Parity Check) decoder architecture to increase throughput for DVB-S2, a second generation standard of ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) for European satellite digital video broadcasting system, which is employed in European digital TVs. The proposed architecture clusters nodes of a Tanner graph into node groups utilizing the properties of IRA (Irregular Repeat-Accumulate) LDPC codes. Functional modules, which perform calculations for node groups, read and store messages at predetermined local memory banks. The memory banks are designed to avoid memory conflicts by differentiating read and store timings. Hence, throughput of the proposed architecture can be increased. Experimental results show that the throughput of the proposed architecture is increased by 104% ~ 479%, when compared to previous architectures. View full abstract»

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  • Coexistence of mobile-satellite service system with mobile service system in shared frequency bands

    Page(s): 1051 - 1055
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (936 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interference scenarios and a methodology between mobile-satellite service (MSS) system and terrestrial mobile service (MS) system in a co-frequency environment are established. Taking into account a practical deployment situation for both systems, computational simulation of interference in terms of the percentage increase in equivalent satellite link noise temperature (DeltaT/T) and the ratio of carrier power to interference power (C/I) is performed to evaluate the co-frequency interference from the MS system into the MSS system. The methodology and results could be used for planning an MSS deployment without an unacceptable interference impact from MS. View full abstract»

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  • UMONS: Ubiquitous monitoring system in smart space

    Page(s): 1056 - 1064
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2676 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ubiquitous smart space consists of various ubiquitous objects (devices and applications) and their collaborations that provide convenient and intelligent services for users. Many studies have focused on developing convenient ubiquitous systems and their applications. However, to provide smooth and satisfactory services to users, a ubiquitous system must be aware of the real-time context of its ubiquitous objects and their collaborations during execution. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing must be provided, not only for the status of the functions and performance of individual ubiquitous objects, but also for their collaborative status. This paper discusses the challenges of monitoring systems for ubiquitous smart space, and proposes seven prerequisites for a monitoring system that examines and diagnoses ubiquitous smart space. We also developed a monitoring system for a ubiquitous smart space scenario, to verify our proposal. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency offset estimation in WIMAX receivers

    Page(s): 1065 - 1069
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper evaluates the performance of a new estimator for fine frequency offset in OFDM packed-based applications. The estimator, which operates in the frequency domain, is based on the inter-carrier interference (ICI) in the received preamble. A new theoretical expression for the estimator as a function of the input frequency offset is proposed. The estimator performance is evaluated for WIMAX receivers, showing an estimation error variance similar to that obtained with other well-known methods based on the processing in the time domain. View full abstract»

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  • Personal communications using an UEAN: concept, example and measurements

    Page(s): 1070 - 1077
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (674 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work describes the functionality of the "User Environment Area Network" (UEAN) and explores some issues related to its practical implementation. An UEAN is a network that connects the electronic devices that belong to a person, in spite of their physical location. The "Functional Convergence" (FC) of personal electronic devices allows the implementation of virtual personal electronic devices, that are implemented by grouping sources, sinks, storage, processors or gateways that belong to the UEAN. We explore the feasibility to use water copper pipelines as the backbone to establish a UEAN based on the interconnection of several Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) operating in the different rooms of a house. The copper pipeline represents a good candidate to interconnect the multiple WPAN because of its high bandwidth and strong shielding to external electromagnetic noise. Some measurements in the 2.4 GHz frequency band are presented. The converging trends observed in telecommunications technology and markets, make us believe that it is important to study and model a network of personal devices in terms of an UEAN. View full abstract»

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  • PCE algorithm for PAPR reduction in OFDM-ROF system

    Page(s): 1078 - 1082
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (322 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel constellation extension algorithm, named as peak-restricted constellation extension (PCE), is proposed for peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. This algorithm actively selects outer constellation points which contribute to the large peak magnitudes, and dynamically alter the amplitudes of these points to reduce PAPR. It does not require transmitting any side information to the receiver and there is no loss in data rate. As radio-over-fiber (ROF) network is proved to be one of the best solutions for the wireless-access technology, this algorithm is verified in an OFDM-ROF system. It is shown that this algorithm significantly reduces the PAPR of OFDM signals. The performances of the system with and without the algorithm are also compared. View full abstract»

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  • Time-hopping spread-spectrum system for wireless optical communications

    Page(s): 1083 - 1088
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (872 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an optical wireless system based on time-hopping spread-spectrum techniques, as a first approach, at infrared wavelengths. It can be used either for low-speed sensor interconnections or as a return channel in a visible light communications system. The main advantage of this scheme is an improvement in the narrowband interference rejection capability and the number of simultaneous users supported, compared with other wireless optical standards. Moreover, a wide analysis is carried out about the mutual interference between time-hopping spread-spectrum systems and other infrared ones. Finally, some conclusions are drawn about some design parameters of the time-hopping system in order to allow its compatibility with preexisting optical devices. View full abstract»

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  • A low complexity hierarchical QAM symbol bits allocation algorithm for unequal error protection of wireless video transmission

    Page(s): 1089 - 1097
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low complexity hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) symbol bits allocation algorithm for unequal error protection of video transmission over wireless channels is proposed in this paper. An unequal error protection (UEP) scheme using hierarchical QAM, which takes into consideration the non-uniformly distributed importance of intracoded frame (I-frame) and predictive coded frame (P-frame) in a group of pictures (GOP), is first proposed. In order to optimally allocate the hierarchical QAM's high priority (HP), medium priority (MP) and low priority (LP) symbol bits to the H.264/AVC video, a generic solution for optimal allocation of hierarchical QAM's high priority (HP), medium priority (MP) and low priority (LP) symbol bits to the H.264/AVC video is then proposed. Finally, a low complexity symbol bits allocation algorithm, namely ranking search algorithm, which reduces the computational complexity of the proposed optimal symbol bits allocation algorithm, is proposed. Simulation results show that our proposed UEP scheme outperforms the classical equal error protection (EEP) scheme and also the previous UEP scheme. View full abstract»

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  • A multi-user uplink TDS-OFDM system based on dual PN sequence padding

    Page(s): 1098 - 1106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (400 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The adoption of pseudo-noise (PN) sequence instead of cyclic prefix (CP) as guard interval (GI) enables time domain synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (TDS-OFDM) outperform Cyclic Prefixed- OFDM (CP-OFDM) by spectrum efficiency but at the expense of higher complexity. Up to now, TDS-OFDM is only used in unidirectional data transmission such as downlink broadcasting. The difficulty to eliminate the implicitly mixed interferences between different PN sequences and inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) blocks caused by multiple users hinders the application of TDS-OFDM in multi-user uplink scenarios. To deal with this problem, this paper proposes a multi-user uplink TDS-OFDM system based on dual PN padding (DPNP) where the cancellation of mixed interference is avoid by joint cyclicity reconstruction for all users. In addition, joint channel estimation and separation is also proposed to restore the transmitted signal for each user. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation not only verify the feasibility of the proposed system, but also show that, compared with the conventional single-user TDS-ODFM system, it holds lower implementation complexity yet even better system performance in mobile environments. View full abstract»

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  • A scattered pilot synchronization scheme by partial correlation for DVB-H systems

    Page(s): 1107 - 1112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (288 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents an improved, scattered pilot synchronization (SPS) scheme in digital video broadcasting-handheld (DVB-H) systems, which detect the pilot pattern of the currently received orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbol. To reduce the SPS time, and to mitigate the influence of the sampling frequency offset (SFO), the proposed SPS method is based on the conventional correlation-based SPS, and adopts a partial correlation. By using computer simulations, the synchronization performances of the traditional SPS and the new proposed SPS algorithms are evaluated in terms of their probabilities of synchronization failure. View full abstract»

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  • Provisioning of rich media experiences for hybrid mobile broadcast services

    Page(s): 1113 - 1120
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rich media and convergence are two terms that represent the recent trends in the mobile broadcast services domain. In particular, rich media enables a wide variety of interactive, information-rich services. The existing standards for mobile broadcast services, however, have focused primarily on service delivery and consumption, and, therefore, significant efforts are required to integrate rich media capability, which relates to service presentation, into mobile broadcast services. In this paper, we present a solution for mobile handsets in support of rich media enabled broadcast services as well as hybrid services delivered over converged networks. View full abstract»

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  • Improved and optimal dual circular 32-QAM for MB-OFDM

    Page(s): 1121 - 1126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and dual carrier modulation (DCM) are currently used as the modulation schemes for multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) in the ECMA-368 defined ultra-wideband (UWB) radio platform. ECMA-368 has been chosen as the physical radio platform for many systems including wireless USB (W-USB), Bluetooth 3.0 and wireless HDMI; hence ECMA-368 is an important issue to consumer electronics and the users' experience of these products. To enable the transport of high-rate USB, ECMA-368 offers up to 480 Mb/s instantaneous bit rate to the medium access control (MAC) layer, but depending on radio channel conditions dropped packets unfortunately result in a lower throughput. This paper presents improvement on a high data rate modulation scheme that fits within the configuration of the current standard increasing system throughput by achieving 600 Mb/s (reliable to 3.2 meters) thus maintaining the high rate USB throughput even with a moderate level of dropped packets. The modulation system is termed improved and optimal dual circular 32-QAM (DC 32-QAM). The system performance for improved and optimal DC 32-QAM modulation is presented and compared with previous DC 32- QAM, 16-QAM and DCM. View full abstract»

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  • Indoor broadcasting via white LEDs and OFDM

    Page(s): 1127 - 1134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1098 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recently, visible light communication (VLC) technology has been gaining attention in both academia and industry. This is driven by the progress of white light emitting diode (LED) technology for solid-state lighting (SSL) and the potential of simultaneously using such LEDs for illumination and indoor wireless data transmission. This paper provides an overview about the technology and describes the physical layer implementation of a VLC system based on a modified version of the classical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technique. Besides, the paper presents a hardware prototype for short-range broadcasting using a white LED lamp. The OFDM system runs on DSP development boards. Off-the-shelf 9 LEDs and a single photodiode (PD) are utilized to build the analog frontends. The prototype allows investigating the influence of the electrical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), constellation order, and channel coding on the bit-error performance. Theoretical and experimental results on optical path loss show close match. In this context, the influence of the LED beam angle on the horizontal coverage is highlighted. View full abstract»

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  • Low complexity channel estimation method for TDS-OFDM based Chinese DTTB system

    Page(s): 1135 - 1140
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Chinese digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) standard uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequence as guard interval (GI) and the training sequence. This PN sequence is used to do channel estimation and synchronization in the system. The existing channel estimation methods often have to adopt iterative scheme when the length of channel impulse response (CIR) is long, which will increase the receiver complexity dramatically. In this paper, a channel estimation scheme for time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) systems is proposed. Interference free CIR information can be obtained by constructing special correlation windows, rather than removing interference from the time domain sequences through iteration. Moreover, the estimation can be achieved by using correlation process. Comparing to conventional schemes, the proposed algorithm greatly reduces the computational complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed method can meet the requirement of the Chinese DTTB systems. And the scheme is also suitable for other communication OFDM systems with time domain sequence headers. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The primary purpose for publishing the Transactions of the Consumer Electronics Society is to present to the membership and the engineering community in general, papers on new technology oriented to Consumer Electronics.

 

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief
R. Simon Sherratt
School Director for Teaching and Learning, School of Systems Engineering
The University of Reading
Reading, Berkshire  RG6 6AY  RG6 6AY  U.K.
r.s.sherratt@reading.ac.uk; sherratt@ieee.org
Phone:+44 (0) 118 3788588
Fax:+44 (0) 118 3788583