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Radio and Electronic Engineer

Issue 1.2 • Date January/February 1973

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Displaying Results 1 - 23 of 23
  • The first 25 years of the transistor

    Publication Year: 1973
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (128 KB)

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  • `Three men who changed our world¿

    Publication Year: 1973
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1855 KB)

    Under the above headline in the Bell Laboratories Record for December 1972, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, joint winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956, recall the events leading up to the invention of the transistor in 1948 and comment on its effects. Morgan Sparks, who built the first junction transistor and has subsequently directed semiconductor work at Bell Laborat... View full abstract»

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  • The first decade of transistor development: a personal view

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):3 - 9
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (997 KB)

    The development of the junction transistor from its earliest form of a plastics encapsulated, alloy transistor to the final silicon planar device is traced during the period from 1952 to 1962. At the same time some of the significant steps in the development of the understanding of the device are described. View full abstract»

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  • The pre-history of the transistor

    Publication Year: 1973
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB)

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  • Semiconductor device developments in the 1960s

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):11 - 20
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7254 KB)

    This paper illustrates the progress of semiconductor device development during the 1960s by reference to various families of active devices (excluding opto-devices). The reasons for the change during that period from germanium to silicon technology are discussed, and the enormous influence of the silicon planar technique on device design and manufacturing methods is shown. The increasing role of t... View full abstract»

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  • The technology of semiconductor materials preparation

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):21 - 28
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1066 KB)

    This paper describes the preparation of semiconductor single crystal material in bulk and thin films. Particular emphasis is placed on silicon and gallium arsenide, and the growth methods are described in relation to the electrical characteristics which are required for device fabrication. View full abstract»

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  • The technology of semiconductor manufacture

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):29 - 38
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4898 KB)

    The basic technologies which have been developed to satisfy the production of semiconductor devices are outlined. These technologies commenced with point-contact alloy and alloy-diffused techniques. Diffusion was then developed giving the means of making structures such as rectifiers, transistors and thyristors. Silicon planar technology and the assembly methods used are then described as applied ... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated circuit development

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):39 - 48
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3843 KB)

    The paper looks at the development of integrated circuits from its conception in 1952, through to the present multi-million dollar business. Major developments in both circuitry and process technology are highlighted and some indication is given of the direction in which the industry may move in the future. View full abstract»

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  • The struggle for power, frequency and bandwidth

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):49 - 57
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3238 KB)

    The relationship between physical and electrical parameters is reviewed. Some of the newer technologies are discussed. The interdigitated structure is compared with the two main alternatives offered at present. At the same time a basic correction is made to the well established approximation of power gain as applied to power devices. The necessity for this correction is also developed with respect... View full abstract»

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  • Integrated circuits for analogue systems

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):58 - 66
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1088 KB)

    Because of the need for a large market and the initial problems with technically complex circuits, integrated circuits developed later for analogue than for digital systems. There are now two reasonably distinct groups of analogue circuits, namely those for professional use and those for incorporation in consumer equipment. In the former category characteristics and trends of professional circuits... View full abstract»

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  • Trends in semiconductor digital circuits

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):67 - 74
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3450 KB)

    The ways in which digital circuit design techniques have developed over the last 25 years are described. The interaction between circuit design and devices is discussed in the light of the range of compatibility of digital circuits and the systems which became possible with semiconductors which were not so with thermionic valve circuits. View full abstract»

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  • Semiconductors for microwave frequencies

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):75 - 81
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (983 KB)

    Microwaves can now be processed by semiconductor structures, which are either a further development of the transistor for the lower microwave frequency ranges, or which use the non-linear behaviour of junction devices for mixing and parametric effects, particularly for low noise levels, or which exploit transit-time effects to create an effective negative conductance gd such as impatt and Gunn dev... View full abstract»

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  • The expanding role of semiconductor devices in telecommunications

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):82 - 90
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2158 KB)

    The junction transistor made its first impact on telecommunications in transmission systems, then entirely analogue, effectively by replacing thermionic valves. later developments of that transistor have made possible systems enabling over 10 000 telephone channels to be carried on one 9.5 mm diameter coaxial tube. submarine cable systems have also benefited from the development of highly reliable... View full abstract»

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  • The impact of solid-state electronics on the development of radar systems

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):91 - 98
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4644 KB)

    The paper indicates the status of radar at the date when the transistor was being developed and shows that the early impact of this device, because of its then limited performance, was primarily in the design of sub-systems to handle the large amount of data generated from radar receivers. i n this respect the invention of the transistor is inseparable from the development of the computer. During ... View full abstract»

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  • The influence of semiconductor devices on the evolution of computer systems

    Publication Year: 1973
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (554 KB)

    The shortcomings of mechanical and vacuum tube computers are pointed out. the semiconductor device has provided greatly increased intrinsic reliability but has made apparent the problem of manageability. the semiconductor approach allows the classical methods of tackling complexity by partitioning and decentralization to be followed. storage management and store searching aids can easily be realiz... View full abstract»

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  • Transistor circuits in television: some evolutionary aspects

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):103 - 114
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (885 KB)

    This paper describes some aspects of transistor circuit developments in television receivers in the UK. Improvements in transistor specifications and cost, as well as in the conceptual approach to their use in television circuits are outlined briefly. Some of the circuits of one of the first fully transistored receivers produced in this country are compared with two colour television receivers in ... View full abstract»

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  • The impact of semiconductor devices on electrical power engineering

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):115 - 124
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1421 KB)

    The differences in approach between power engineering and electronic engineering are briefly outlined and the role of semiconductor devices in place of those based on the mercury-arc is discussed. Applications of the diode and thyristor to d.c. and a.c. machines are described together with the use of thyristors in high voltage d.c. power transmission. The importance of careful integration of semic... View full abstract»

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  • Microelectronic devices for surgical implantation

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):125 - 132
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2708 KB)

    The surgical implantation of an electronic device is shown to have been made possible by advances (1) in the understanding of the stimulation processes of nerves, (2) in the development of electrical recording of nerve and muscle activity, (3) in transistor technology, (4) in implant technology. Significant developments in these areas are identified, leading up to the history of their bringing tog... View full abstract»

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  • The influence of semiconductors on the evolution of typical laboratory instruments

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):133 - 139
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3507 KB)

    The influence of the transistor on digital instruments is considered first and the example of its application to digital voltmeters shows how the product became practical in the late 1950s and then went through successive improvements in performance as the devices available improved. Later developments made the instrument more automatic and improved the cost and reliability. The influence of the t... View full abstract»

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  • The influence of semiconductors on the teaching of electronics¿ a review

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):140 - 148
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (7348 KB)

    Quotations from textbooks in electronics are used to illustrate the impact on education of achievements in semiconductor physics. This work led to the development of transistors and integrated circuits and to the changing fortunes of the microelectronics industry. It has also been responsible for continuous modification of the subject matter of electronics courses. An attempt is made not only to r... View full abstract»

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  • Dominant trends affecting the future structure of the semiconductor industry

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):149 - 155
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1189 KB)

    The object of this paper is to trace the development of the semiconductor industry itself, taking due account of economic and market factors, as well as the effects of technological change. The historical growth of the industry is described, with particular emphasis on the structural changes which stemmed from the invention of the planar process and the development of integrated circuits. The tech... View full abstract»

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  • Electronic aids for the tuning of musical instruments

    Publication Year: 1973, Page(s):169 - 170
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (285 KB)
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  • Diplomas and associateships

    Publication Year: 1973
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB)
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