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Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of

Issue 1 • Date January 1978

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Displaying Results 1 - 24 of 24
  • Inaugural address. The twin pillars of engineering

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1329 KB)  

    There were many achievements of engineering in the ancient past, and the manufacture and subsequent movement of obelisks is selected as an example. The development of engineering in the UK, based on practice, is traced through the Industrial Revolution, together with the rise of technological education. The pattern of education and training was set in the early 20th century and based firmly on the twin pillars of engineering - practice and theory. Against this pattern, the present situation is examined. Starting in the schools, it is concluded that much effort is required to increase the awareness of engineering to influence brighter pupils towards technology. The education of engineers who followed the Higher National Certificate route was strongly based on practice, and the elimination of this route to chartered status makes it advisable to give yet more attention to practical experience for graduates. Education for technician engineers should have some association with the planning for education of chartered engineers so that the whole forms a balanced programme. Postgraduate education is considered against a background of some critism in the past, and reference is made to a number of schemes specially designed to meet industrial needs. A strong plea is made for further development of post-experience education and the need for greater responsibility by a single authority is suggested. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Electronics Division: Chairman's address. Quality and reliability in a telecommunications system

    Publication Year: 1978
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (827 KB)  

    User satisfaction with a public service is a highly subjective matter. It can be influenced by many factors, a high proportion of which are not under the control of the provider of the service. Techniques for gauging it are widely employed, but, for the purposes of system planning and equipment design, more objective - and hence quantifiable- criteria must be used. The Address deals with two of the subjective factors that affect customer satisfaction with a telecommunications service - quality and reliability. These, in turn, are strongly influenced by congestion and faults in the systems, and some practical aspects of each are discussed. The interdependence between intrinsic equipment reliability, fault-minimising configuration and good maintenance is emphasised. Some of the effects of the introduction of stored-program control into telephone exchanges, and the spread of microelectronics generally, are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Inductive detection of buried services

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 14 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB)  

    A commonly used instrument for finding buried metal pipes consists of two coils, a transmitter and a receiver. The principle on which it works is analysed using the idea of `earth-return¿ currents that flow along the pipe and return through the ground. The theoretical predictions are consistent with what is measured. View full abstract»

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  • IEE South Wales Centre: Chairman's address. The microprocessor and its application

    Publication Year: 1978
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (135 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Measurement of the elevation angles of arrival of multicomponent h.f. skywaves

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 17 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB)  

    Various techniques for the measurement of elevation angles of arrival of oblique-incidence ionospherically propagated h.f. transmissions using a vertical stack of aerials are reviewed. These include single-mode and two-mode analyses, various wavefront analysis methods and Fourier and maximum-entropy spectral analyses. The methods have been applied to experimental data, and although none is completely successful, the spectral analysis methods generally provided the most realistic solutions. An unexpected result is the finding that both sporadic-E and F modes frequently comprise multiple components with different Doppler frequency shifts and arrival angles. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic ratio quantiser

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 25 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB)  

    An instantaneously adaptive nonlinear ratio quantiser, called a dynamic ratio quantiser (d.r.q.) is described. It enables a wide range of input signals to be quantised with a nearly constant signal/noise ratio (s.n.r.). The d.r.q. consists of an instantaneously adaptive nonlinear element EL, whose output samples are a function of the ratio of the input and the feedback samples. Theoretically, EL will transform input samples of any amplitude to samples within the range of a fixed uniform quantiser. The feedback samples are produced from the quantised output samples with the aid of an inverse EL and a transversal filter. The theory of the d.r.q. is presented, and its s.n.r. performance for different adaptation algorithms is given. View full abstract»

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  • Impedance characteristics of transverse slots in the ground plane of a stripline

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 29 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (18)
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB)  
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  • IEE Power Division: Chairman's address. Power-station construction in the UK: which way for the future?

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 33 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  

    In the first few years following the Second World War, the maximum size of generating units was 60MW. There was a rapid growth in the demand for electricity, and as a result there was a hectic period of design and construction of larger units. Within a period of about ten years, units of nine different sizes were introduced. Not surprisingly, there were many teething troubles, and the availability of the plant suffered. There were also construction delays that could not be attributed to design changes and to late delivery of plant to site. Official committees were set up to investigate the case of delays. They found the causes to be complex, involving lack of long-term planning to even out the rate of ordering, bad site management, poor industrial relations and inadequate productivity. The author is cautiously optimistic that delays can be minimised and the availability of the plant improved in the future by the standardisation of designs during the next few years, when little new plant will be required. There are a number of other areas that call for determined and concerted action before we can be assured of achieving shorter construction times and highest availability plant. These will be of increasing importance with the higher proportion of nuclear plant which will be constructed towards the end of the 20th century to take the place of dwindling, and increasingly costly, oil and gas reserves. View full abstract»

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  • Generalised computational method for reliability analysis of electric power installations

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 37 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB)  

    The paper presents a general computational method together with the relevant computer program which can be easily used to perform reliability analysis on electric power installation configurations. The mathematical reliability model of the program is based on the concept of frequency of failures during the useful life period. In other words, it starts from basic configuration component failure-rate data and uses the tie-set approach to carry out the reliability analysis of the system under study. For purposes of illustration the computer program has been applied to a practical h.v./m.v. substation configuration. The program is very conducive to analysis work of reliability sensitivity as a function of the failure rates of the configuration components. View full abstract»

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  • A.C.-d.c. load flows with realistic representation of the convertor plant

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 41 - 46
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (607 KB)  

    H.V. d.c. convertor stations contain a.c. plant components which are specified by their relationship with d.c. link parameters and cannot be represented in conventional terms within the a.c. load-flow solutions. In the paper a comprehensive d.c. link model is developed with generality to represent all the plant components and operating conditions encountered in practice. The New Zealand a.c.-d.c.-a.c. scheme is used as a test system, and the results show that a unified fast-decoupled load-flow solution of two and three a.c. systems interconnected by the d.c. link converges for all practical operating conditions without increasing the number of iterations. View full abstract»

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  • Discusion on Electric train heating with diesel locomotives

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 47 - 48
    Save to Project icon | PDF file iconPDF (436 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Multiplexed controls on underground trains

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 49 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (970 KB)  

    As the sophistication of control and monitor functions on modern underground trains increases, so the limitations of the conventional `point-to-point¿ wiring technique become more apparent. To overcome this problem a time-division multiplexing system has been developed for possible incorporation on future London Transport trains. This paper outlines the philosophy and development behind the system. View full abstract»

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  • IEE North-Western Centre: Chairman's address. Communications for the power industry

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 54 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • IEE Mersey & North Wales Centre: Chairman's address. System faults ߝ cure or prevention

    Publication Year: 1978
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • IEE South-East Scotland Sub-Centre: Chairman's address. Telecontrol systems for electricity transmission and distribution networks

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 55 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (330 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • Correspondence: New approach to analysis of polarised mho relays under close-up-fault conditions

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 56 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (429 KB)  

    Under close-up-fault conditions the voltage signal from the faulty phase may not be sufficient to operate the mho relay. A voltage signal from one of the healthy phases, external polarisation, is added, and the relay, in this case, may be called an externally polarised mho relay. The main effect of external polarisation is the variation of the relay characteristic with the power-system conditions, which results in an increase of the resistive reach of the relay, under close-up fault condition. The paper introduces a new approach by which the resistive reach of externally polarised mho relays under close-up-fault condition could be evaluated without much analytical complexity and with reasonable accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence: Investigations on operation of fully-controlled thyristor convertors

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 58 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (250 KB)  

    The available analysis for fully-controlled thyristor convertors does not cover all possible modes of operation. In this correspondence a new mode of operation is suggested. This new mode results in an increased range of operation with continuous conduction. This has significance in the regenerative braking of convertor-fed d.c. drives. View full abstract»

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  • Correspondence: Shorting-coil modulators

    Publication Year: 1978
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (150 KB)  

    A new approach to power semiconductor circuits is described, which offers the possibility of extending the range of application of presently available power semiconductor devices. This is achieved by employing a technique called 'shorting-coil' switching, in which power flow in a main circuit can be regulated by switching in auxiliary circuits called shorting coils. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Control & Automation Division: Chairman's address. Control and operation of the UK electricity supply system: an account of its development

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 61 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB)  

    Over the past few years, control engineers have been increasingly interested in the control and operation of large systems that are usually hierarchical in structure and involve not only the control of parts of a large complex plant and of the plant as an integrated whole, but also of systems of such plants. The national system for the generation and transmission of electric power is just such a system. The CEGB system is operated essentially manually, and big advances have been made over the years in the facilities provided to the operators of both generating plant and system. The Address outlines briefly the development of these facilities, from the early power stations, through their gradual integration into an interconnected system, to the present day. It concludes with a brief reference to some interesting experimental work in control and an attempt to identify the control problems of the future. View full abstract»

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  • Exact model matching of linear time-varying systems

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (642 KB)  

    The paper considers the problem of designing a static or a dynamic controller to match exactly the input-output description of a given linear time-varying system to that of a desired model. The proposed approach is based on the concept of algebraic equivalence, the motivation being that if algebraic equivalence of the closed-loop system and the model is secured then the input-output descriptions of the two systems are matched exactly. This approach readily yields the compensating matrices in terms of the algebraic equivalence transformation matrix which is independently determined from a linear system of first-order differential equations. Theorems stating necessary and sufficient conditions for exact model matching are established. The paper consists of the first results in the field of exact model matching of linear time-varying systems. View full abstract»

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  • Summanry. Novel electro-optical alignment technique

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 71 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB)  

    A novel device has been made which orientates a solid object and a collimated light beam relative to each other, in such a way that the light beam and a cylindrical hole in the object are aligned. A nulling technique is used, incorporating an electromagnetic feedback system driven from an optical error signal. A number of configurations of the basic device have been tested experimentally to identify the most suitable for practical application in precise orientation in assembly or metrology and in the measurement of errors in the direction of a hole in a solid. The technique is rapid and inexpensive compared with conventional techniques, although it does not achieve such extremes of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of the sinusoidal and dual-input describing functions for a class of single-and double-valued nonlinearities

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 73 - 74
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB)  

    A method is presented that can be used to evaluate the sinusoidal-input describing function for a class of single- and double-valued nonlinearities. The basic approach is simple and straightforward and may be applied to the determination of multiple-input describing functions. The method is applied to nonlinear devices which naturally produce a discontinuous output waveform on the application of a sinusoidal signal. View full abstract»

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  • IEE Science, Education & Management Division: Chairman's address. The growth of electronics and its implications for education

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 75 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1140 KB)  

    The Address traces the development of electronics from the late 19th century to the present day. The revolutionary change in electronics caused by the Second World War is described, and notable discoveries and inventions in electron devices in the last 70 years are mentioned. In the last two decades, a technological `explosion¿ has been witnessed in electronics, and highlights such as transistors, television expansion, satellites, computers, lasers and microelectronics are discussed. The history of electrical engineering education over the years is traced and is shown to have parallelled developments in the electrical manufacturing industry. Some consideration is given to the question: `What do all the developments in electronics imply for education?¿ View full abstract»

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  • Initiation of arc cathode emission in Cu2O films

    Publication Year: 1978 , Page(s): 81 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (484 KB)  

    Experiments on Cu2O films over a wide thickness range are described in which three techniques have been used: (a) photo-electron-emission measurements in vacuum (b) I/V characteristics using a metal top electrode on the film (c) surface potential-difference measurements. These results have been correlated with scanning electron-micro-scope studies of copper-arc cathode microstructure to give new data on the initiation of electron emission. Ultra-violet radiation is shown to make possible switching times as low as 1 ns by increasing the electrical conductivity of the oxide film, but the electric field across the oxide required to produce switching depends on positive ion charging. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

The Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers was published by the IET between 1963 and 1979.

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