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Proceedings of the IEE - Part B: Electronic and Communication Engineering

Issue 15  Part S • Date May 1959

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 51
  • Opening address

    Publication Year: 1959
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (147 KB)
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  • Historical development of concepts basic to the understanding of semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):266 - 267
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (230 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Basic research on semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):268 - 269
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (378 KB)
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  • Transistor-Diodes

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):270 - 272
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (374 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The preparation of single-crystal silicon for the production of voltage-reference diodes

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):273 - 276
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB)

    Silicon crystals with phosphorus concentrations up to 1.5×1019 atoms per cubic centimetre have been prepared by the Czochralski technique. The phosphorus was added either in the form of ammonium orthophosphate or by means of a silicon-phosphorus alloy containing approximately 1¿% phosphorus. It is shown that the use of such an alloy as the doping agent results in improved control of the phosphor... View full abstract»

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  • Diffusion of aluminium to the surface and to dislocations in silicon

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):277 - 281
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1078 KB)

    A quantitative study is made of the formation of p-n junctions produced by the preferential diffusion of aluminium relative to phosphorus in silicon. The concentration distributions for the flow of aluminium to the external surface, and to growing cylindrical precipitates which form at dislocations, are calculated and compared with experiment. Cylindrical p-n junctions have been produced round ind... View full abstract»

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  • The influence of surface properties on the characteristics of formed point contacts on p-type germanium

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):282 - 286
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (778 KB)

    The factors influencing the properties of formed whisker contacts on p-type germanium are discussed in the light of an electro-forming theory proposed by Drake and Sim. 1, 2 Results showing the effect of surface treatment and ambient atmosphere on diode characteristics are presented, together with measurements of surface recombination and surface potential, made under similar conditions. A tentati... View full abstract»

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  • The state of etched semiconductor surfaces as revealed by electron diffraction

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):287 - 292
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (958 KB)

    Germanium and silicon (100) and (111) surfaces have been etched with a variety of reagents and subsequently examined by reflection electron diffraction. No oxide layers were detected on surfaces etched with the common mixtures containing hydrofluoric and nitric acids. When metal ions were present, either as essential components or as impurities in the etchants, deposits, either of the metals or of... View full abstract»

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  • Dislocation planes in semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):293 - 302
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1061 KB)

    Dislocations and mainly dislocation planes as the most important non-chemical imperfections in semiconductor crystals are discussed from the aspect of their influence on carrier transport. After a short review of the general properties of grain-boundary planes of medium angle of misfit, the electrical effects are discussed, including the barrier behaviour, the band structure and lifetime anisotrop... View full abstract»

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  • An ultra-short lifetime apparatus

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):303 - 307
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (691 KB)

    An apparatus is described for measuring the lifetimes of photo-injected excess carriers and surface-recombination velocities in semiconductors by the decay of photo-conductivity. The use of a high-intensity carbon arc, front-surface mirrors (one of which can be rotated at speeds up to 25000 r.p.m.), shaping slits and a relatively long optical lever (18¿20 ft) produces a light pulse that is essent... View full abstract»

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  • A note on the use of filters in photo-conductive decay measurements

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):308 - 310
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB)

    A theoretical analysis and discussion is given of the effects of the varying depth of absorption of photons in photo-conductive decay experiments for the measurement of excess carrier lifetime and of surface recombination velocity. It is shown that no gross errors need arise from the procedures commonly practised, but that the thickness of filters necessary for accurate results is greater than tha... View full abstract»

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  • The dark-spot method for measuring the diffusion constant and length of excess charge carriers in semiconductors

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):311 - 328
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2020 KB)

    The well-known basic method of measuring diffusion length, introduced by Goucher, is here applied in its optimum form. This consists illuminating the semiconductor surface with interrupted light of uniform intensity and casting a circular shadow whose diameter can be varied. A detector is placed at the centre of the shadow and the variation of signal with the shadow radius can be interpreted theor... View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on "Materials-I" at the Convention, 22nd May, 1959

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):329 - 330
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB)
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  • The theory of avalanche injection diodes

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):331 - 334
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB)

    First Page of the Article
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  • Emitter efficiency and injection level in diffused structures

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):335 - 341
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (616 KB)

    The differential equations governing the transport of injected carrier densities in inhomogeneous semiconductors are set up and solved for low and high injection levels. The solutions are applied to the flow of current in the base and emitter regions of transistor structures obtained by solid-state diffusion techniques. This leads to the establishment of the criteria for the onset of high-injectio... View full abstract»

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  • The forward characteristics of p+-n-n+ diodes in theory and experiment

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):342 - 352
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1261 KB)

    A discussion of the theories of the forward characteristics of p+-n-n+ structures shows that they may behave as p+-n, p+-i-n+ and p+-n+ structures. The factors determining the transition from one mode of operation to another are given. The general theory is illustrated by reference to experimental results on silicon diodes. View full abstract»

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  • Electrical breakdown in germanium p-n junction

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):353 - 356
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (513 KB)

    When square-wave pulses of 5¿160 microsec duration with a repetition rate of 1000 pulses/sec are applied in the reverse direction across a germanium grown p-n junction, the critical voltage of avalanche inception rises with the temperature of the specimen. The temperature coefficient is estimated to be about 8 × 10-4 per deg C, and the maximum field intensity in the junction is about 265 kV/cm. ... View full abstract»

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  • Some fundamental aspects of p-n junctions

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):357 - 360
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (619 KB)

    It is pointed out that in many practical p-n junctions the internal field strengths and dimensions are such that the diffusion equation for the current which is commonly applied is seriously in error. In consequence, it is suggested that no valid analysis has yet been made of p-n junction characteristics, and that a major advance in statistical theory is necessary before this becomes possible. It ... View full abstract»

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  • Some effects of pulse irradiation on semiconductor devices

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):361 - 367
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (767 KB)

    The effects of pulse irradiation upon majority and minority carrier properties of semiconductor devices are presented, with emphasis on those effects peculiar to radiation rates of the orderof 1016 neutrons/cm2 per second and 107 röntgens (¿)/sec. Experimental data and semiconductor theory are employed to obtain expression for the dependence of device parameters on integrated neutron exposure in... View full abstract»

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  • Discussion on 'Basic Theory - I' at the Convention, 22nd May, 1959

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):368 - 369
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  • A performance/cost approach to transistor design

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):370 - 374
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (652 KB)

    The customer is interested in the overall performance and the cost of transistors and this requires a more sophisticated design approach aimed at high performance at low cost. For the high-frequency high-power market, the transistor designer is technically limited in his choice of junction formation methods, and the cost of products is high. For those markets where many techniques compete, the per... View full abstract»

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  • Design considerations of a graded-base transistor with improved emitter-base breakdown voltage

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):375 - 384
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1117 KB)

    Diffusion techniques are employed in transistor technology for cases where, for instance, a graded impurity profile improves the frequency response of alloyed structures, or for accurate control in the manufacture of very narrow base regions. This practice leads generally to a very low emitter-base breakdown voltage due to the high impurity density facing the emitter. This limitation can be overco... View full abstract»

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  • Recent advances in the application of photo-lithographic techniques to semiconductor devices and microminiaturization

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):385 - 390
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1277 KB)

    Liberal use has been made cf photo-lithographic and photoengraving techniques for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The techniques have been extended to the microminiaturization of electronic assemblies. Extremely accurate control of pattern geometry can be achieved by the use of these techniques. Germanium devices fabricated at the Diamond Ordnance Fuze Laboratories include diodes, transi... View full abstract»

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  • Bidirectional transistors and their uses in switching circuits

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):391 - 397
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (738 KB)

    The paper considers the properties of bidirectional alloy-junction transistors designed to operate in switching circuits. The features desired by circuit engineers and the limitations of present fabrication techniques are outlined. In Section 1 a general survey of the behaviour of the bidirectional transistor as a switch is presented. Details are given of the d.c. and switching characteristics. So... View full abstract»

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  • The design of single-crystal infra-red photocells

    Publication Year: 1959, Page(s):398 - 401
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    IEEE is not the copyright holder of this material | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (537 KB)

    Explicit formulae are given for the sensitivity of single-crystal photocells used as photo-conductive, photo-electromagnetic and p-n junction detectors. The equivalent noise input can be expressed as the product of functions depending on the bulk and surface properties respectively. The parameters governing the design of photocells of high sensitivity are discussed, and the results are applied to ... View full abstract»

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